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1.
Ambio ; 51(8): 1764-1771, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1920211

ABSTRACT

Actions potentially harmful to the environment that are otherwise illegal are sometimes permitted in cases of emergency. How to define an emergency can therefore be both controversial and highly consequential. In this article, we explore one such contemporary controversy: when the use of neonicotinoid pesticides, banned in the EU, can nevertheless be granted an emergency authorization. We analyse several questions, currently before the EU Court of Justice in the ongoing Pesticide Action Network Europe and Others case, that will determine the scope of an "emergency" in the context of derogating from the Pesticide Regulation, and that may impact how "emergencies" are defined in other legal contexts. We argue that the circumstances do not support a legal finding that emergency authorization is justified in this case, and that, in general, "emergencies" must be narrowly defined when justifying measures that involve risks to human health and the environment.


Subject(s)
Pesticides , Bees , Europe , Humans , Neonicotinoids , Pesticides/toxicity
2.
J Hazard Mater ; 437: 129262, 2022 09 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1907284

ABSTRACT

During pre-pandemic time, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were investigated in the surface water of Periyar River (PR) and Bharathappuzha River (BR) in Ernakulam and Malappuram districts of Kerala, respectively and Adyar River (AR) and Cooum River (CR) in Chennai district of Tamil Nadu. After the outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic, variation in OCPs and PCBs were evaluated for AR and CR. Dominance of ß-HCH and γ-HCH in south Indian rivers indicate historical use of technical HCH and ongoing use of Lindane, respectively. In > 90 % sites, p,p'-DDT/ p,p'-DDE ratio was < 1, indicating past DDT usage. However during the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, elevated p,p'-DDT in AR and CR reflects localized use of DDT possibly for vector control. Similarly, during the first wave of pandemic, over a 100-fold increase in PCB-52 in these rivers of Chennai mostly via surface run-off and atmospheric deposition can be reasoned with open burning of dumped waste including added waste plastic in the solid waste stream. On contrary, a significant (p < 0.05) decline of dioxin-like PCBs level, suggests lesser combustion related activities by the formal and informal industrial sectors after the lockdown phase in Tamil Nadu. Eco-toxicological risk assessment indicated a higher risk for edible fish in PR due to endosulfan.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated , Pesticides , Polychlorinated Biphenyls , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , DDT/analysis , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated/analysis , Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated/toxicity , India/epidemiology , Pandemics , Persistent Organic Pollutants , Pesticides/analysis , Pesticides/toxicity , Polychlorinated Biphenyls/analysis , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity
3.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(31): 46487-46508, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906477

ABSTRACT

Devices based on lateral flow assay (LFA) have been gaining more and more space in the detection market mainly due to their simplicity, speed, and low cost. These devices have excellent sensing format versatility and make these strips an ideal choice for field applications. The COVID-19 pandemic boosted the democratization of this method as a "point of care testing" (POCT), and the trend is that these devices become protagonists for the monitoring of pesticides in the environment. However, designing LFA devices for detecting and monitoring pesticides in the environment is still a challenge. This is because analytes are small molecules and have only one antigenic determinant, which makes it difficult to apply direct immunoassays. Furthermore, most LFA devices provide only qualitative or semi-quantitative results and have a limited number of applications in multi-residue analysis. Here, we present the state of the art on the use of LFA in the environmental monitoring of pesticides. Based on well-documented results, we review all available LFA formats and strategies for pesticide detection, which may have important implications for the future of monitoring pesticides in the environment. The main advances, challenges, and perspectives of these devices for a direction in this field of study are also presented.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pesticides , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Pandemics , Point-of-Care Testing
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(8)2022 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875582

ABSTRACT

There are no previous studies reporting the type and quantity of pesticides for farming from Sierra Leone and the impact of Ebola or COVID-19 on importation. This study reviewed imported farming pesticides by the Sierra Leone, Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF), between 2010-2021. It was a descriptive study using routinely collected importation data. We found the MAF imported pesticides for farming only during 2010, 2014 and 2021, in response to growing food insecurity and associated with Ebola and COVID-19 outbreaks. Results showed insecticide importation increased from 6230 L in 2010 to 51,150 L in 2021, and importation of antimicrobial pesticides (including fungicides) increased from 150 kg in 2010 to 23,560 kg in 2021. The hazard class risk classification of imported pesticides decreased over time. Increasing amounts of imported fungicides could increase the risk of future fungal resistance among humans. We found that in responding to escalating food insecurity, the government dramatically increased the amount of pesticide importation to improve crop production. Further support is necessary to decrease the risk of worsening food shortages and the possible threat of emerging antimicrobial resistance. We recommend continued monitoring and surveillance, with further studies on the most appropriate response to these multiple challenges.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fungicides, Industrial , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola , Pesticides , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Disease Outbreaks , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/epidemiology , Humans , Sierra Leone/epidemiology
5.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e054061, 2022 04 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774957

