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1.
Viruses ; 14(6)2022 05 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911612

ABSTRACT

The year 2020 marked 15 years of the Phage Therapy Unit in Poland, the inception of which took place just one year after Poland's accession to the European Union (2004). At first sight, it is hard to find any connection between these two events, but in fact joining the European Union entailed the need to adapt the regulatory provisions concerning experimental treatment in humans to those that were in force in the European Union. These changes were a solid foundation for the first phage therapy center in the European Union to start its activity. As the number of centers conducting phage therapy in Europe and in the world constantly and rapidly grows, we want to grasp the opportunity to take a closer look at the over 15-year operation of our site by analyzing its origins, legal aspects at the local and international levels and the impressive number and diversity of cases that have been investigated and treated during this time. This article is a continuation of our work published in 2020 summarizing a 100-year history of the development of phage research in Poland.


Subject(s)
Bacteriophages , Phage Therapy , Europe , European Union , Humans , Poland
2.
Curr Opin Virol ; 52: 9-14, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1509709

ABSTRACT

With more than 200 million people affected and 4.5 million deaths so far, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has become one of the greatest disasters in human history. Secondary bacterial infections (SBIs) are a known complication of viral respiratory infections, and are significantly associated with poorer outcomes in COVID-19 patients despite antibiotic treatments. The increasing antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in bacteria and the decreasing options available in our antimicrobial armory worsen this crisis and call for alternative treatment options. As natural killers of bacteria, phages are recognized as promising alternatives to antibiotics in treating pulmonary bacterial infections, however, little is known about their use for treating SBIs during virus pandemics such as COVID-19. This review highlights the situation of SBIs in COVID-19 patients, and the distinct strengths and limitations of phage therapy for their containment.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Phage Therapy , Bacteria , Bacterial Infections/therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 635597, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1362322

ABSTRACT

Antibiotic resistance is exuberantly becoming a deleterious health problem world-wide. Seeking innovative approaches is necessary in order to circumvent such a hazard. An unconventional fill-in to antibiotics is bacteriophage. Bacteriophages are viruses capable of pervading bacterial cells and disrupting their natural activity, ultimately resulting in their defeat. In this article, we will run-through the historical record of bacteriophage and its correlation with bacteria. We will also delineate the potential of bacteriophage as a therapeutic antibacterial agent, its supremacy over antibiotics in multiple aspects and the challenges that could arise on the way to its utilization in reality. Pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics and genetic engineering of bacteriophages and its proteins will be briefly discussed as well. In addition, we will highlight some of the in-use applications of bacteriophages, and set an outlook for their future ones. We will also overview some of the miscellaneous abilities of these tiny viruses in several fields other than the clinical one. This is an attempt to encourage tackling a long-forgotten hive. Perhaps, one day, the smallest of the creatures would be of the greatest help.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , Bacteriophages , Phage Therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Bacteria , Humans
5.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 612-618, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1127286

ABSTRACT

Phage therapy is recognized as a promising alternative to antibiotics in treating pulmonary bacterial infections, however, its use has not been reported for treating secondary bacterial infections during virus pandemics such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We enrolled 4 patients hospitalized with critical COVID-19 and pulmonary carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) infections to compassionate phage therapy (at 2 successive doses of 109 plaque-forming unit phages). All patients in our COVID-19-specific intensive care unit (ICU) with CRAB positive in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or sputum samples were eligible for study inclusion if antibiotic treatment failed to eradicate their CRAB infections. While phage susceptibility testing revealed an identical profile of CRAB strains from these patients, treatment with a pre-optimized 2-phage cocktail was associated with reduced CRAB burdens. Our results suggest the potential of phages on rapid responses to secondary CRAB outbreak in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter Infections/etiology , Acinetobacter Infections/therapy , Acinetobacter baumannii/virology , Bacteriophages/physiology , COVID-19/complications , Coinfection/therapy , Phage Therapy , Podoviridae/physiology , Acinetobacter Infections/microbiology , Acinetobacter baumannii/physiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/virology , Coinfection/microbiology , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
6.
Future Microbiol ; 16(3): 135-142, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110198

ABSTRACT

The ability of influenza A virus to evolve, coupled with increasing antimicrobial resistance, could trigger an influenza pandemic with great morbidity and mortality. Much of the 1918 influenza pandemic mortality was likely due to bacterial coinfection, including Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia. S. aureus resists many antibiotics. The lack of new antibiotics suggests alternative antimicrobials, such as bacteriophages, are needed. Potential delivery routes for bacteriophage therapy (BT) include inhalation and intravenous injection. BT has recently been used successfully in compassionate access pulmonary infection cases. Phage lysins, enzymes that hydrolyze bacterial cell walls and which are bactericidal, are efficacious in animal pneumonia models. Clinical trials will be needed to determine whether BT can ameliorate disease in influenza and S. aureus coinfection.


Subject(s)
Bacteriophages/physiology , Coinfection/therapy , Influenza A virus/physiology , Influenza, Human/therapy , Phage Therapy , Pneumonia, Staphylococcal/therapy , Staphylococcus aureus/virology , Animals , Coinfection/microbiology , Coinfection/mortality , Coinfection/virology , Humans , Influenza A virus/genetics , Influenza, Human/mortality , Influenza, Human/virology , Pneumonia, Staphylococcal/microbiology , Pneumonia, Staphylococcal/mortality , Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Staphylococcus aureus/physiology
7.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; 19(5): 557-558, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-851600
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