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1.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 289: 114-117, 2022 Jan 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643434

ABSTRACT

Medications Dexamethasone, Remdesivir or Colchicine, used to treat COVID-19 patients, have significant interactions with other medications and the human genome. The study presented in this paper investigates how to use the Personalized Medicine Therapy Optimization Method (PM-TOM) to minimize these interactions in polypharmacy therapies of COVID-19 patients. We applied PM-TOM on the EMR database of Harvard Personal Genome Project (PGP), drug database DrugBank and Comprehensive Toxicogenomics Database (CTD) to analyze polypharmacy therapies augmented with these medications. The main finding is that these COVID-19 medications significantly increase the drug and gene interactions in partially optimized (or unoptimized) therapies, which is not the case in the fully optimized ones. For example, the test results show that in polypharmacy treatments for patients having between 3 and 8 conditions, the average number of drug and gene interactions in partially optimized therapies ranges from 3 to 18 after adding Remdesivir, 4.3 to 20 Colchicine, and 4.7 to 23 Dexamethasone. On the other hand, these interactions in fully optimized therapies range only 0.6 to 5.2, 1.2 to 7, and 2.7 to 11, respectively. These results suggest that polypharmacy therapies should be carefully examined before adding these medications. This recommendation applies to all other situations when polypharmacy patients may conduct new serious conditions, such as COVID-19, requiring additional medications with a high number of drug and gene interactions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Drug Interactions , Humans , Polypharmacy , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 289: 9-13, 2022 Jan 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643430

ABSTRACT

Tremendous changes have been witnessed in the post-COVID-19 world. Global efforts were initiated to reach a successful treatment for this emerging disease. These efforts have focused on developing vaccinations and/or finding therapeutic agents that can be used to combat the virus or reduce its accompanying symptoms. Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries have initiated efforts on many clinical trials to address the efficacy and the safety of several therapeutic agents used for COVID-19 treatment. In this article, we provide an overview of the GCC's clinical trials and associated drugs' discovery process in the pursuit of an effective medication for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmaceutical Preparations , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Glob Health Sci Pract ; 9(4): 978-989, 2021 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633289

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Faced with the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, governments worldwide instituted lockdowns to curtail virus spread. Health facility closures and travel restrictions disrupted access to antiretroviral (ARV) therapy for people living with HIV. This report describes how HIV programs in Indonesia, Laos, Nepal, and Nigeria supported treatment continuation by introducing home delivery of ARVs. METHODS: Staff supporting the programs provided accounts of when and how decisions were taken to support ARV home delivery. They captured programmatic information about home delivery implementation using an intervention documentation tool. The 4 country experiences revealed lessons learned about factors favoring successful expansion of ARV home delivery. RESULTS: Three of the countries relied on existing networks of community health workers for ARV delivery; the fourth country, Indonesia, relied on a private sector courier service. Across the 4 countries, between 19% and 51% of eligible clients were served by home delivery. The experiences showed that ARV home delivery is feasible and acceptable to health service providers, clients, and other stakeholders. Essential to success was rapid mobilization of stakeholders who led the design of the home delivery mechanisms and provided leadership support of the service innovations. Timely service adaptation was made possible by pre-existing differentiated models of care supportive of community-based ARV provision by outreach workers. Home delivery models prioritized protection of client confidentiality and prevention measures for COVID-19. Sustainability of the innovation depends on reinforcement of the commodity management infrastructure and investment in financing mechanisms. CONCLUSION: Home delivery of ARVs is a feasible client-centered approach to be included among the options for decentralized drug distribution. It serves as a measure for expanding access to care both when access to health services is disrupted and under routine circumstances.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Communicable Disease Control , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Indonesia , Laos , Nepal , Nigeria , SARS-CoV-2
4.
BMJ ; 376: o80, 2022 01 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1624959
5.
Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi ; 157(1): 27-30, 2022.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1609121

ABSTRACT

The new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) spread throughout the world and caused a pandemic with COVID-19, an infection caused by SARS-CoV-2. Even today, an increase in the number of cases has also been observed in Japan. Since the drugs used in drug repositioning have already been tested for safety and pharmacokinetics in humans, it is possible to skip some development tests, and since the manufacturing method of the drug has already been established, it is possible to shorten the development period and reduce R&D costs. Therefore, the drug repositioning method is one of the methods that should be tried in order to achieve the initial control of a pandemic. In Japan, it has been announced that research and development using drug repositioning has been conducted to date. The following are some of the candidates that have already been identified as COVID-19 therapeutic agents in Japan and are expected to be identified in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 763687, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598820

