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1.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 58(83): 11697-11700, 2022 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2186137

ABSTRACT

A novel composite was fabricated by hybridizing terbium 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic MOF (TB-MOF) with Cx[6]. The obtained composite TB-Cx[6] possessed long-term stability and dispersion stability and was used for on-site analysis of the anti-COVID-19 disinfection product Prednis via a combing remote sampling technique.


Subject(s)
Lanthanoid Series Elements , Metal-Organic Frameworks , Calixarenes , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Phenols , Terbium
2.
Harm Reduct J ; 18(1): 118, 2021 11 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139310

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While people who inject drugs (PWID) are vulnerable to the adverse outcomes of events like COVID-19, little is known regarding the impact of the current pandemic on PWID. We examine how COVID-19 has affected PWID in New York City across four domains: substance use, risk behaviors, mental health, and service utilization. METHODS: As part of a randomized trial to improve access to HCV treatment for PWID, we recruited 165 participants. Eligibility criteria included detectable HCV RNA and recent drug injection. The present cross-sectional analysis is based on a subsample of 106 participants. We compared responses between two separate samples: 60 participants interviewed prior to the pandemic (pre-COVID-19 sample) and 46 participants interviewed during the pandemic (COVID-19 sample). We also assessed differences by study group [accessible care (AC) and usual care (UC)]. RESULTS: Compared to the pre-COVID-19 sample, those interviewed during COVID-19 reported higher levels of mental health issues, syringe reuse, and alcohol consumption and greater reductions in syringe-service programs and buprenorphine utilization. In the analysis conducted by study group, the UC group reported significantly higher injection risk behaviors and lower access to buprenorphine treatment during COVID-19, while during the same period, the AC group reported lower levels of substance use and injection risk behaviors. CONCLUSION: The current study provides insight on how COVID-19 has negatively affected PWID. Placing dispensing machines of harm-reduction supplies in communities where PWID live and increasing secondary exchange, mobile services, and mail delivery of supplies may help maintain access to lifesaving supplies during big events, such as COVID-19. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03214679. Registered July 11 2017. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03214679 .


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Substance Abuse, Intravenous , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , New York City/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Substance Abuse, Intravenous/epidemiology
3.
J Addict Med ; 16(5): 592-594, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116973

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Self-isolation is critical in preventing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission. However, people who use drugs face significant barriers in adhering to the regulations. As a response, several supportive measures have been introduced in British Columbia, including temporary housing access and "risk mitigation" prescribing, in which health care providers prescribe pharmaceutical alternatives to the unregulated drug supply to prevent withdrawal and reduce overdose risk. CASE SUMMARY: We present a case of a 39-year-old male with a history of polysubstance use and frequent overdoses, who had tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and was able to successfully self-isolate. "Risk mitigation" prescribing, supportive housing, and harm reduction services were initiated for his self-isolation and connection to community outreach teams for ongoing support. DISCUSSION: This case illustrates how "risk mitigation" prescribing supported patient's self-isolation, reduced his illicit drug use, and offered an opportunity for healthcare engagement. Access to safer alternatives to the toxic drug supply should continue beyond COVID-19 pandemic to address the persistent issues of contaminated drug supply and the overdose crisis in North America.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug Overdose , Illicit Drugs , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Drug Overdose/epidemiology , Drug Overdose/prevention & control , Housing , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pharmaceutical Preparations , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 958634, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2114014

