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1.
Vet Rec ; 190(8): 301, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1881456

Subject(s)
Pets , Animals
2.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(6): 1154-1162, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862554

ABSTRACT

We tested swab specimens from pets in households in Ontario, Canada, with human COVID-19 cases by quantitative PCR for SARS-CoV-2 and surveyed pet owners for risk factors associated with infection and seropositivity. We tested serum samples for spike protein IgG and IgM in household pets and also in animals from shelters and low-cost neuter clinics. Among household pets, 2% (1/49) of swab specimens from dogs and 7.7% (5/65) from cats were PCR positive, but 41% of dog serum samples and 52% of cat serum samples were positive for SARS-CoV-2 IgG or IgM. The likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity in pet samples was higher for cats but not dogs that slept on owners' beds and for dogs and cats that contracted a new illness. Seropositivity in neuter-clinic samples was 16% (35/221); in shelter samples, 9.3% (7/75). Our findings indicate a high likelihood for pets in households of humans with COVID-19 to seroconvert and become ill.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Dog Diseases , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cats , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dogs , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Ontario/epidemiology , Pets , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
3.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250853, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833535

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infection by SARS-CoV-2 in domestic animals has been related to close contact with humans diagnosed with COVID-19. Objectives: To assess the exposure, infection, and persistence by SARS-CoV-2 of dogs and cats living in the same households of humans that tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, and to investigate clinical and laboratory alterations associated with animal infection. METHODS: Animals living with COVID-19 patients were longitudinally followed and had nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal and rectal swabs collected and tested for SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, blood samples were collected for laboratory analysis, and plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT90) to investigate specific SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. RESULTS: Between May and October 2020, 39 pets (29 dogs and 10 cats) of 21 patients were investigated. Nine dogs (31%) and four cats (40%) from 10 (47.6%) households were infected with or seropositive for SARS-CoV-2. Animals tested positive from 11 to 51 days after the human index COVID-19 case onset of symptoms. Three dogs tested positive twice within 14, 30, and 31 days apart. SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies were detected in one dog (3.4%) and two cats (20%). In this study, six out of thirteen animals either infected with or seropositive for SARS-CoV-2 have developed mild but reversible signs of the disease. Using logistic regression analysis, neutering, and sharing bed with the ill owner were associated with pet infection. CONCLUSIONS: The presence and persistence of SARS-CoV-2 infection have been identified in dogs and cats from households with human COVID-19 cases in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. People with COVID-19 should avoid close contact with their pets during the time of their illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Pets/virology , Animals , Animals, Domestic/virology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cat Diseases , Cats , Dog Diseases , Dogs , Longitudinal Studies , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
4.
J Appl Anim Welf Sci ; 25(2): 153-166, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1806030

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic in Canada and the US significantly impacted the myriad relationships that exist amongst human and non-human animals. This article highlights the tolls that the virus and lockdown measures took (and continue to take) on companion animals and the veterinary professionals who care for them. Veterinary medicine scrambled quickly to adapt to new parameters of care using pandemic protocols, radically transforming the amount and quality of care for companion animals, and the work lives of those who provide it. Changes in clinic protocols, patient admissions and discharges, deliveries, shipments, appointment scheduling and duration, and the availability of food, pharmaceuticals and medical equipment all impacted the lives of non-human animals, and the work lives of those providing veterinary care . The authors employed mixed methods research, combining ethnographic data with secondary source data analysis to illuminate the new realities of labor and interspecies care work in the lockdown-induced anthropause. The findings are relevant to veterinary professionals, researchers, companion animal guardians, animal welfare advocates, and possibly emergency management organizations in prepareding for future catastrophic events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dog Diseases , Veterinary Drugs , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Communicable Disease Control , Dogs , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pets
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6091, 2022 04 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788317

ABSTRACT

The question of pet ownership contributing to human well-being has received mixed empirical evidence. This contrasts with the lay intuition that pet ownership contributes positively to wellness. In a large representative sample, we investigate the differences that may exist between pet vs. non-pet owners in terms of their well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic, and examine among different sociodemographic strata, for whom pet ownership can be more vs. less beneficial. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among Canadian adults (1220 pet owners, 1204 non-pet owners). Pet owners reported lower well-being than non-pet owners on a majority of well-being indicators; this general pet ownership effect held when accounting for pet species (dogs, cats, other species) and number of pets owned. Compared to owners of other pets, dog owners reported higher well-being. When examining the effect of pet ownership within different socioeconomic strata, being a pet owner was associated with lower well-being among: women; people who have 2 + children living at home; people who are unemployed. Our results offer a counterpoint to popular beliefs emphasising the benefits of pets to human wellness during the COVID-19 pandemic and confirm the importance of accounting for sociodemographic factors to further understand the experience of pet ownership.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ownership , Pets/psychology , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Canada , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dogs , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
Lancet ; 399(10329): 1070-1078, 2022 03 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1735071