ABSTRACT

Within almost the last 2 years, the world has been shaken by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which has affected the lives of all people. With nearly 4.92 million deaths by October 19, 2021, and serious health damages in millions of people, COVID-19 has been the most serious global challenge after the Second World War. Besides lost lives and long-term health problems, devastating impact on economics, education, and culture will probably leave a lasting impression on the future. Therefore, the actual extent of losses will become obvious only after years. Moreover, despite the availability of different vaccines and vaccination programs, it is still impossible to forecast what the next steps of the virus are or how near we are to the end of the pandemic. In this article, the route of molecular evolution of the coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is thoroughly compiled, highlighting the changes that the virus has undergone during the last 2 years and discussing the approaches that the medical community has undertaken in the fight against virus-induced damages.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Vaccines , Evolution, Molecular , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Front Public Health ; 9: 739068, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581125

ABSTRACT

Background: Positive affect (PA) is crucial for individuals to cope with the current pandemic and buffer the lingering fears after it, especially for patients with substance-use disorders (SUDs). The current study aimed to explore PA and its related factors during the COVID-19 pandemic in male patients with the heroin-use disorder (HUD) and patients with the methamphetamine-use disorder (MAUD), respectively. Methods: A total of 325 male patients with SUDs (106 with HUD and 219 with MAUD, all were single-substance users) in a compulsory rehabilitation center underwent semi-structured interviews during the pandemic. The demographic information, drug-use characteristics, active coping styles (ACSs, by Simple Coping Style Questionnaire), and PA (by the Positive and Negative Affect Scale) of participants were collected and recorded. Results: There were significant differences between the two groups in age, the proportion of full-time workers before the epidemic, duration of drug use, the proportion of patients with long-term withdrawal during the epidemic, cravings, ACS, and PA. Correlation and multiple linear regression analysis showed that duration of drug use, ACS, and stable jobs were significant predictive factors for PA in patients with HUD, while long-term withdrawal, ACS, and stable jobs during the epidemic were significant predictive factors for PA in patients with MAUD. Conclusions: Our study demonstrated the factors for PA in patients with HUD and MAUD during the pandemic. The results provided a basis for the comprehensive understanding of the PA of patients with SUDs and the development of targeted treatments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Methamphetamine , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Adaptation, Psychological , Heroin , Humans , Male , Methamphetamine/adverse effects , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580738

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In 2020, during the COVID-19 pandemic, Italy implemented two national lockdowns aimed at reducing virus transmission. We assessed whether these lockdowns affected anti-seizure medication (ASM) use and epilepsy-related access to emergency departments (ED) in the general population. METHODS: We performed a population-based study using the healthcare administrative database of Tuscany. We defined the weekly time series of prevalence and incidence of ASM, along with the incidence of epilepsy-related ED access from 1 January 2018 to 27 December 2020 in the general population. An interrupted time-series analysis was used to assess the effect of lockdowns on the observed outcomes. RESULTS: Compared to pre-lockdown, we observed a relevant reduction of ASM incidence (0.65; 95% Confidence Intervals: 0.59-0.72) and ED access (0.72; 0.64-0.82), and a slight decrease of ASM prevalence (0.95; 0.94-0.96). During the post-lockdown the ASM incidence reported higher values compared to pre-lockdown, whereas ASM prevalence and ED access remained lower. Results also indicate a lower impact of the second lockdown for both ASM prevalence (0.97; 0.96-0.98) and incidence (0.89; 0.80-0.99). CONCLUSION: The lockdowns implemented during the COVID-19 outbreaks significantly affected ASM use and epilepsy-related ED access. The potential consequences of these phenomenon are still unknown, although an increased incidence of epilepsy-related symptoms after the first lockdown has been observed. These findings emphasize the need of ensuring continuous care of epileptic patients in stressful conditions such as the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epilepsy , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Communicable Disease Control , Emergency Service, Hospital , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Epilepsy/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(24)2021 Dec 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572492