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) seriously affect human health by causing respiratory diseases ranging from common colds to severe acute respiratory diseases. Immunophilins, including peptidyl-prolyl isomerases of the FK506-binding protein (FKBP) and the cyclophilin family, are promising targets for pharmaceutical inhibition of coronavirus replication, but cell-type specific effects have not been elucidated. FKBPs and cyclophilins bind the immunosuppressive drugs FK506 and cyclosporine A (CsA), respectively. Methods: Primary human bronchial epithelial cells (phBECs) were treated with CsA, Alisporivir (ALV), FK506, and FK506-derived non-immunosuppressive analogs and infected with HCoV-229E. RNA and protein were assessed by RT-qPCR and immunoblot analysis. Treatment with the same compounds was performed in hepatoma cells (Huh-7.5) infected with HCoV-229E expressing Renilla luciferase (HCoV-229E-RLuc) and the kidney cell line HEK293 transfected with a SARS-CoV-1 replicon expressing Renilla luciferase (SARS-CoV-1-RLuc), followed by quantification of luminescence as a measure of viral replication. Results: Both CsA and ALV robustly inhibited viral replication in all models; both compounds decreased HCoV-229E RNA in phBECs and reduced luminescence in HCoV-229E-RLuc-infected Huh7.5 and SARS-CoV-1-RLuc replicon-transfected HEK293. In contrast, FK506 showed inconsistent and less pronounced effects in phBECs while strongly affecting coronavirus replication in Huh-7.5 and HEK293. Two non-immunosuppressive FK506 analogs had no antiviral effect in any infection model. Conclusion: The immunophilin inhibitors CsA and ALV display robust anti-coronaviral properties in multiple infection models, including phBECs, reflecting a primary site of HCoV infection. In contrast, FK506 displayed cell-type specific effects, strongly affecting CoV replication in Huh7.5 and HEK293, but inconsistently and less pronounced in phBECs.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 229E, Human , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus 229E, Human/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Cyclophilins , Cyclosporine/chemistry , Cyclosporine/pharmacology , Cyclosporine/therapeutic use , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/pharmacology , Luciferases, Renilla , Pharmaceutical Preparations , RNA , Tacrolimus/chemistry , Tacrolimus/pharmacology , Tacrolimus/therapeutic use , Tacrolimus Binding Proteins/pharmacology , Tacrolimus Binding Proteins/therapeutic use
5.
Biophys Chem ; 290: 106891, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2104450

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic created an unprecedented global healthcare emergency prompting the exploration of new therapeutic avenues, including drug repurposing. A large number of ongoing studies revealed pervasive issues in clinical research, such as the lack of accessible and organised data. Moreover, current shortcomings in clinical studies highlighted the need for a multi-faceted approach to tackle this health crisis. Thus, we set out to explore and develop new strategies for drug repositioning by employing computational pharmacology, data mining, systems biology, and computational chemistry to advance shared efforts in identifying key targets, affected networks, and potential pharmaceutical intervention options. Our study revealed that formulating pharmacological strategies should rely on both therapeutic targets and their networks. We showed how data mining can reveal regulatory patterns, capture novel targets, alert about side-effects, and help identify new therapeutic avenues. We also highlighted the importance of the miRNA regulatory layer and how this information could be used to monitor disease progression or devise treatment strategies. Importantly, our work bridged the interactome with the chemical compound space to better understand the complex landscape of COVID-19 drugs. Machine and deep learning allowed us to showcase limitations in current chemical libraries for COVID-19 suggesting that both in silico and experimental analyses should be combined to retrieve therapeutically valuable compounds. Based on the gathered data, we strongly advocate for taking this opportunity to establish robust practices for treating today's and future infectious diseases by preparing solid analytical frameworks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , MicroRNAs , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Small Molecule Libraries
6.
Am J Rhinol Allergy ; 36(6): 733-740, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2084686

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of topical corticosteroids is limited in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) due to rapid clearance from the nasal cavity and insufficient drug delivery to inflamed sinonasal passages. LYR-210 is an implantable corticosteroid matrix designed to provide up to 24 weeks of treatment to patients with CRS by locally delivering mometasone furoate (MF) to the sinonasal mucosa. In a randomized, controlled, dose-ranging LANTERN study, LYR-210 (7500 µg) achieved clinically relevant improvement in CRS cardinal symptom composite scores, the 22-item Sinonasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22), ethmoid opacification, and the need for rescue treatment at 24 weeks. OBJECTIVE: As the plasma MF concentrations of LYR-210 (2500 µg) and LYR-210 (7500 µg) were evaluated at weeks 4, 12, and 24 in the LANTERN study (data on file at Lyra Therapeutics, Inc.), this study aims to characterize the pharmacokinetic profiles of both doses of LYR-210 at earlier timepoints post-placement in patients with CRS. METHODS: Twenty-four surgically naïve adult patients with CRS were enrolled in an open-label, multicenter study and underwent in-office bilateral administration of LYR-210 (2500 µg) (n = 12 patients) or LYR-210 (7500 µg) (n = 12 patients) into the middle meatus. Plasma MF concentrations were determined pre-placement and 1-h post-placement (day 1), and on days 2, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 42, and 56 by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Both LYR-210 doses were well-tolerated with no serious adverse events. Systemic MF levels were dose-dependent and lower than reported values of other respiratory MF products. Plasma MF concentrations showed steady drug release from LYR-210 (2500 µg) and LYR-210 (7500 µg) that persisted through day 56. CONCLUSION: LYR-210 achieved dose-dependent, continuous local MF delivery at a steady rate with low systemic exposure for months.


