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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066118

ABSTRACT

Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench is one of the most economically important medicinal plants, cultivated worldwide for its high medicinal value and with several industrial applications in both pharmaceutical and food industries. Thanks to its various phytochemical contents, including caffeic acid derivatives (CADs), E. purpurea extracts have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immuno-stimulating properties. Among CADs, chicoric acid is one of the most important compounds which have shown important pharmacological properties. The present research was aimed at optimizing the production of chicoric acid in E. purpurea cell culture. Methyl jasmonate (MeJa) at different concentrations and for different duration of treatments was utilized as elicitor, and the content of total polyphenols and chicoric acid was measured. Several genes involved in the chicoric acid biosynthetic pathway were selected, and their expression evaluated at different time points of cell culture growth. This was performed with the aim of identifying the most suitable putative molecular markers to be used as a proxy for the early prediction of chicoric acid contents, without the need of expensive quantification methods. A correlation between the production of chicoric acid in response to MeJa and an increased response to oxidative stress was also proposed.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , Echinacea , Acetates , Antioxidants/metabolism , Biological Products/metabolism , Caffeic Acids , Cell Culture Techniques , Cyclopentanes , Echinacea/chemistry , Echinacea/metabolism , Oxylipins , Pharmaceutical Preparations/metabolism , Plant Extracts/metabolism , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Succinates
2.
Trends Biotechnol ; 40(10): 1248-1260, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2016093

ABSTRACT

Plant expression platforms are low-cost, scalable, safe, and environmentally friendly systems for the production of recombinant proteins and bioactive metabolites. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) endosperm is an ideal bioreactor for the production and storage of high-value active substances, including pharmaceutical proteins, oral vaccines, vitamins, and nutraceuticals such as flavonoids and carotenoids. Here, we explore the use of molecular farming from producing medicines to developing functional food crops (biofortification). We review recent progress in producing pharmaceutical proteins and bioactive substances in rice endosperm and compare this platform with other plant expression systems. We describe how rice endosperm could be modified to design metabolic pathways and express and store stable products and discuss the factors restricting the commercialization of transgenic rice products and future prospects.


Subject(s)
Endosperm , Oryza , Carotenoids , Endosperm/genetics , Endosperm/metabolism , Flavonoids , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Molecular Farming , Oryza/genetics , Oryza/metabolism , Pharmaceutical Preparations/metabolism , Plant Proteins , Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics , Plants, Genetically Modified/metabolism , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , Vitamins/metabolism
3.
Bioengineered ; 13(6): 14681-14718, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984964