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from humans to other mammals, including pet animals, has been reported. However, with the exception of farmed mink, there is no previous evidence that these infected animals can infect humans, resulting in sustained human-to-human transmission. Following a confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection of a pet shop worker, animals in the shop and the warehouse supplying it were tested for evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: In this case study, viral swabs and blood samples were collected from animals in a pet shop and its corresponding warehouse in Hong Kong. Nasal swab or saliva samples from human COVID-19 patients epidemiologically linked to the pet shop and from subsequent local cases confirmed to be infected by SARS-CoV-2 delta variant were collected. Oral swabs were tested by quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) for SARS-CoV-2 and blood samples were serologically tested by a surrogate virus neutralisation test and plaque reduction neutralisation test. The SARS-CoV-2 RT-qPCR positive samples were sequenced by next generation viral full genome sequencing using the ISeq sequencing platform (Illumina), and the viral genomes were phylogenetically analysed. FINDINGS: Eight (50%) of 16 individually tested Syrian hamsters in the pet shop and seven (58%) of 12 Syrian hamsters in the corresponding warehouse were positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection in RT-qPCR or serological tests. None of the dwarf hamsters (n=75), rabbits (n=246), guinea pigs (n=66), chinchillas (n=116), and mice (n=2) were confirmed positive for SARS-CoV-2 in RT-qPCR tests. SARS-CoV-2 viral genomes deduced from human and hamster cases in this incident all belong to the delta variant of concern (AY.127) that had not been circulating locally before this outbreak. The viral genomes obtained from hamsters were phylogenetically related with some sequence heterogeneity. Phylogenetic dating suggests infection in these hamsters occurred around Oct 14, 2021 (95% CI Sept 15 to Nov 9, 2021). Multiple zoonotic transmission events to humans were detected, leading to onward human-to-human transmission. INTERPRETATION: Pet hamsters can be naturally infected with SARS-CoV-2. The virus can circulate among hamsters and lead to human infections. Both genetic and epidemiological results strongly suggest that there was more than one hamster-to-human transmission event in this study. This incident also led to onward human transmission. Importation of SARS-CoV-2-infected hamsters was a likely source of this outbreak. FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health, Research Grants Council of Hong Kong, Food and Health Bureau, and InnoHK.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/veterinary , Cricetinae/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Zoonoses/transmission , Adult , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Child , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Pets/virology , Phylogeny
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(4)2022 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707322

ABSTRACT

The objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess the association between pet ownership and quality of life (QoL), loneliness, anxiety, stress, overall health, and mental health of Canadians during the COVID-19 pandemic using a One Health perspective. An online bilingual survey was completed by 1500 Canadians in April-May 2021. Socio-demographics, health, QoL, stress and anxiety, loneliness, social support, pet ownership, and attitude towards pets data were collected. Crude and adjusted associations between pet ownership and mental health and well-being indicators were estimated. The 1500 participants were from all provinces and territories, half were women; half of the participants were pet owners by design. The crude association estimates showed that pet owners had poorer QoL, overall health, and mental health than non-pet owners, and were lonelier, more stressed, and more anxious than non-pet owners. Adjusted estimates showed that these associations disappeared with the inclusion of the confounders (socio-economic, demographic, health, and pet-related variables). Our results suggest that there was no association between pet ownership and the mental health and well-being indicators measured in the present study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Canada , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Mental Health , Ownership , Pandemics , Pets , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 02 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704412