Subject(s)
Pregnadienediols , Sinusitis , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Chronic Disease , Drug Liberation , Humans , Mometasone Furoate/therapeutic use , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Pregnadienediols/adverse effects , Pregnadienediols/pharmacokinetics , Sinusitis/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(20)2022 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082045

ABSTRACT

There has been an immense effort by global pharmaceutical companies to develop anti-COVID-19 drugs, including small molecule-based RNA replication inhibitors via drug repositioning and antibody-based spike protein blockers related to cell entry by SARS-CoV-2. However, several limitations to their clinical use have emerged in addition to a lack of progress in the development of small molecule-based cell entry inhibitors from natural products. In this study, we tested the effectiveness of kuwanon C (KC), which has mainly been researched using in silico docking simulation and can serve as an effective building block for developing anti-COVID-19 drugs, in blocking the spike S1 RBD:ACE2 receptor interaction. KC is a natural product derived from Morus alba L., commonly known as mulberry, which has known antiviral efficacy. Molecular interaction studies using competitive ELISA and the BLItz system revealed that KC targets both the spike S1 RBD and the ACE2 receptor, successfully disrupting their interaction, as supported by the in silico docking simulation. Furthermore, we established a mechanism of action by observing how KC prevents the infection of SARS-CoV-2 spike pseudotyped virus in ACE2/TPRSS2-overexpressing HEK293T cells. Finally, we demonstrated that KC inhibits clinical isolates of SARS-CoV-2 in Vero cells. Future combinations of small molecule-based cell entry inhibitors, such as KC, with the currently prescribed RNA replication inhibitors are anticipated to significantly enhance the efficacy of COVID-19 therapies.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , COVID-19 , Morus , Chlorocebus aethiops , Animals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Morus/metabolism , Vero Cells , HEK293 Cells , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Protein Binding , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Pharmaceutical Preparations , RNA/metabolism
8.
Ann Glob Health ; 88(1): 87, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080770

ABSTRACT

Lack of transparency in vaccine pricing practices is a problem that has been under discussion for a long time. To tackle this, the World Health Assembly adopted the resolution Improving the transparency of markets for medicines, vaccines, and other health products in 2019. However, despite the appalling effects of the current pandemic and the unequal global distribution of vaccines, the 2019 resolution has not been included as a fundamental pillar in the global health response to COVID-19. Governments and public health agencies have provided public funding to pharmaceutical companies for research and development of new vaccines. Yet, information on pricing strategies and methodologies is still inaccessible. Furthermore, these companies are profiting from publicly funded research and development. But secrecy and opacity prevails in the pharmaceutical industry, affecting low and middle income countries. Situating the demand for transparency, accountability and fair pricing of pharmaceutical products as a global health justice issue, I suggest an independent global observatory for accountability and transparency in the pharmaceutical global market should be created to help international organizations, governments and civil society in their quest for affordable and safe vaccines and therapeutics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Costs and Cost Analysis , Pharmaceutical Preparations
9.
Front Immunol ; 13: 961198, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080141

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, an outbreak emerged of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) which leads to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The World Health Organisation announced the outbreak a global health emergency on 30 January 2020 and by 11 March 2020 it was declared a pandemic. The spread and severity of the outbreak took a heavy toll and overburdening of the global health system, particularly since there were no available drugs against SARS-CoV-2. With an immediate worldwide effort, communication, and sharing of data, large amounts of funding, researchers and pharmaceutical companies immediately fast-tracked vaccine development in order to prevent severe disease, hospitalizations and death. A number of vaccines were quickly approved for emergency use, and worldwide vaccination rollouts were immediately put in place. However, due to several individuals being hesitant to vaccinations and many poorer countries not having access to vaccines, multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants quickly emerged that were distinct from the original variant. Uncertainties related to the effectiveness of the various vaccines against the new variants as well as vaccine specific-side effects have remained a concern. Despite these uncertainties, fast-track vaccine approval, manufacturing at large scale, and the effective distribution of COVID-19 vaccines remain the topmost priorities around the world. Unprecedented efforts made by vaccine developers/researchers as well as healthcare staff, played a major role in distributing vaccine shots that provided protection and/or reduced disease severity, and deaths, even with the delta and omicron variants. Fortunately, even for those who become infected, vaccination appears to protect against major disease, hospitalisation, and fatality from COVID-19. Herein, we analyse ongoing vaccination studies and vaccine platforms that have saved many deaths from the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pharmaceutical Preparations
10.
Molecules ; 27(18)2022 Sep 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071649