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Pesticide self-poisoning kills an estimated 110 000-168 000 people worldwide annually. Data from South Asia indicate that in 15%-20% of attempted suicides and 30%-50% of completed suicides involving pesticides these are purchased shortly beforehand for this purpose. Individuals who are intoxicated with alcohol and/or non-farmers represent 72% of such customers. We have developed a 'gatekeeper' training programme for vendors to enable them to identify individuals at high risk of self-poisoning (gatekeeper function) and prevent such individuals from accessing pesticides (means restriction). The primary aim of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the gatekeeper intervention in preventing pesticide self-poisoning in Sri Lanka. Other aims are to identify method substitution and to assess the cost and cost-effectiveness of the intervention. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial of a gatekeeper intervention is being conducted in rural Sri Lanka with a population of approximately 2.7 million. The gatekeeper intervention is being introduced into 70 administrative divisions in random order at each of 30 steps over a 40-month period. The primary outcome is the number of pesticide self-poisoning cases identified from surveillance of hospitals and police stations. Secondary outcomes include: number of self-poisoning cases using pesticides purchased within the previous 24 hours, total number of all forms of self-harm and suicides. Intervention effectiveness will be estimated by comparing outcome measures between the pretraining and post-training periods across the divisions in the study area. The original study protocol has been adapted as necessary in light of the impact of the COVID-19. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The Ethical Review Committee of the Faculty of Medicine and Allied Sciences, Rajarata University, Sri Lanka (ERC/2018/30), and the ACCORD Medical Research Ethics Committee, Edinburgh University (18-HV-053) approved the study. Results will be disseminated in scientific peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: SLCTR/2019/006, U1111-1220-8046.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pesticides , Commerce , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Rural Population , Sri Lanka/epidemiology
6.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 90: 103790, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587803

ABSTRACT

Neuroblastoma is primarily an embryonal tumor of infancy. Recently, some toxicological agents used as pesticides have been associated with an increased incidence of this tumor. We intended to determine the potential association between prenatal exposure to pesticides and the incidence of neuroblastoma in children. Studies targeting the link between neuroblastoma and pesticides were searched in PUBMED, SCOPUS, and Google Scholar from January 1, 1960, through December 2020. We performed a PRISMA-based systematic review and meta-analysis. In addition, we took into consideration the IARC evaluation on pesticides issued in recent monographs. Prenatal pesticide exposure is associated with an increased risk of neuroblastoma with an OR of 1.6 (1.1-2.3; p = 0.013), while the OR is 1.0 (0.8-1.3; p = 0.723) for pesticide exposure after birth. There is a significant association between prenatal pesticide exposure and neuroblastoma. We emphasize the IARC conclusions evaluating the carcinogenicity of diazinon, glyphosate, malathion, parathion, and tetrachlorvinphos.


Subject(s)
Diazinon/adverse effects , Glycine/adverse effects , Malathion/adverse effects , Neuroblastoma/chemically induced , Neuroblastoma/physiopathology , Pesticides/adverse effects , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/physiopathology , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Glycine/analogs & derivatives , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pregnancy
7.
J Sep Sci ; 44(9): 1961-1968, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527448

ABSTRACT

In this study, a lab-made parallel single-drop microextraction methodology using the magnetic ionic liquid trihexyltetradecylphosphonium tetrachloromanganate (II) as extraction solvent was developed to determine the pesticides tebuconazole, pendimethalin, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene in human urine samples. The experimental setup consisted of a 96-well plate system containing a set of magnetic pins that allowed for the manipulation of up to 96 samples simultaneously, providing an enhanced drop stability compared to traditional single-drop microextraction approaches. The optimal conditions employed 5.38 ± 0.55 mg of extraction solvent, 1.5 mL of diluted urine samples (1:10), extraction time of 130 min, and subsequent dilution in 20 µL of acetonitrile. The method exhibited satisfactory analytical performance, with limits of detection of 7.5 µg/L for all analytes and coefficients of determination higher than 0.9955. Intraday and interday precisions ranged from 3 to 17% (n = 3) and 15 to 18% (n = 9), respectively, with relative recovery of analytes ranging from 70 to 122%. The method proposed was successfully applied in two human urine samples and no sign of the analytes was detected. The results demonstrated that the proposed method allowed for cost-effective and high-throughput methodology to be explored as a valuable tool in bioanalytical applications.