ABSTRACT

Arthrospira platensis (A. platensis) aqueous extract has massive amounts of natural products that can be used as future drugs, such as C-phycocyanin, allophycocyanin, etc. This extract was chosen because of its high adaptability, which reflects its resolute genetic composition. The proactive roles of cyanobacteria, particularly in the medical field, have been discussed in this review, including the history, previous food and drug administration (FDA) reports, health benefits and the various dose-dependent therapeutic functions that A. platensis possesses, including its role in fighting against lethal diseases such as cancer, SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19, etc. However, the remedy will not present its maximal effect without the proper delivery to the targeted place for deposition. The goal of this research is to maximize the bioavailability and delivery efficiency of A. platensis constituents through selected sites for effective therapeutic outcomes. The solutions reviewed are mainly on parenteral and tablet formulations. Moreover, suggested enteric polymers were discussed with minor composition variations applied for better storage in high humid countries alongside minor variations in the polymer design were suggested to enhance the premature release hindrance of basic drugs in low pH environments. In addition, it will open doors for research in delivering active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in femtoscale with the use of various existing and new formulations.Abbrevations: SDGs; Sustainable Development Goals, IL-4; Interleukin-4, HDL; High-Density Lipoprotein, LDL; Low-Density Lipoprotein, VLDL; Very Low-Density Lipoprotein, C-PC; C-Phycocyanin, APC; Allophycocyanin, PE; Phycoerythrin, COX-2; Cyclooxygenase-2, RCTs; Randomized Control Trials, TNF-α; Tumour Necrosis Factor-alpha, γ-LFA; Gamma-Linolenic Fatty Acid, PGs; Polyglycans, PUFAs: Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids, NK-cell; Natural Killer Cell, FDA; Food and Drug Administration, GRAS; Generally Recognized as Safe, SD; Standard Deviation, API; Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient, DW; Dry Weight, IM; Intramuscular, IV; Intravenous, ID; Intradermal, SC; Subcutaneous, AERs; Adverse Event Reports, DSI-EC; Dietary Supplement Information Executive Committee, cGMP; Current Good Manufacturing Process, A. platensis; Arthrospira platensis, A. maxima; Arthrospira maxima, Spirulina sp.; Spirulina species, Arthrospira; Spirulina, Tecuitlatl; Spirulina, CRC; Colorectal Cancer, HDI; Human Development Index, Tf; Transferrin, TfR; Transferrin Receptor, FR; Flow Rate, CPP; Cell Penetrating Peptide, SUV; Small Unilamenar Vesicle, LUV; Large Unilamenar Vesicle, GUV; Giant Unilamenar Vesicle, MLV; Multilamenar Vesicle, COVID-19; Coronavirus-19, PEGylated; Stealth, PEG; Polyethylene Glycol, OSCEs; Objective Structured Clinical Examinations, GI; Gastrointestinal Tract, CAP; Cellulose Acetate Phthalate, HPMCP, Hydroxypropyl Methyl-Cellulose Phthalate, SR; Sustained Release, DR; Delay Release, Poly(MA-EA); Polymethyl Acrylic Co-Ethyl Acrylate, f-DR L-30 D-55; Femto-Delay Release Methyl Acrylic Acid Co-Ethyl Acrylate Polymer, MW; Molecular Weight, Tg; Glass Transition Temperature, SN2; Nucleophilic Substitution 2, EPR; Enhance Permeability and Retention, VEGF; Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, RGD; Arginine-Glycine-Aspartic Acid, VCAM-1; Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1, P; Coefficient of Permeability, PES; Polyether Sulfone, pHe; Extracellular pH, ζ-potential; Zeta potential, NTA; Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis, PB; Phosphate Buffer, DLS; Dynamic Light Scattering, AFM; Atomic Force Microscope, Log P; Partition Coefficient, MR; Molar Refractivity, tPSA; Topological Polar Surface Area, C log P; Calculated Partition Coefficient, CMR; Calculated Molar Refractivity, Log S; Solubility Coefficient, pka; Acid Dissociation Constant, DDAB; Dimethyl Dioctadecyl Ammonium Bromide, DOPE; Dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine, GDP; Good Distribution Practice, RES; Reticuloendothelial System, PKU; Phenylketonuria, MS; Multiple Sclerosis, SLE; Systemic Lupus Erythematous, NASA; National Aeronautics and Space Administration, DOX; Doxorubicin, ADRs; Adverse Drug Reactions, SVM; Support Vector Machine, MDA; Malondialdehyde, TBARS; Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances, CRP; C-Reactive Protein, CK; Creatine Kinase, LDH; Lactated Dehydrogenase, T2D; Type 2 Diabetes, PCB; Phycocyanobilin, PBP; Phycobiliproteins, PEB; Phycoerythrobilin, DPP-4; Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4, MTT; 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide, IL-2; Interleukin-2, IL-6; Interleukin-6, PRISMA; Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses, STATA; Statistics, HepG2; Hepatoblastoma, HCT116; Colon Cancer Carcinoma, Kasumi-1; Acute Leukaemia, K562; Chronic Leukaemia, Se-PC; Selenium-Phycocyanin, MCF-7; Breast Cancer Adenocarcinoma, A375; Human Melanoma, RAS; Renin-Angiotensin System, IQP; Ile-Gln-Pro, VEP; Val-Glu-Pro, Mpro; Main Protease, PLpro; Papin-Like Protease, BMI; Body Mass Index, IC50; Inhibitory Concentration by 50%, LD50; Lethal Dose by 50%, PC12 Adh; Rat Pheochromocytoma Cells, RNS; Reactive Nitrogen Species, Hb1Ac; hemoglobin A1c.