ABSTRACT

With technological advancements in the medicinal and pharmaceutical industries, numerous research studies have focused on the propolis produced by stingless bees (Meliponini tribe) and Apis mellifera honeybees as alternative complementary medicines for the potential treatment of various acute and chronic diseases. Propolis can be found in tropical and subtropical forests throughout the world. The composition of phytochemical constituents in propolis varies depending on the bee species, geographical location, botanical source, and environmental conditions. Typically, propolis contains lipid, beeswax, essential oils, pollen, and organic components. The latter include flavonoids, phenolic compounds, polyphenols, terpenes, terpenoids, coumarins, steroids, amino acids, and aromatic acids. The biologically active constituents of propolis, which include countless organic compounds such as artepillin C, caffeic acid, caffeic acid phenethyl ester, apigenin, chrysin, galangin, kaempferol, luteolin, genistein, naringin, pinocembrin, coumaric acid, and quercetin, have a broad spectrum of biological and therapeutic properties such as antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, rheumatoid arthritis, chronic obstruct pulmonary disorders, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory tract-related diseases, gastrointestinal disorders, as well as neuroprotective, immunomodulatory, and immuno-inflammatory agents. Therefore, this review aims to provide a summary of recent studies on the role of propolis, its constituents, its biologically active compounds, and their efficacy in the medicinal and pharmaceutical treatment of chronic diseases.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile , Propolis , Amino Acids , Animals , Antioxidants , Apigenin , Caffeic Acids , Coumaric Acids , Coumarins , Flavonoids/chemistry , Genistein , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents , Kaempferols , Lipids , Luteolin , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Propolis/chemistry , Quercetin , Terpenes
11.
Comput Biol Chem ; 101: 107778, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2068836

ABSTRACT

The virus that causes Ebola is fatal. Although many researchers have attempted to contain this deadly infection, the fatality rate remains high. The atom-pair fingerprint technique was used to compare drugs suggested for the treatment of Ebola or those that are currently being tested in clinical settings. Subsequently, using scaffold network graph (SNG) methods, the molecular and structural scaffolds of the drugs chosen based on these similar results were created, and the drug structures were examined. Public databases (PubChem and DrugBank) and literature regarding Ebola treatment were used in the analysis. Graphical representations of the molecular architecture and core structures of the drugs with the highest similarity to Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs were produced using the SNG method. The combination of molnupiravir, the first licensed oral medication candidate for COVID-19, and favipiravir, employed in other viral outbreaks, should be further researched for treating Ebola, as observed in our study. We also believe that chemists will benefit from understanding the core structure(s) of medication molecules effective against the Ebola virus, their inhibitors, and the chemical structure similarities of existing pharmaceuticals utilized to build alternative drugs or drug combinations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ebolavirus , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola , United States , Humans , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/drug therapy , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Molecular Structure , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use
12.
Bioorg Chem ; 129: 106195, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2068728

ABSTRACT

The importance of the quinoxaline framework is exemplified by its presence in the well-known drugs such as varenicline, brimonidine, quinacillin, etc. In the past few years, preparation of a variety of organic compounds containing the quinoxaline framework has been reported by several research groups. The chloroquinoxalines were successfully used as substrates in many of these synthetic approaches due to their easy availability along with the reactivity especially towards a diverse range of metal and transition metal-catalyzed transformations including Sonogashira, Suzuki, Heck type of cross-coupling reactions. The transition metals e.g., Pd, Cu, Fe and Nb catalysts played a key role in these transformations for the construction of various CX (e.g., CC, CN, CO, CS, CP, CSe, etc) bonds. These approaches can be classified based on the catalyst employed, type of the reaction performed and nature of CX bond formation during the reaction. Several of these resultant quinoxaline derivatives have shown diverse biological activities which include apoptosis inducing activities, SIRT1 inhibition, inhibition of luciferace enzyme, antibacterial and antifungal activities, cytotoxicity towards cancer cells, inhibition of PDE4 (phosphodiesterase 4), potential uses against COVID-19, etc. Notably, a review article covering the literature based on transition metal-catalyzed reactions of chloroquinoxalines at the same time summarizing the relevant biological activities of resultant products is rather uncommon. Therefore, an attempt is made in the current review article to summarize (i) the recent advances noted in the transition metal-catalyzed reactions of chloroquinoxalines (ii) with the relevant mechanistic discussions (iii) along with the in vitro, and in silico biological studies (wherever reported) (iv) including Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR) within the particular series of the products reported between 2010 and 2022.