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections have spilled over from humans to companion and wild animals since the inception of the global COVID-19 pandemic. However, whole genome sequencing data of the viral genomes that infect non-human animal species have been scant. Here, we detected and sequenced a SARS-CoV-2 delta variant (AY.3) in fecal samples from an 11-year-old domestic house cat previously exposed to an owner who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Molecular testing of two fecal samples collected 7 days apart yielded relatively high levels of viral RNA. Sequencing of the feline-derived viral genomes showed the two to be identical, and differing by between 4 and 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms in pairwise comparisons to human-derived lineage AY.3 sequences collected in the same geographic area and time period. However, several mutations unique to the feline samples reveal their divergence from this cohort on phylogenetic analysis. These results demonstrate continued spillover infections of emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants that threaten human and animal health, as well as highlight the importance of collecting fecal samples when testing for SARS-CoV-2 in animals. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first published case of a SARS-CoV-2 delta variant in a domestic cat in the United States.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/veterinary , Feces/virology , Pets/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Animals , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Cats , Female , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Phylogeny , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/classification , United States , Whole Genome Sequencing
9.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263791, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700510

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the association between dog and cat ownership, the onset of disability and all-cause mortality in an older population. Dog and cat owners take more regular exercise and have closer social relationships than non-owners. We further assess the beneficial effects of these moderating variables on the onset of disability and mortality. METHODS: Dog and cat ownership data were collected from 11233 community-dwelling adults age 65 years and older. These data were matched with data about the onset of disability held by the Japanese long-term care insurance system. Local registry data were used to ascertain all-cause mortality. RESULTS: During the approximately 3.5 year follow-up period, 17.1% of the sample suffered onset of disability, and 5.2% died. Logistic regression analysis indicated that, compared with a reference group of those who had never owned a dog (odds ratio fixed at 1.0), older adults who were currently dog owners had a significantly lower odds ratio of onset of disability (OR = 0.54 95% CI: 0.37-0.79). Our results further show that regular exercise interacts with dog ownership to reduce the risk of disability. The association of dog and/or cat ownership with all-cause mortality was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Dog ownership appears to protect against incident disability among older Japanese adults. Additional benefits are gained from ownership combined with regular exercise. Daily dog care may have an important role to play in health promotion and successful aging.


Subject(s)
Aging/psychology , Independent Living/statistics & numerical data , Ownership/statistics & numerical data , Pets , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aging/pathology , Animals , Disabled Persons/statistics & numerical data , Dogs , Female , Humans , Japan , Male
10.
Virus Res ; 310: 198673, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1635564

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of COVID-19 in domestic cats, focusing on the disease in the northwest of Iran and then showing the natural transmission of SARS-COV-2 circulating between domestic cats and humans. After receiving ethic codes from Tehran University of Medical Sciences (IR.TUMS.VCR.REC.1399.303) and confirmed by the Center of Communicable Diseases Control (CDC) of Iran, 124 domestic cats were collected from the homes and only one hospital of Meshkin -Shahr district from northwestern Iran where SARS-CoV-2 patients were hospitalized and quarantined during 2020. Samples were prepared from fluid materials of oropharynx and nasopharynx. All samples were tested by real-time PCR (RT-PCR) using specific genes N and ORF1ab in Pasteur Institute of Iran, and then partial sequence analyses of S gene were performed. All collected cats were kept in separated cages until SARS-COV-2 infection was confirmed with the RT-PCR. RT- PCR Ct values of 123 collected cats were ≥40; thus, all of them showed negative results, but one of the collected cats with close contact with its owner, whom confirmed SARS-CoV-2 showed positive results with gene N(Ct=30) and gene ORF1ab (Ct=32). Furthermore, the positive pet cat showed respiratory and gastro-intestinal clinical manifestations, and its owner was infected with SARS-CoV-2 two weeks ago. Cats are susceptible animals to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Epidemiological evidence showed that SARS-COV-2 is able to transmit to healthy cats due to having close contact with its owner as a reverse zoonosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cats , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Cats/virology , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Nasopharynx/virology , Oropharynx/virology , Pets/virology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
11.
Vet Pathol ; 59(4): 707-711, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625691

ABSTRACT

Documented natural infections with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in exotic and companion animals following human exposures are uncommon. Those documented in animals are typically mild and self-limiting, and infected animals have only infrequently died or been euthanized. Through a coordinated One Health initiative, necropsies were conducted on 5 animals from different premises that were exposed to humans with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. The combination of epidemiologic evidence of exposure and confirmatory real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction testing confirmed infection in 3 cats and a tiger. A dog was a suspect case based on epidemiologic evidence of exposure but tested negative for SARS-CoV-2. Four animals had respiratory clinical signs that developed 2 to 12 days after exposure. The dog had bronchointerstitial pneumonia and the tiger had bronchopneumonia; both had syncytial-like cells with no detection of SARS-CoV-2. Individual findings in the 3 cats included metastatic mammary carcinoma, congenital renal disease, and myocardial disease. Based on the necropsy findings and a standardized algorithm, SARS-CoV-2 infection was not considered the cause of death in any of the cases. Continued surveillance and necropsy examination of animals with fatal outcomes will further our understanding of natural SARS-CoV-2 infection in animals and the potential role of the virus in development of lesions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dog Diseases , One Health , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dogs , Pets , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580429