Increase awareness of the impact and multi-disciplinary up-to-date roles of A. platensis on human lives and the importance of having further research on microalgae.Soliciting a critical analysis study on A. platensis biocomposition for drug delivery research.Insights on the correlation between ionization and drug bioavailability in specific sites in the human body.Offering solutions for improvising an optimized 'Advanced Spirulina Dosage Forms' products to maximize A. platensis therapeutic/pharmacological outcomes.Insights on existing biomaterials for optimization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Leukemia , Spirulina , Humans , Lipoproteins, LDL/metabolism , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Pharmaceutical Preparations/metabolism , Phycocyanin/chemistry , Polymers/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Spirulina/chemistry , Spirulina/metabolism , Treatment Outcome , United States , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism
4.
CNS Drugs ; 36(7): 739-770, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1930607

ABSTRACT

While the intranasal administration of drugs to the brain has been gaining both research attention and regulatory success over the past several years, key fundamental and translational challenges remain to fully leveraging the promise of this drug delivery pathway for improving the treatment of various neurological and psychiatric illnesses. In response, this review highlights the current state of understanding of the nose-to-brain drug delivery pathway and how both biological and clinical barriers to drug transport using the pathway can been addressed, as illustrated by demonstrations of how currently approved intranasal sprays leverage these pathways to enable the design of successful therapies. Moving forward, aiming to better exploit the understanding of this fundamental pathway, we also outline the development of nanoparticle systems that show improvement in delivering approved drugs to the brain and how engineered nanoparticle formulations could aid in breakthroughs in terms of delivering emerging drugs and therapeutics while avoiding systemic adverse effects.


Subject(s)
Mental Disorders , Administration, Intranasal , Brain/metabolism , Drug Delivery Systems , Humans , Mental Disorders/drug therapy , Mental Disorders/metabolism , Nose , Pharmaceutical Preparations/metabolism
5.
Drug Metab Dispos ; 50(9): 1151-1160, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1923099

ABSTRACT

Molnupiravir is one of the two coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) oral drugs that were recently granted the emergency use authorization by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Molnupiravir is an ester and requires hydrolysis to exert antiviral activity. Carboxylesterases constitute a class of hydrolases with high catalytic efficiency. Humans express two major carboxylesterases (CES1 and CES2) that differ in substrate specificity. Based on the structural characteristics of molnupiravir, this study was performed to test the hypothesis that molnupiravir is preferably hydrolyzed by CES2. Several complementary approaches were used to test this hypothesis. As many as 24 individual human liver samples were tested and the hydrolysis of molnupiravir was significantly correlated with the level of CES2 but not CES1. Microsomes from the intestine, kidney, and liver, but not lung, all rapidly hydrolyzed molnupiravir and the magnitude of hydrolysis was related closely to the level of CES2 expression among these organs. Importantly, recombinant CES2 but not CES1 hydrolyzed molnupiravir, collectively establishing that molnupiravir is a CES2-selective substrate. In addition, several CES2 polymorphic variants (e.g., R180H) differed from the wild-type CES2 in the hydrolysis of molnupiravir. Molecular docking revealed that wild-type CES2 and its variant R180H used different sets of amino acids to interact with molnupiravir. Furthermore, molnupiravir hydrolysis was significantly inhibited by remdesivir, the first COVID-19 drug granted the full approval by the FDA. The results presented raise the possibility that CES2 expression and genetic variation may impact therapeutic efficacy in clinical situations and warrants further investigation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: COVID-19 remains a global health crisis, and molnupiravir is one of the two recently approved oral COVID-19 therapeutics. In this study, we have shown that molnupiravir is hydrolytically activated by CES2, a major hydrolase whose activity is impacted by genetic polymorphic variants, disease mediators, and many potentially coadministered medicines. These results presented raise the possibility that CES2 expression and genetic variation may impact therapeutic efficacy in clinical situations and warrants further investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Carboxylesterase/metabolism , Carboxylic Ester Hydrolases/metabolism , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Drug Interactions , Humans , Hydrolysis , Hydroxylamines , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pharmaceutical Preparations/metabolism , Polymorphism, Genetic
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(4)2022 Feb 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715399