ABSTRACT

Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) rank as one of the top 10 leading causes of death and illness in developed countries. ADRs show differential features depending upon genotype, age, sex, race, pathology, drug category, route of administration, and drug-drug interactions. Pharmacogenomics (PGx) provides the physician effective clues for optimizing drug efficacy and safety in major problems of health such as cardiovascular disease and associated disorders, cancer and brain disorders. Important aspects to be considered are also the impact of immunopharmacogenomics in cutaneous ADRs as well as the influence of genomic factors associated with COVID-19 and vaccination strategies. Major limitations for the routine use of PGx procedures for ADRs prevention are the lack of education and training in physicians and pharmacists, poor characterization of drug-related PGx, unspecific biomarkers of drug efficacy and toxicity, cost-effectiveness, administrative problems in health organizations, and insufficient regulation for the generalized use of PGx in the clinical setting. The implementation of PGx requires: (i) education of physicians and all other parties involved in the use and benefits of PGx; (ii) prospective studies to demonstrate the benefits of PGx genotyping; (iii) standardization of PGx procedures and development of clinical guidelines; (iv) NGS and microarrays to cover genes with high PGx potential; and (v) new regulations for PGx-related drug development and PGx drug labelling.


Subject(s)
Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/genetics , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/metabolism , Pharmacogenetics/trends , Biomarkers , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Central Nervous System Diseases/drug therapy , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Drug Development , Genotype , Humans , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Pharmacogenetics/methods , Phenotype
10.
Ageing Res Rev ; 74: 101541, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1568502

ABSTRACT

Nowadays, aging is understood as a dynamic and multifaceted dysregulation process that spares almost no human organ or cell. The immune system being among the most affected, it has been shown predominantly that its integrity determines the tightrope walk between the difference of escaping or suffering from age-related diseases. Next to drug-based anti-aging strategies, micronutrient intervention may represent an emerging but less radical way to slow immune aging. While a sufficient supply of a variety of micronutrients is undeniably important, adequate intake of the trace element zinc appears to tower over others in terms of reaching old age. Inconveniently, zinc deficiency prevalence among the elderly is high, which in turn contributes to increased susceptibility to infection, decreased anti-tumor immunity as well as attenuated response to vaccination. Driven by this research, this review aims to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the various rebalancing capabilities of zinc in the unbalanced immune system of the elderly. This includes an in-depth and cell type-centered discussion on the role of zinc in immunosenescence and inflammaging. We further address upcoming translational aspects e.g. how zinc deficiency promotes the flourishing of certain pathogenic taxa of the gut microbiome and how zinc supply counteracts such alterations in a manner that may contribute to longevity. In the light of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, we also briefly review current knowledge on the interdependency between age, zinc status, and respiratory infections. Based on two concrete examples and considering the latest findings in the field we conclude our remarks by outlining tremendous parallels between suboptimal zinc status and accelerated aging on the one hand and an optimized zinc status and successful aging on the other hand.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Aged , Aging , Humans , Immune System , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Zinc
12.
Harm Reduct J ; 18(1): 118, 2021 11 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533260

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While people who inject drugs (PWID) are vulnerable to the adverse outcomes of events like COVID-19, little is known regarding the impact of the current pandemic on PWID. We examine how COVID-19 has affected PWID in New York City across four domains: substance use, risk behaviors, mental health, and service utilization. METHODS: As part of a randomized trial to improve access to HCV treatment for PWID, we recruited 165 participants. Eligibility criteria included detectable HCV RNA and recent drug injection. The present cross-sectional analysis is based on a subsample of 106 participants. We compared responses between two separate samples: 60 participants interviewed prior to the pandemic (pre-COVID-19 sample) and 46 participants interviewed during the pandemic (COVID-19 sample). We also assessed differences by study group [accessible care (AC) and usual care (UC)]. RESULTS: Compared to the pre-COVID-19 sample, those interviewed during COVID-19 reported higher levels of mental health issues, syringe reuse, and alcohol consumption and greater reductions in syringe-service programs and buprenorphine utilization. In the analysis conducted by study group, the UC group reported significantly higher injection risk behaviors and lower access to buprenorphine treatment during COVID-19, while during the same period, the AC group reported lower levels of substance use and injection risk behaviors. CONCLUSION: The current study provides insight on how COVID-19 has negatively affected PWID. Placing dispensing machines of harm-reduction supplies in communities where PWID live and increasing secondary exchange, mobile services, and mail delivery of supplies may help maintain access to lifesaving supplies during big events, such as COVID-19. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03214679. Registered July 11 2017. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03214679 .