Subject(s)
Biological Monitoring/methods , Liquid Phase Microextraction/methods , Pesticides , COVID-19 , Humans , Limit of Detection , Pesticides/analysis , Pesticides/urine
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(19)2021 10 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463657

ABSTRACT

Pesticides play a very important role for ensuring food security and economic growth but their use can cause harmful effects to human health and to the environment. The study aimed to investigate the level of knowledge, health risk perceptions, and experiences on the practice of pesticide use and management among extension officers in Ethiopia and plant doctors in Hungary. A questionnaire survey among 326 officers was conducted in the two study areas and data were analyzed by ordinal logistic regression. According to the findings, Hungarian officers had much better knowledge of pesticide products (92%), and less frequently experienced pesticide poisoning among applicators (7%) than the Ethiopians (66% and 41%, respectively). Hungarian officers perceived less health risk of pesticide use (AOR = 0.46, 95%, Cl: 0.27-0.80), were ten times more likely to deem the pesticide management system effective (AOR = 10.23, 95%, Cl: 5.68-18.46) and were nine times more likely to report that applicators used personal protective equipment (AOR = 8.95, 95%, Cl: 4.94-16.28). A significant proportion of officers from both countries reported inappropriate methods of pesticide residue disposal. These observations point out that the situation of pesticide use and knowledge and management of pesticide products is definitely better in Hungary; nevertheless, the issue continues to need more attention in both settings.


Subject(s)
Occupational Exposure , Pesticides , Agriculture , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Status , Humans , Hungary
9.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0258134, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448581

ABSTRACT

Pesticides use in Southeast Asia has increased steadily, driven by the growth of large-scale commercial farming, as well as a desire to maximise food production in rural subsistence economies. Given that use of chemical pesticides, such as organophosphates and carbamates, has known potential health impacts, there are concerns about the safety of agricultural workers, and a need for a better evidence base to underpin regulation and worker education. This study, undertaken in 9 districts in Lao PDR, Thailand and Vietnam, will interview agricultural workers to investigate how they use pesticides, their knowledge of risks and self-protective practices, and their self-reported illness symptoms. In each district researchers will recruit and interview 120 participants engaged in vegetable farming, who have recently used pesticides, making a total of 1080 subjects divided equally between the three study countries. Workers' degree of pesticides exposure will be determined from acetyl cholinesterase concentrations in capillary blood samples collected using field test kits, and these data will be analysed together with the interview findings. Country findings will be compared and contrasted, and general patterns noted. Knowledge gained about risky behaviours, self-protective practices and degree of association with serious pesticides exposure will assist policy makers and inform health improvement programmes.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholinesterase/blood , Agricultural Workers' Diseases/blood , Farmers , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Occupational Exposure/analysis , Pesticides/analysis , Research Design , Health Status , Humans , Laos , Thailand , Vietnam
10.
Biotechnol Genet Eng Rev ; 37(1): 30-63, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1324496

ABSTRACT

Moving forward from 2020, Africa faces an eminent challenge of food safety and security in the coming years. The World Food Programme (WFP) of the United Nations (UN) estimates that 20% of Africa's population of 1.2 billion people face the highest level of undernourishment in the world, likely to worsen due to COVID-19 pandemic that has brought the entire world to its knees. Factors such as insecurity and conflict, poverty, climate change and population growth have been identified as critical contributors to the food security challenges on the continent. Biotechnological research on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) provides a range of opportunities (such as increased crop yields, resistance to pests and diseases, enhanced nutrient composition and food quality) in addressing the hunger, malnutrition and food security issues on the continent. However, the acceptance and adoption of GMOs on the continent has been remarkably slow, perhaps due to contrasting views about the benefits and safety concerns associated with them. With the reality of food insecurity and the booming population in Africa, there is an eminent need for a more pragmatic position to this debate. The present review presents an overview of the current situation of food safety and security and attempts to reconcile major viewpoints on GMOs research considering the current food safety and security crisis in the African continent.