ABSTRACT

The plasticity of responses to drugs is an ever-present confounding factor for all aspects of pharmacology, influencing drug discovery and development, clinical use and the expectations of the patient. As an introduction to this Special Issue of the journal IJMS on pharmacological plasticity, we address the various levels at which plasticity appears and how such variability can be controlled, describing the ways in which drug responses can be affected with examples. The various levels include the molecular structures of drugs and their receptors, expression of genes for drug receptors and enzymes involved in metabolism, plasticity of cells targeted by drugs, tissues and clinical variables affected by whole body processes, changes in geography and the environment, and the influence of time and duration of changes. The article provides a rarely considered bird's eye view of the problem and is intended to emphasize the need for increased awareness of pharmacological plasticity and to encourage further debate.


Subject(s)
Pharmaceutical Preparations/metabolism , Animals , Drug Discovery/methods , Humans
7.
Molecules ; 27(3)2022 Jan 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667252

ABSTRACT

Aspirin (also known as acetylsalicylic acid) is a drug intended to treat fever, pain, or inflammation. Treatment of moderate to severe cases of COVID-19 using aspirin along with dexamethasone has gained major attention globally in recent times. Thus, the purpose of this study was to use High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) to evaluate the in vitro inhibition of CYP3A2 enzyme activity using aspirin in rat liver microsomes (RLMs). In this study, an efficient and sensitive HPLC method was developed using a reversed phase C18 column (X Bridge 4.6 mm × 150 mm, 3.5 µm) at 243 nm using acetonitrile and water (70:30 v/v). The linearity (r2 > 0.999), precision (<15%), accuracy and recovery (80-120%), limit of detection (5.60 µM and 0.06 µM), limit of quantification (16.98 µM and 0.19 µM), and stability of the newly developed method were validated for dexamethasone and 6ß-hydroxydexamethasone, respectively, following International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. This method was applied in vitro to measure CYP3A2 activity. The results showed that aspirin competitively inhibits 6ß-hydroxylation (CYP3A2 activity) with an inhibition constant (Ki) = 95.46 µM and the concentration of the inhibitor causing 50% inhibition of original enzyme activity (IC50) = 190.92 µM. This indicated that there is a minimal risk of toxicity when dexamethasone and aspirin are co-administrated and a very low risk of toxicity and drug interaction with drugs that are a substrate for CYP3A2 in healthcare settings.


Subject(s)
Aspirin/pharmacology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A/metabolism , Animals , Aspirin/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A/drug effects , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors/metabolism , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/metabolism , Dexamethasone/analogs & derivatives , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Male , Microsomes, Liver/metabolism , Pharmaceutical Preparations/metabolism , Protein Isoforms/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
8.
Eur J Pharm Sci ; 172: 106100, 2022 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587878

ABSTRACT

This collection of contributions from the European Network on Understanding Gastrointestinal Absorption-related Processes (UNGAP) community assembly aims to provide information on some of the current and newer methods employed to study the behaviour of medicines. It is the product of interactions in the immediate pre-Covid period when UNGAP members were able to meet and set up workshops and to discuss progress across the disciplines. UNGAP activities are divided into work packages that cover special treatment populations, absorption processes in different regions of the gut, the development of advanced formulations and the integration of food and pharmaceutical scientists in the food-drug interface. This involves both new and established technical approaches in which we have attempted to define best practice and highlight areas where further research is needed. Over the last months we have been able to reflect on some of the key innovative approaches which we were tasked with mapping, including theoretical, in silico, in vitro, in vivo and ex vivo, preclinical and clinical approaches. This is the product of some of us in a snapshot of where UNGAP has travelled and what aspects of innovative technologies are important. It is not a comprehensive review of all methods used in research to study drug dissolution and absorption, but provides an ample panorama of current and advanced methods generally and potentially useful in this area. This collection starts from a consideration of advances in a priori approaches: an understanding of the molecular properties of the compound to predict biological characteristics relevant to absorption. The next four sections discuss a major activity in the UNGAP initiative, the pursuit of more representative conditions to study lumenal dissolution of drug formulations developed independently by academic teams. They are important because they illustrate examples of in vitro simulation systems that have begun to provide a useful understanding of formulation behaviour in the upper GI tract for industry. The Leuven team highlights the importance of the physiology of the digestive tract, as they describe the relevance of gastric and intestinal fluids on the behaviour of drugs along the tract. This provides the introduction to microdosing as an early tool to study drug disposition. Microdosing in oncology is starting to use gamma-emitting tracers, which provides a link through SPECT to the next section on nuclear medicine. The last two papers link the modelling approaches used by the pharmaceutical industry, in silico to Pop-PK linking to Darwich and Aarons, who provide discussion on pharmacometric modelling, completing the loop of molecule to man.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Tract , Administration, Oral , Computer Simulation , Gastrointestinal Absorption/physiology , Gastrointestinal Tract/metabolism , Humans , Intestinal Absorption , Male , Models, Biological , Pharmaceutical Preparations/metabolism , Solubility
9.
Elife ; 102021 08 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1339710