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Substance Abuse, Intravenous , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , New York City/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Substance Abuse, Intravenous/epidemiology
13.
Inquiry ; 58: 469580211055630, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533169

ABSTRACT

The current situation of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide is still very severe. Presently, many breakthroughs have been accomplished in the research and development of drugs for the treatment of COVID-19, especially vaccines; however, some of the so-called COVID-19-specific drugs highlighted in the early stage failed to achieve the expected curative effect. There is no antiviral therapy available, by stimulating protective immunity vaccine is the best choice for the future management of infection. Therefore, we aimed to identify the latest developments in the research and development of these drugs and vaccines and provide a reference for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Vaccines , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 287: 63-67, 2021 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526753

ABSTRACT

Generating evidence based on real-world data is gaining importance in research not least since the COVID-19 pandemic. The Common Data Model of Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership (OMOP) is a research infrastructure that implements FAIR principles. Although the transfer of German claim data to OMOP is already implemented, drug data is an open issue. This paper provides a concept to prepare electronic health record (EHR) drug data for the transfer to OMOP based on requirements analysis and descriptive statistics for profiling EHR data developed by an interdisciplinary team and also covers data quality issues. The concept not only ensures FAIR principles for research, but provides the foundation for German drug data to OMOP transfer.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Databases, Factual , Electronic Health Records , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Nanoscale ; 13(45): 19218-19237, 2021 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521871

ABSTRACT

The global dissemination of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has seriously endangered human health. The number of confirmed cases is still increasing; however, treatment options are limited. Transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2), as a key protease that primes the binding of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), has become an attractive target and received widespread attention. Thus, four potential drugs (bromhexine, camostat, gabexate, and nafamostat) were used to explore the mechanism of binding with TMPRSS2 in this work. A 65 ns molecular dynamics simulation was performed three times for each drug-TMPRSS2 system for reliable energy calculation and conformational analysis, of which the simulations of nafamostat-TMPRSS2 systems were further extended to 150 ns three times due to the discovery of two binding modes. Through the results of calculating binding free energy by nine methods, the binding affinity of camostat, gabexate, and nafamostat to TMPRSS2 showed great advantages compared with bromhexine, where the nafamostat was surprisingly found to present two reasonable binding conformations (forward and reverse directions). Two negatively charged amino acids (Asp435 and Glu299) can clamp the two positively charged groups (guanidinium group and amidinium group) in either forward or reverse fashion, and the forward one is more stable than the reverse. In addition, compared with gabexate, the dimethylamino group in camostat forms more van der Waals interactions with surrounding hot-spots His296 and Val280, resulting in a stronger affinity to TMPRSS2. For bromhexine, multiple binding sites are displayed in the binding pocket due to its small molecular structure, and van der Waals interactions play the dominant role in the binding process. In particular, six typical hot-spots were identified in the last three serine protease inhibitor systems, i.e., Asp435, Ser436, Gln438, Trp461, Ser463, and Gly464. The guanidinium groups of the drugs have powerful interactions with adjacent residues due to the formation of more hydrogen bonds, suggesting that this may be the critical site for drug design against TMPRSS2. This work provides valuable molecular insight into these four drug-TMPRSS2 binding mechanisms and is helpful for designing and screening drugs targeting TMPRSS2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Humans , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
16.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 591, 2021 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521723

ABSTRACT

Drug repurposing is an invaluable strategy to identify new uses for existing drug therapies that overcome many of the time and financial costs associated with novel drug development. The COVID-19 pandemic has driven an unprecedented surge in the development and use of bioinformatic tools to identify candidate repurposable drugs. Using COVID-19 as a case study, we discuss examples of machine-learning and signature-based approaches that have been adapted to rapidly identify candidate drugs. The Library of Integrated Network-based Signatures (LINCS) and Connectivity Map (CMap) are commonly used repositories and have the advantage of being amenable to use by scientists with limited bioinformatic training. Next, we discuss how these recent advances in bioinformatic drug repurposing approaches might be adapted to identify repurposable drugs for CNS disorders. As the development of novel therapies that successfully target the cause of neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders has stalled, there is a pressing need for innovative strategies to treat these complex brain disorders. Bioinformatic approaches to identify repurposable drugs provide an exciting avenue of research that offer promise for improved treatments for CNS disorders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmaceutical Preparations , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 41(1): e1-e5, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522380