ABSTRACT

Several cases of naturally infected dogs with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have been reported despite the apparently low susceptibility of this species. Here, we document the first reported case of infection caused by the Delta (B.1.617.2) variant of concern (VOC) in a dog in Spain that lived with several household members suffering from Coronavirus Infectious Disease 2019 (COVID-19). The animal displayed mild digestive and respiratory clinical signs and had a low viral load in the oropharyngeal swab collected at the first sampling. Whole-genome sequencing indicated infection with the Delta variant, coinciding with the predominant variant during the fifth pandemic wave in Spain. The dog seroconverted, as detected 21 days after the first sampling, and developed neutralizing antibodies that cross-neutralized different SARS-CoV-2 variants. This study further emphasizes the importance of studying the susceptibility of animal species to different VOCs and their potential role as reservoirs in the context of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/veterinary , Dog Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/transmission , Dogs , Female , Genome, Viral/genetics , Pets/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Viral Zoonoses/diagnosis , Viral Zoonoses/transmission , Viral Zoonoses/virology
13.
Virulence ; 12(1): 2777-2786, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1565872

ABSTRACT

Several animal species, including ferrets, hamsters, monkeys, and raccoon dogs, have been shown to be susceptible to experimental infection by the human severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, such as SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, which were responsible for the 2003 SARS outbreak and the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, respectively. Emerging studies have shown that SARS-CoV-2 natural infection of pet dogs and cats is also possible, but its prevalence is not fully understood. Experimentally, it has been demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 replicates more efficiently in cats than in dogs and that cats can transmit the virus through aerosols. With approximately 470 million pet dogs and 370 million pet cats cohabitating with their human owners worldwide, the finding of natural SARS-CoV-2 infection in these household pets has important implications for potential zoonotic transmission events during the COVID-19 pandemic as well as future SARS-related outbreaks. Here, we describe some of the ongoing worldwide surveillance efforts to assess the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 exposure in companion, captive, wild, and farmed animals, as well as provide some perspectives on these efforts including the intra- and inter-species coronavirus transmissions, evolution, and their implications on the human-animal interface along with public health. Some ongoing efforts to develop and implement a new COVID-19 vaccine for animals are also discussed. Surveillance initiatives to track SARS-CoV-2 exposures in animals are necessary to accurately determine their impact on veterinary and human health, as well as define potential reservoir sources of the virus and its evolutionary and transmission dynamics.


Subject(s)
Animals, Domestic/virology , Animals, Wild/virology , Animals, Zoo/virology , COVID-19/veterinary , Pets/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Vaccines , Disease Reservoirs/statistics & numerical data , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Ferrets/virology , Humans , Prevalence , Viral Zoonoses/epidemiology , Viral Zoonoses/prevention & control , Viral Zoonoses/virology
14.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 11 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551630

ABSTRACT

During the four pandemic waves, a total of 560,504 cases and 10,178 deaths due to COVID-19 were reported in Croatia. The Alpha variant, dominant from March 2021 (>50% of positive samples), was rapidly replaced by Delta variants (>90%) by August 2021. Several seroprevalence studies were conducted in different populations (general population, children/adolescents, professional athletes, healthcare workers, veterinarians) and in immunocompromised patients (hemodialysis patients, liver/kidney transplant recipients). After the first pandemic wave, seroprevalence rates of neutralizing (NT) antibodies were reported to be 0.2-5.5%. Significantly higher seropositivity was detected during/after the second wave, 2.6-18.7%. Two studies conducted in pet animals (February-June 2020/July-December 2020) reported SARS-CoV-2 NT antibodies in 0.76% of cats and 0.31-14.69% of dogs, respectively. SARS-CoV-2 NT antibodies were not detected in wildlife. Environmental samples taken in the households of COVID-19 patients showed high-touch personal objects as most frequently contaminated (17.3%), followed by surfaces in patients' rooms (14.6%), kitchens (13.3%) and bathrooms (8.3%). SARS-CoV-2 RNA was also detected in 96.8% affluent water samples, while all effluent water samples tested negative. Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in humans, animals and the environment suggests that the 'One Health' approach is critical to controlling COVID-19 and future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , One Health , Pandemics , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/veterinary , Cats , Croatia/epidemiology , Dogs , Genetic Variation , Health Personnel , Humans , Pets , Prevalence , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Waste Water/virology
15.
Comput Biol Chem ; 96: 107613, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1549716