Subject(s)
Pharmaceutical Preparations , Quinoxalines , Transition Elements , Humans , Catalysis , Quinoxalines/chemical synthesis , Quinoxalines/chemistry , Quinoxalines/pharmacology , Transition Elements/chemical synthesis , Transition Elements/pharmacology , Structure-Activity Relationship , Pharmaceutical Preparations/chemical synthesis , Pharmaceutical Preparations/chemistry
13.
Molecules ; 27(19)2022 Oct 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066288

ABSTRACT

With the increasing understanding of various disease-related noncoding RNAs, ncRNAs are emerging as novel drugs and drug targets. Nucleic acid drugs based on different types of noncoding RNAs have been designed and tested. Chemical modification has been applied to noncoding RNAs such as siRNA or miRNA to increase the resistance to degradation with minimum influence on their biological function. Chemical biological methods have also been developed to regulate relevant noncoding RNAs in the occurrence of various diseases. New strategies such as designing ribonuclease targeting chimeras to degrade endogenous noncoding RNAs are emerging as promising approaches to regulate gene expressions, serving as next-generation drugs. This review summarized the current state of noncoding RNA-based theranostics, major chemical modifications of noncoding RNAs to develop nucleic acid drugs, conjugation of RNA with different functional biomolecules as well as design and screening of potential molecules to regulate the expression or activity of endogenous noncoding RNAs for drug development. Finally, strategies of improving the delivery of noncoding RNAs are discussed.


Subject(s)
MicroRNAs , RNA, Untranslated , MicroRNAs/genetics , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Pharmaceutical Preparations , RNA, Small Interfering/genetics , RNA, Untranslated/genetics , Ribonucleases
14.
Molecules ; 27(19)2022 Sep 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066273

ABSTRACT

Lysozymes are hydrolytic enzymes characterized by their ability to cleave the ß-(1,4)-glycosidic bonds in peptidoglycan, a major structural component of the bacterial cell wall. This hydrolysis action compromises the integrity of the cell wall, causing the lysis of bacteria. For more than 80 years, its role of antibacterial defense in animals has been renowned, and it is also used as a preservative in foods and pharmaceuticals. In order to improve the antimicrobial efficacy of lysozyme, extensive research has been intended for its modifications. This manuscript reviews the natural antibiotic compound lysozyme with reference to its catalytic and non-catalytic mode of antibacterial action, lysozyme types, susceptibility and resistance of bacteria, modification of lysozyme molecules, and its applications in the food industry.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Muramidase , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents , Bacteria/metabolism , Food Industry , Muramidase/chemistry , Peptidoglycan/metabolism , Pharmaceutical Preparations
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066118

ABSTRACT

Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench is one of the most economically important medicinal plants, cultivated worldwide for its high medicinal value and with several industrial applications in both pharmaceutical and food industries. Thanks to its various phytochemical contents, including caffeic acid derivatives (CADs), E. purpurea extracts have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immuno-stimulating properties. Among CADs, chicoric acid is one of the most important compounds which have shown important pharmacological properties. The present research was aimed at optimizing the production of chicoric acid in E. purpurea cell culture. Methyl jasmonate (MeJa) at different concentrations and for different duration of treatments was utilized as elicitor, and the content of total polyphenols and chicoric acid was measured. Several genes involved in the chicoric acid biosynthetic pathway were selected, and their expression evaluated at different time points of cell culture growth. This was performed with the aim of identifying the most suitable putative molecular markers to be used as a proxy for the early prediction of chicoric acid contents, without the need of expensive quantification methods. A correlation between the production of chicoric acid in response to MeJa and an increased response to oxidative stress was also proposed.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , Echinacea , Acetates , Antioxidants/metabolism , Biological Products/metabolism , Caffeic Acids , Cell Culture Techniques , Cyclopentanes , Echinacea/chemistry , Echinacea/metabolism , Oxylipins , Pharmaceutical Preparations/metabolism , Plant Extracts/metabolism , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Succinates
16.
Vaccine ; 40(46): 6670-6679, 2022 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2061959