ABSTRACT

The discovery of a drug requires over a decade of intensive research and financial investments - and still has a high risk of failure. To reduce this burden, we developed the NICEdrug.ch resource, which incorporates 250,000 bioactive molecules, and studied their enzymatic metabolic targets, fate, and toxicity. NICEdrug.ch includes a unique fingerprint that identifies reactive similarities between drug-drug and drug-metabolite pairs. We validated the application, scope, and performance of NICEdrug.ch over similar methods in the field on golden standard datasets describing drugs and metabolites sharing reactivity, drug toxicities, and drug targets. We use NICEdrug.ch to evaluate inhibition and toxicity by the anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil, and suggest avenues to alleviate its side effects. We propose shikimate 3-phosphate for targeting liver-stage malaria with minimal impact on the human host cell. Finally, NICEdrug.ch suggests over 1300 candidate drugs and food molecules to target COVID-19 and explains their inhibitory mechanism for further experimental screening. The NICEdrug.ch database is accessible online to systematically identify the reactivity of small molecules and druggable enzymes with practical applications in lead discovery and drug repurposing.


Subject(s)
Drug Design , Drug Discovery/methods , Drug Repositioning , Pharmaceutical Preparations/metabolism , Animals , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/chemistry , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Databases, Pharmaceutical , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/etiology , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/metabolism , Fluorouracil/chemistry , Fluorouracil/metabolism , Humans , Pharmaceutical Preparations/chemistry , Workflow
11.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 20(5): 623-634, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1118865

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Infectious disease emergencies like the 2013-2016 Ebola epidemic and the 2009 influenza and current SARS-CoV-2 pandemics illustrate that vaccines are now given to diverse populations with preexisting pathologies requiring pharmacological management. Many natural biomolecules (steroid hormones, fatty acids, vitamins) and ~60% of prescribed medications are processed by hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4. The objective of this work was to determine the impact of infection and vaccines on drug metabolism. METHODS: The impact of an adenovirus-based vaccine expressing Ebola glycoprotein (AdEBO) and H1N1 and H3N2 influenza viruses on hepatic CYP 3A4 and associated nuclear receptors was evaluated in human hepatocytes (HC-04 cells) and in mice. RESULTS: CYP3A activity was suppressed by 55% in mice 24 h after administration of mouse-adapted H1N1, while ˂10% activity remained in HC-04 cells after infection with H1N1 and H3N2 due to global suppression of cellular translation capacity, indicated by reduction (70%, H1N1, 56%, H3N2) of phosphorylated eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4e (eIF4E). AdEBO suppressed CYP3A activity in vivo (44%) and in vitro (26%) 24 hours after infection. CONCLUSION: As the clinical evaluation of vaccines for SARS-CoV-2 and other global pathogens rise, studies to evaluate the impact of new vaccines and emerging pathogens on CYP3A4 and other metabolic enzymes are warranted to avoid therapeutic failures that could further compromise the public health during infectious disease emergencies.