ABSTRACT

Children, although at lower risk of poor outcomes from COVID-19 relative to adults, still stand to benefit from therapeutic interventions. Understanding of COVID-19 clinical presentation and prognosis in children is essential to optimize therapeutic trials design. This perspective illustrates how to collectively accelerate pediatric COVID-19 therapeutic research and development, based on the experience of the Global Accelerator for Paediatric Formulations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Research , Seizures/drug therapy , Child , Dosage Forms , Drug Compounding , Drug Development , Humans , Needs Assessment , Pharmaceutical Preparations , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512299

ABSTRACT

R&D investment is the source of technological innovation of pharmaceutical enterprises, but it will be restricted by the funding level, especially in the context of major public health emergencies occurring more frequently, therefore exploring the impact of monetary policy uncertainty on the R&D investment smoothing behavior of pharmaceutical manufacturing enterprises has important theoretical and practical value. Based on the relevant data of Chinese pharmaceutical manufacturing enterprises from 2012 to 2018, this paper studies the impact of monetary policy uncertainty on R&D investment smoothing behavior of pharmaceutical enterprises, and investigates whether there is a threshold effect. First, our results demonstrate that the empirical test results of this article support the hypothesis of R&D investment smoothing behavior of pharmaceutical manufacturing enterprises. Second, there is a negative correlation between monetary policy uncertainty and R&D investment smoothing behavior, and the shorter the period is, the higher the financing constraints of pharmaceutical enterprises are, and the more obvious the negative correlation is. Third, financing constraints have a single threshold effect on the R&D investment smoothing behavior of pharmaceutical manufacturing enterprises, with a threshold of -13.7693. Moreover, this conclusion can better promote the virtuous circle of the real economy of financial and pharmaceutical manufacturing enterprises. It is recommended that pharmaceutical manufacturing enterprises establish and improve the enterprise R&D reserve system, reduce the risk of R&D investment, play the role of R&D smoothing, and realize the sustainable development of enterprise R&D.


Subject(s)
Investments , Pharmaceutical Preparations , China , Empirical Research , Sustainable Development , Uncertainty
20.
Int J Med Inform ; 157: 104622, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1507080

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Data extraction from electronic health record (EHR) systems occurs through manual abstraction, automated extraction, or a combination of both. While each method has its strengths and weaknesses, both are necessary for retrospective observational research as well as sudden clinical events, like the COVID-19 pandemic. Assessing the strengths, weaknesses, and potentials of these methods is important to continue to understand optimal approaches to extracting clinical data. We set out to assess automated and manual techniques for collecting medication use data in patients with COVID-19 to inform future observational studies that extract data from the electronic health record (EHR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: For 4,123 COVID-positive patients hospitalized and/or seen in the emergency department at an academic medical center between 03/03/2020 and 05/15/2020, we compared medication use data of 25 medications or drug classes collected through manual abstraction and automated extraction from the EHR. Quantitatively, we assessed concordance using Cohen's kappa to measure interrater reliability, and qualitatively, we audited observed discrepancies to determine causes of inconsistencies. RESULTS: For the 16 inpatient medications, 11 (69%) demonstrated moderate or better agreement; 7 of those demonstrated strong or almost perfect agreement. For 9 outpatient medications, 3 (33%) demonstrated moderate agreement, but none achieved strong or almost perfect agreement. We audited 12% of all discrepancies (716/5,790) and, in those audited, observed three principal categories of error: human error in manual abstraction (26%), errors in the extract-transform-load (ETL) or mapping of the automated extraction (41%), and abstraction-query mismatch (33%). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest many inpatient medications can be collected reliably through automated extraction, especially when abstraction instructions are designed with data architecture in mind. We discuss quality issues, concerns, and improvements for institutions to consider when crafting an approach. During crises, institutions must decide how to allocate limited resources. We show that automated extraction of medications is feasible and make recommendations on how to improve future iterations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Data Collection , Electronic Health Records , Humans , Pandemics , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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