ABSTRACT

The anti-vaccination movement, vaccine hesitancy, and wavering vaccination confidence have increasingly become matters of public interest, in parallel with an increasing normalization of representations of vaccination as risky. In this study, we used data on vaccination beliefs and behaviors from two Eurobarometer surveys to classify attitudes towards vaccination and to discuss comparability, acquiescence, and other measurement issues. Through cluster analysis, we found that individuals in the European Union (EU27) can be classified into five opinion types, differentiating the poles ("vaccine-trusting" and "vaccine-distrusting") from the "hesitant & free choice" cluster and from two relatively uncommitted clusters, the "agreeable" (or acquiescent) and the "fence-sitters." Opinion configurations on vaccination were linked to the broader social structures of age, gender, and educational attainment, to experiences of adult vaccination, and trust in different information sources. We found that trust, distrust, and confusion about vaccination have permeated all social strata in EU countries. The pandemic years have amplified uncertainty concerning vaccine safety and its effectiveness. We also noticed a decrease of trust in the voices of mainstream medical experts during the pandemic period, from about 92 % in 2019 to 73 % in 2021, and a significant increase in people who declared that they "don't know" whom to trust about vaccine information, ranging from 1 % to about 13 %. Measurements of vaccination confidence in Europe should control for acquiescence, through positively and negatively formulated items, and ensure comparability in time. We strongly recommend the inclusion of a battery of critical items in all future European Commission-funded surveys on vaccination to allow the monitoring of European public confidence in vaccination and in the relevant information sources, including trust in pharmaceutical companies; this will provide an avenue for re-establishing a broader confidence among citizens, health authorities, and specialists.


Subject(s)
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Vaccines , Adult , Humans , Vaccination , Europe , Pharmaceutical Preparations
17.
Thromb Res ; 213 Suppl 1: S77-S83, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2061921

ABSTRACT

Vaccines to combat SARS-CoV-2 infection and the COVID-19 pandemic were quickly developed due to significant and combined efforts by the scientific community, government agencies, and private sector pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies. Following vaccine development, which took less than a year to accomplish, randomized placebo controlled clinical trials enrolled almost 100,000 people, demonstrating efficacy and no major safety signals. Vaccination programs were started, but shortly thereafter a small number of patients with a constellation of findings including thrombosis in unusual locations, thrombocytopenia, elevated D-dimer and often low fibrinogen led another intense and concentrated scientific effort to understand this syndrome. It was recognized that this occurred within a short time following administration of adenoviral vector SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Critical to the rapid understanding of this syndrome was prompt communication among clinicians and scientists and exchange of knowledge. Now known as vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia syndrome (VITT), progress has been made in understanding the pathophysiology of the syndrome, with the development of diagnostic criteria, and most importantly therapeutic strategies needed to effectively treat this rare complication of adenoviral vector vaccination. This review will focus on the current understanding of the pathophysiology of VITT, the findings that affected patients present with, and the rational for therapies, including for patients with cancer, as prompt recognition, diagnosis, and treatment of this syndrome has resulted in a dramatic decrease in associated mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Fibrinogen , Humans , Neoplasms/complications , Pandemics , Pharmaceutical Preparations , SARS-CoV-2 , Syndrome , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced
18.
Phytomedicine ; 107: 154481, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2061761