Subject(s)
Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A/metabolism , Hepatocytes/enzymology , Hepatocytes/metabolism , Liver/enzymology , Liver/metabolism , Pharmaceutical Preparations/metabolism , Animals , Cells, Cultured , Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4E , Humans , Immunization/methods , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL
12.
Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet ; 46(2): 185-203, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064631

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been a global health crisis since it was first identified in December 2019. In addition to fever, cough, headache, and shortness of breath, an intense increase in immune response-based inflammation has been the hallmark of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) virus infection. This narrative review summarizes and critiques pathophysiology of COVID-19 and its plausible effects on drug metabolism and disposition. The release of inflammatory cytokines (e.g., interleukins, tumor necrosis factor α), also known as 'cytokine storm', leads to altered molecular pathophysiology and eventually organ damage in the lung, heart, and liver. The laboratory values for various liver function tests (e.g., alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin, albumin) have indicated potential hepatocellular injury in COVID-19 patients. Since the liver is the powerhouse of protein synthesis and the primary site of cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated drug metabolism, even a minor change in the liver function status has the potential to affect the hepatic clearance of xenobiotics. It has now been well established that extreme increases in cytokine levels are common in COVID-19 patients, and previous studies with patients infected with non-SARS-CoV-2 virus have shown that CYP enzymes can be suppressed by an infection-related cytokine increase and inflammation. Alongside the investigational COVID-19 drugs, the patients may also be on therapeutics for comorbidities; especially epidemiological studies have indicated that individuals with hypertension, hyperglycemia, and obesity are more vulnerable to COVID-19 than the average population. This complicates the drug-disease interaction profile of the patients as both the investigational drugs (e.g., remdesivir, dexamethasone) and the agents for comorbidities can be affected by compromised CYP-mediated hepatic metabolism. Overall, it is imperative that healthcare professionals pay attention to the COVID-19 and CYP-driven drug metabolism interactions with the goal to adjust the dose or discontinue the affected drugs as appropriate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/metabolism , Pharmaceutical Preparations/metabolism , Animals , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Inflammation/virology , Liver/pathology , Liver/virology , Liver Function Tests , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Risk Factors
13.
Anal Methods ; 13(5): 575-594, 2021 02 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1052130

ABSTRACT

Active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are increasingly being identified as contaminants of emerging concern (CECs). They have potentially detrimental ecological and human health impacts but most are not currently subject to environmental regulation. Addressing the life cycle of these pharmaceuticals plays a significant role in identifying the potential sources and understanding the environmental impact that pharmaceuticals may have in surface waters. The stability and biological activity of these "micro-pollutants" can lead to a pseudo persistence, with ensuing unknown chronic behavioural and health-related effects. Research that investigates pharmaceuticals predominantly focuses on their occurrence and effect within surface water environments. However, this review will help to collate this information with factors that affect their environmental concentration. This review focuses on six pharmaceuticals (clarithromycin, ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, venlafaxine, gemfibrozil and diclofenac), chosen because they are heavily consumed globally, have poor removal rates in conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (CAS WWTPs), and are persistent in the aquatic environment. Furthermore, these pharmaceuticals are included in numerous published prioritisation studies and/or are on the Water Framework Directive (WFD) "Watch List" or are candidates for the updated Watch List (WL). This review investigates the concentrations seen in European Union (EU) surface waters and examines factors that influence final concentrations prior to release, thus giving a holistic overview on the source of pharmaceutical surface water pollution. A period of 10 years is covered by this review, which includes research from 2009-2020 examining over 100 published studies, and highlighting that pharmaceuticals can pose a severe risk to surface water environments, with each stage of the lifecycle of the pharmaceutical determining its concentration. This review additionally highlights the necessity to improve education surrounding appropriate use, disposal and waste management of pharmaceuticals, while implementing a source directed and end of pipe approach to reduce pharmaceutical occurrence in surface waters.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Climate Change , Pandemics , Persistent Organic Pollutants , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Animals , Aquatic Organisms/drug effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , Drug Industry , Ecotoxicology , European Union , Humans , Persistent Organic Pollutants/isolation & purification , Persistent Organic Pollutants/metabolism , Persistent Organic Pollutants/pharmacology , Pharmaceutical Preparations/isolation & purification , Pharmaceutical Preparations/metabolism , Plants/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Water Pollutants, Chemical/isolation & purification , Water Pollutants, Chemical/metabolism , Water Pollutants, Chemical/pharmacology , Water Purification
14.
Fundam Clin Pharmacol ; 35(2): 432-434, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-998909