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an ongoing global health emergency that has caused tremendous stress and loss of life worldwide. The viral spike glycoprotein is a critical molecule mediating transmission of SARS-CoV-2 by interacting with human ACE2. However, through the course of the pandemics, there has not been a thorough analysis of the spike protein mutations, and on how these mutants influence the transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Besides, cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection among pets and wild animals have been reported, so the susceptibility of these animals requires great attention to investigate, as they may also link to the renewed question of a possible intermediate host for SARS-CoV-2 before it was transmitted to humans. With over 226,000 SARS-CoV-2 sequences obtained, we found 1573 missense mutations in the spike gene, and 226 of them were within the receptor-binding domain (RBD) region that directly interacts with human ACE2. Modeling the interactions between SARS-CoV-2 spike mutants and ACE2 molecules showed that most of the 74 missense mutations in the RBD region of the interaction interface had little impact on spike binding to ACE2, whereas several within the spike RBD increased the binding affinity toward human ACE2 thus making the virus likely more contagious. On the other hand, modeling the interactions between animal ACE2 molecules and SARS-CoV-2 spike revealed that many pets and wild animals' ACE2 had a variable binding ability. Particularly, ACE2 of bamboo rat had stronger binding to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, whereas that of mole, vole, Mus pahari, palm civet, and pangolin had a weaker binding compared to human ACE2. Our results provide structural insights into the impact on interactions of the SARS-CoV-2 spike mutants to human ACE2, and shed light on SARS-CoV-2 transmission in pets and wild animals, and possible clues to the intermediate host(s) for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , COVID-19/veterinary , COVID-19/virology , Mutation, Missense , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Animals, Wild/genetics , Animals, Wild/virology , COVID-19/transmission , Computational Biology , Host Microbial Interactions/genetics , Host Specificity/genetics , Humans , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Pandemics/veterinary , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Pets/genetics , Pets/virology , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs/genetics , Risk Factors
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(23)2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542568

ABSTRACT

Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with lower quality of life, reduced social participation, and decreased self-efficacy. The COVID-19 pandemic has had documented effects on the health and wellbeing of people with and without MS. Previous research has demonstrated the positive impact pets can have for people living with long-term conditions. Objectives: To explore the rates of pet ownership and pet attachment in people living with MS and pet ownership associations with quality of life, satisfaction with social roles, and self-efficacy scores; and to explore the effects of the COVID-19 outbreak on people's perceived relationships with their pets. Materials and Methods: A postal questionnaire was distributed to members of a local MS Register and a control group of people without MS. The questionnaire assessed quality of life, satisfaction with social roles, self-efficacy, the perceived roles of pets, and pet-related concerns experienced during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results: No apparent difference in attachment to pets was found between the patient and control groups. Pet ownership and level of attachment were not associated with differences in quality of life or self-efficacy scores in people living with MS. Using multiple regression analysis, pet ownership was associated with a decrease in satisfaction with participation in social roles, but with the estimated effect being small compared to having a diagnosis of MS or being unemployed. Most participants reported that pets had positive roles during the pandemic, and the most reported pet-related concern was access to veterinary treatment. Conclusion: Pet owners both with and without MS reported subjective benefits to their wellbeing from pet ownership during COVID-19, although analysis suggested that pet ownership was associated with a reduction in satisfaction with social roles. The study had several limitations and suggestions are made for future work.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Animals , Humans , Ownership , Pandemics , Pets , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
17.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 259(10): 1140-1147, 2021 11 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496888