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), as a significant part of the global pharmaceutical science, the abundant molecular compounds it contains is a valuable potential source of designing and screening new drugs. However, due to the un-estimated quantity of the natural molecular compounds and diversity of the related problems drug discovery such as precise screening of molecular compounds or the evaluation of efficacy, physicochemical properties and pharmacokinetics, it is arduous for researchers to design or screen applicable compounds through old methods. With the rapid development of computer technology recently, especially artificial intelligence (AI), its innovation in the field of virtual screening contributes to an increasing efficiency and accuracy in the process of discovering new drugs. PURPOSE: This study systematically reviewed the application of computational approaches and artificial intelligence in drug virtual filtering and devising of TCM and presented the potential perspective of computer-aided TCM development. STUDY DESIGN: We made a systematic review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Then screening the most typical articles for our research. METHODS: The systematic review was performed by following the PRISMA guidelines. The databases PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, CNKI were used to search for publications that focused on computer-aided drug virtual screening and design in TCM. RESULT: Totally, 42 corresponding articles were included in literature reviewing. Aforementioned studies were of great significance to the treatment and cost control of many challenging diseases such as COVID-19, diabetes, Alzheimer's Disease (AD), etc. Computational approaches and AI were widely used in virtual screening in the process of TCM advancing, which include structure-based virtual screening (SBVS) and ligand-based virtual screening (LBVS). Besides, computational technologies were also extensively applied in absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADMET) prediction of candidate drugs and new drug design in crucial course of drug discovery. CONCLUSIONS: The applications of computer and AI play an important role in the drug virtual screening and design in the field of TCM, with huge application prospects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Design , Humans , Ligands , Pharmaceutical Preparations
19.
S Afr Fam Pract (2004) ; 64(1): e1-e6, 2022 Sep 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2055672

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND:  Medical grade oxygen is classified as a drug and needs to be prescribed by a qualified healthcare professional. Oxygen therapy is prescribed to people who cannot maintain normal blood oxygen saturation while breathing atmospheric air. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic highlighted the importance of the rational use of this scarce commodity. This study investigated oxygen therapy practices in adult ward patients. METHODS:  A cross-sectional study design with an analytical component was used in the adults wards at a National District Hospital and the Pelonomi Academic Hospital in Bloemfontein. Data were collected from patient files, interviews and oxygen measurements of adult patients that received oxygen. RESULTS:  One hundred and fifteen patients were included in the study, of whom 47.0% received oxygen without an oxygen prescription. Around 62.3% of the patients with prescriptions did not receive oxygen as prescribed. The prescriptions and oxygen administration for COVID-19 patients were better than for non-COVID-19 patients. A quarter of the patients possibly received oxygen therapy unnecessarily. CONCLUSION:  Poor oxygen therapy practices were identified, including prescription errors, oxygen administration errors and oxygen wastage. A protocol should be developed and implemented for the prescription and administration of oxygen therapy. Training should occur to prevent oxygen wastage.Contribution: This study highlighted poor oxygen practices and prescriptions, as well as oxygen wastage in the absence of local oxygen therapy guidelines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Oxygen/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Pharmaceutical Preparations
20.
Front Public Health ; 10: 975667, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2055095

ABSTRACT

Background: In the context of a holistic and comprehensive disaster response effort to the COVID-19 pandemic, many countries across the globe mobilized their military forces in order to cope with sudden and exponential surges of critically ill patients with COVID-19 in stretched healthcare systems. Objective: The purpose of this work is to identify, map, and render world-wide key concepts of civil-military cooperation (CIMIC) in disaster management during the COVID-19 crisis visible. Material and methods: Literature was systematically searched in three databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library) on 26 January 2022, and analyzed with qualitative, mixed narrative-phenomenological methods in compliance with PRISM-ScR and SRQR. Results: Forty-five publications were included in the analysis; pertinent authors were from 22 countries covering five continents. We identified three key thematic clusters in the published literature: Cluster (1) Medico-scientific contributions with the participation of military medical personnel or institutions: members of the military acted as subject matter experts, clinical and experimental (co-) investigators as well as co-founders for enabling COVID-19 relevant research. Areas covered were relevant to the COVID-19 patient's clinical journey from prevention, exposure, diagnostics, and treatment and included pertinent fields such as digital health and telemedicine, global and public health, critical care, emergency and disaster medicine, radiology, neurology, as well as other medical specialties, i.e., respiratory care, pulmonology, burn medicine, and transfusion medicine, in addition to environmental and occupational sciences as well as materials science. Cluster (2) CIMIC field experiences or analyses included areas such as political framework, strategy, structure, nature of civil-military interaction, and concrete mission reports in selected countries. Themes covered a broad spectrum of pandemic disaster management subjects such as capacity and surge capacity building, medical and pharmaceutical logistics, patient care under austere circumstances, SARS-CoV-2 testing support, intelligent and innovative information management, vaccination support, and disaster communication. Cluster (3) The military as a role model for crisis management. Conclusion: Civil-military cooperation made a significant contribution to the level of resilience in crisis management on a global scale, positively impacting a broad spectrum of core abilities during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disasters , Military Personnel , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pharmaceutical Preparations , SARS-CoV-2
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