Subject(s)
Food Security , Food Supply , Organisms, Genetically Modified , Africa , Agriculture , Animals , Biotechnology , COVID-19 , Crops, Agricultural , Droughts , Health Policy , Humans , Hunger , Insecticides , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Pesticides , Plants, Genetically Modified
12.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 149: 112007, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1139498

ABSTRACT

Consistent gathering of immunotoxic substances on earth is a serious global issue affecting people under pathogenic stress. Organophosphates are among such hazardous compounds that are ubiquitous in nature. They fuel oxidative stress to impair antiviral immune response in living entities. Aside, organophosphates promote cytokine burst and pyroptosis in broncho-alveolar chambers leading to severe respiratory ailments. At present, we witness COVID-19 outbreak caused by SARS-CoV-2. Infection triggers cytokine storm coupled with inflammatory manifestations and pulmonary disorders in patients. Since organophosphate-exposure promotes necroinflammation and respiratory troubles hence during current pandemic situation, additional exposure to such chemicals can exacerbate inflammatory outcome and pulmonary maladies in patients, or pre-exposure to organophosphates might turn-out to be a risk factor for compromised immunity. Fortunately, antioxidants alleviate organophosphate-induced immunosuppression and hence under co-exposure circumstances, dietary intake of antioxidants would be beneficial to boost immunity against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Immunity/drug effects , Inflammation/etiology , Organophosphates/adverse effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/prevention & control , Pandemics , Pesticides/adverse effects , Pyroptosis , Respiratory Tract Diseases/etiology , Virulence/drug effects
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 754: 142175, 2021 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-739985

ABSTRACT

The contamination of water resource and food chain by persistent organic pollutants (POPs) constitutes a major environmental and human health concern worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the levels of POPs in irrigation water, soil and in Amaranthus viridis (A. viridis) from different gardening sites in Kinshasa to evaluate the potential environmental and human health risks. A survey study for the use of pesticides and fertilizers was carried out with 740 market gardeners. The levels of POPs (including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)) were analyzed in irrigation water and 144 vegetable samples collected from different gardening sites. The assessment of potential human health risk was estimated by calculating daily intake and toxic equivalency to quantify the carcinogenicity. The results show highest PAH levels in A. viridis from all studied sites. The concentrations of the sum of seven PCBs (Σ7PCBS) congeners in analyzed plants ranged between 15.89 and 401.36 ng g-1. The distributions of OCPs in both water and A. viridis were congener specific, chlorpyrifos-ethyl and p,p'-DDE were predominantly detected. Among PBDEs, only BDE47 was quantified with noticeable concentration in A. viridis, while no PBDEs were detected in irrigation water. Higher estimated daily intake values indicate that consuming leafy vegetables might associate with increased human health risks. However, calculated incremental lifetime cancer risk values indicates no potential carcinogenic risk for the local population. The results of this study provide important information on A. viridis contamination by POPs and strongly recommend implementing the appropriate measures to control the use of chemicals used in studied gardening areas. Thus in Kinshasa, urban agriculture control programs for POPs and fertilizers is very important in order to protect the public health through direct and dietary exposure pathways.


Subject(s)
Amaranthus , Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated , Pesticides , Polychlorinated Biphenyls , Democratic Republic of the Congo , Environmental Monitoring , Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers/analysis , Humans , Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated/analysis , Pesticides/analysis , Polychlorinated Biphenyls/analysis , Risk Assessment
16.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 141: 111418, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-345861

ABSTRACT

Occupational, residential, dietary and environmental exposures to mixtures of synthetic anthropogenic chemicals after World War II have a strong relationship with the increase of chronic diseases, health cost and environmental pollution. The link between environment and immunity is particularly intriguing as it is known that chemicals and drugs can cause immunotoxicity (e.g., allergies and autoimmune diseases). In this review, we emphasize the relationship between long-term exposure to xenobiotic mixtures and immune deficiency inherent to chronic diseases and epidemics/pandemics. We also address the immunotoxicologic risk of vulnerable groups, taking into account biochemical and biophysical properties of SARS-CoV-2 and its immunopathological implications. We particularly underline the common mechanisms by which xenobiotics and SARS-CoV-2 act at the cellular and molecular level. We discuss how long-term exposure to thousand chemicals in mixtures, mostly fossil fuel derivatives, exposure toparticle matters, metals, ultraviolet (UV)-B radiation, ionizing radiation and lifestyle contribute to immunodeficiency observed in the contemporary pandemic, such as COVID-19, and thus threaten global public health, human prosperity and achievements, and global economy. Finally, we propose metrics which are needed to address the diverse health effects of anthropogenic COVID-19 crisis at present and those required to prevent similar future pandemics.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants/toxicity , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pesticides/toxicity , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Xenobiotics/toxicity , Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Diet , Epidemics , Humans , Immune System/drug effects , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Prevalence , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon/metabolism , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Time
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