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir was recently approved to treat COVID-19. While this antiviral agent delivers clinical benefits, several safety concerns in many cases have been raised. This study reports that remdesivir at nanomolar concentrations inhibits carboxylesterase-2 (CES2) through covalent modifications. CES2 is a major drug-metabolizing enzyme. The combination of high potency with irreversible inhibition concludes that cautions must be exercised when remdesivir is used along with drugs hydrolyzed by CES2.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Carboxylesterase/antagonists & inhibitors , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/pharmacology , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Carboxylesterase/metabolism , Drug Interactions , Humans , Microsomes/metabolism , Pharmaceutical Preparations/metabolism , Tenofovir/metabolism
15.
Curr Drug Metab ; 21(14): 1127-1135, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-968953

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In clinical practice, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are often co-administered with other drugs in the treatment of malaria, chronic inflammatory diseases, and COVID-19. Therefore, their metabolic properties and the effects on the activity of cytochrome P450 (P450, CYP) enzymes and drug transporters should be considered when developing the most efficient treatments for patients. METHODS: Scientific literature on the interactions of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine with human P450 enzymes and drug transporters, was searched using PUBMED.Gov (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/) and the ADME database (https://life-science.kyushu.fujitsu.com/admedb/). RESULTS: Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are metabolized by P450 1A2, 2C8, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A4/5 in vitro and by P450s 2C8 and 3A4/5 in vivo by N-deethylation. Chloroquine effectively inhibited P450 2D6 in vitro; however, in vivo inhibition was not apparent except in individuals with limited P450 2D6 activity. Chloroquine is both an inhibitor and inducer of the transporter MRP1 and is also a substrate of the Mate and MRP1 transport systems. Hydroxychloroquine also inhibited P450 2D6 and the transporter OATP1A2. CONCLUSIONS: Chloroquine caused a statistically significant decrease in P450 2D6 activity in vitro and in vivo, also inhibiting its own metabolism by the enzyme. The inhibition indicates a potential for clinical drug-drug interactions when taken with other drugs that are predominant substrates of the P450 2D6. When chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are used clinically with other drugs, substrates of P450 2D6 enzyme, attention should be given to substrate-specific metabolism by P450 2D6 alleles present in individuals taking the drugs.


Subject(s)
Chloroquine/metabolism , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors/metabolism , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/metabolism , Hydroxychloroquine/metabolism , Membrane Transport Proteins/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Drug Interactions/physiology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Pharmaceutical Preparations/metabolism
16.
FEBS Open Bio ; 10(6): 995-1004, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-186395

ABSTRACT

A novel coronavirus [severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), or 2019 novel coronavirus] has been identified as the pathogen of coronavirus disease 2019. The main protease (Mpro , also called 3-chymotrypsin-like protease) of SARS-CoV-2 is a potential target for treatment of COVID-19. A Mpro homodimer structure suitable for docking simulations was prepared using a crystal structure (PDB ID: 6Y2G; resolution 2.20 Å). Structural refinement was performed in the presence of peptidomimetic α-ketoamide inhibitors, which were previously disconnected from each Cys145 of the Mpro homodimer, and energy calculations were performed. Structure-based virtual screenings were performed using the ChEMBL database. Through a total of 1 485 144 screenings, 64 potential drugs (11 approved, 14 clinical, and 39 preclinical drugs) were predicted to show high binding affinity with Mpro . Additional docking simulations for predicted compounds with high binding affinity with Mpro suggested that 28 bioactive compounds may have potential as effective anti-SARS-CoV-2 drug candidates. The procedure used in this study is a possible strategy for discovering anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs from drug libraries that may significantly shorten the clinical development period with regard to drug repositioning.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/enzymology , Chymases/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Drug Discovery/methods , Drug Repositioning/methods , Pharmaceutical Preparations/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Serine Proteinase Inhibitors/metabolism , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , COVID-19 , Catalytic Domain , Chymases/antagonists & inhibitors , Chymases/chemistry , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Crystallization , Databases, Chemical , Humans , Models, Molecular , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pandemics , Pharmaceutical Preparations/chemistry , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Proteinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Viral Proteins/chemistry
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