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To gather and evaluate veterinarians' perspectives about the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the use of veterinary telehealth and on cat owners' versus dog owners' attitudes toward transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus from their pets. SAMPLE: 93 respondent veterinarians (47 in primary care practice and 46 in specialty practice). PROCEDURES: An online survey was conducted between June 15 and July 15, 2020, and included 21 questions concerning demographics, use of telehealth before and after the onset of the pandemic (before March 15, 2020, and between March 15 and June 15, 2020, respectively), changes in caseloads, and perception of clients' concerns about potential for transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus from pets. Reported zip codes informed the collection of census data. RESULTS: The level of poverty was significantly lower in zip code areas for respondents who reported telehealth services were (vs were not) offered before the pandemic. The percentage of respondents who reported their practice offered telehealth services increased from 12% (11/93) before the pandemic to 38% (35/93) between March 15 and June 15, 2020. Although most respondents reported owner-expressed concerns over SARS-CoV-2 virus transmission from their pets, most also reported increased caseloads, seeing newly adopted pets, and few discussions of surrender of pets for reasons related to the SARS-CoV-2 virus. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Findings indicated that caseloads increased and telehealth services expanded during the pandemic but that there was no evidence of differences in respondent-reported owner concern for SARS-CoV-2 virus transmission from cats versus dogs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Dog Diseases , Telemedicine , Veterinarians , Animals , Attitude , COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cats , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dogs , Humans , Ownership , Pandemics , Perception , Pets , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(44)2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493339

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 spillback from humans into domestic and wild animals has been well documented, and an accumulating number of studies illustrate that human-to-animal transmission is widespread in cats, mink, deer, and other species. Experimental inoculations of cats, mink, and ferrets have perpetuated transmission cycles. We sequenced full genomes of Vero cell-expanded SARS-CoV-2 inoculum and viruses recovered from cats (n = 6), dogs (n = 3), hamsters (n = 3), and a ferret (n = 1) following experimental exposure. Five nonsynonymous changes relative to the USA-WA1/2020 prototype strain were near fixation in the stock used for inoculation but had reverted to wild-type sequences at these sites in dogs, cats, and hamsters within 1- to 3-d postexposure. A total of 14 emergent variants (six in nonstructural genes, six in spike, and one each in orf8 and nucleocapsid) were detected in viruses recovered from animals. This included substitutions in spike residues H69, N501, and D614, which also vary in human lineages of concern. Even though a live virus was not cultured from dogs, substitutions in replicase genes were detected in amplified sequences. The rapid selection of SARS-CoV-2 variants in vitro and in vivo reveals residues with functional significance during host switching. These observations also illustrate the potential for spillback from animal hosts to accelerate the evolution of new viral lineages, findings of particular concern for dogs and cats living in households with COVID-19 patients. More generally, this glimpse into viral host switching reveals the unrealized rapidity and plasticity of viral evolution in experimental animal model systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Evolution, Molecular , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Selection, Genetic , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Cats , Chlorocebus aethiops , Dogs , Ferrets , Gene Frequency , Pets/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vero Cells , Viral Proteins/genetics
19.
Virulence ; 12(1): 2777-2786, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483322

ABSTRACT

Several animal species, including ferrets, hamsters, monkeys, and raccoon dogs, have been shown to be susceptible to experimental infection by the human severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, such as SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, which were responsible for the 2003 SARS outbreak and the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, respectively. Emerging studies have shown that SARS-CoV-2 natural infection of pet dogs and cats is also possible, but its prevalence is not fully understood. Experimentally, it has been demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 replicates more efficiently in cats than in dogs and that cats can transmit the virus through aerosols. With approximately 470 million pet dogs and 370 million pet cats cohabitating with their human owners worldwide, the finding of natural SARS-CoV-2 infection in these household pets has important implications for potential zoonotic transmission events during the COVID-19 pandemic as well as future SARS-related outbreaks. Here, we describe some of the ongoing worldwide surveillance efforts to assess the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 exposure in companion, captive, wild, and farmed animals, as well as provide some perspectives on these efforts including the intra- and inter-species coronavirus transmissions, evolution, and their implications on the human-animal interface along with public health. Some ongoing efforts to develop and implement a new COVID-19 vaccine for animals are also discussed. Surveillance initiatives to track SARS-CoV-2 exposures in animals are necessary to accurately determine their impact on veterinary and human health, as well as define potential reservoir sources of the virus and its evolutionary and transmission dynamics.


Subject(s)
Animals, Domestic/virology , Animals, Wild/virology , Animals, Zoo/virology , COVID-19/veterinary , Pets/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Vaccines , Disease Reservoirs/statistics & numerical data , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Ferrets/virology , Humans , Prevalence , Viral Zoonoses/epidemiology , Viral Zoonoses/prevention & control , Viral Zoonoses/virology
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