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1.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 142(6): 661-674, 2022.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875054

ABSTRACT

With the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, businesses are rapidly expanding their online practices, and the online medical care system has been established and is growing. The field of pharmacy education is also looking for ways to conduct practical online training. Hence, we developed an online role-play-based medical interview training method for fourth-year pharmacy students. The purpose of this study was to describe in detail this method and to clarify the effect of online on medical interviewing practice. The training sessions were conducted using video teleconferencing software. Two settings were used for the role-play scenarios: the pharmacy and hospital. To evaluate the effectiveness of the sessions, a questionnaire was sent to the students, and the results were analyzed using text mining. The most important requirement for successfully conducting the interviews was a stable voice connection, and we reduced audio interruptions and delays by connecting the host personal computer to a wired local area network. We also solved the problem of howling when multiple terminals were installed in the same room by muting all devices in the room. Results of the analysis of the questionnaires suggested that students were more tense online. We also found that students perceived a difference between online and face-to-face interviews in terms of eye contact and the presentation of documents. In this way, we succeeded in conducting smooth online role-playing sessions while taking countermeasures against infection. In the future, it will be necessary to devise nonverbal communication methods and digital methods of presenting the training material.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Pharmacy , Pharmacies , Students, Pharmacy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Education, Pharmacy/methods , Humans , Patient Care
2.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e057011, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1861631

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Ear disease in rural and remote communities is occurring at high rates, with limited access to health services and health providers contributing to the problem. Community pharmacists are well-placed to provide expanded services to improve ear health in rural communities. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility, accessibility and acceptability of a pharmacist-led intervention for ear disease in consumers presenting to community pharmacy. DESIGN: Prospective preintervention and postintervention mixed-methods study. An ethnographic lens of rural culture was applied to the descriptive qualitative component of the study. SETTING: Two rural community pharmacies in Queensland, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: People aged 6 months or older, who present with an ear complaint to a participating community pharmacy. INTERVENTION: LISTEN UP (Locally Integrated Screening and Testing Ear aNd aUral Programme) is a community pharmacy-based intervention to improve the management of ear health. Trained pharmacists conducted ear examinations using otoscopy and tympanometry on consumers following a LISTEN UP protocol. They made recommendations including no treatment, pharmacy only products or general practitioner (GP) referral. Consumers were contacted 7 days later for follow-up. RESULTS: 55 rural consumers participated in the study. The most commonly reported complaints were 'blocked ear' and 'ear pain'. Pharmacists recommended over-the-counter products to two-thirds of the participants and referred one quarter to a GP. 90% (50/55) of the consumers were highly satisfied with the service and would recommend the service. All consumers described the service positively with particular reference to convenience, improved confidence and appreciation of the knowledge gained about their ear complaint. Pharmacists were motivated to upskill and manage workflow to incorporate the service and expected both consumers and GPs to be more accepting of future expanded services as a result of LISTEN UP. However, without funding to provide the service, during the study other remunerated pharmacy tasks took priority over providing LISTEN UP. CONCLUSION: Rural community pharmacists can provide an acceptable and accessible ear health service; however, it is not feasible without a clear funding structure to provide resources including additional pharmacists, equipment and training. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12620001297910.


Subject(s)
Community Pharmacy Services , Pharmacies , Australia , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Infant , Pharmacists , Prospective Studies , Queensland , Rural Population
3.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 14(4): 521-525, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1814295

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This wisdom of experience commentary, from peer academic reviewers serving on accreditation teams, will discuss benefits and challenges of international and national virtual accreditation visits (VAVs) using a "What? So What? Now What?" reflective model. DESCRIPTION: Onsite accreditation reviews for health professional education programs require investments in time, effort, and money to maintain program alignment with accreditation standards and continuously generate quality practitioners. When COVID-19 entered the accreditation world, reviewers had to pivot modalities to a VAV format. ANALYSIS/INTERPRETATION: Adaptation and expectations of VAVs present several challenges. Barriers and advantages will be discussed as well as implications for the future. While medical and pharmacy education standardization has long been established, the authors propose national and international accrediting bodies will utilize the ingenuity of emergency COVID-19-driven onsite accreditation alternatives to develop protocols for novel accreditation methodology. CONCLUSIONS: Whether the continued mutation of COVID-19 prevents the return to previous accreditation visits or not, the experiences gained from the emergency-driven VAV, can inform and enrich accrediting bodies knowledge, theories, and practices of future VAVs. IMPLICATIONS: Higher-education institutions, accreditation bodies, and government entities will use experiences during COVID-19 to transform and improve academic requirements and future practices. Even if there is a full return to onsite reviews, such guidelines or improved versions of them can be applied to situations where immobility or restricted mobility is an issue, such as in illness, pregnancy, travel, war, etc. It is crucial for educators and accrediting bodies to evolve as we navigate these unprecedented times.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmacies , Pharmacy , Accreditation/methods , Humans , Pandemics
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(8)2022 04 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809874

ABSTRACT

The unique professional competence of pharmacists can support the safe and effective use of medicines by patients. Additionally, it is important to acknowledge and incorporate the needs of patients with various cultural and social backgrounds. The objective of this study was to assess and compare the experiences and expectations of Russian- and Estonian-speaking pharmacy customers about medicines-related services in Estonian community pharmacies. Cross-sectional study among pharmacy customers was conducted in Estonia 2018-2020. For data analysis, an Independent t-Test was used to compare experiences and expectations of respondents towards medicines-related services. The study involved 552 pharmacy customers: 58.5% (n = 323) Estonians and 41.5% (n = 229) Russians. The majority of the total sample (78.3%) considered the pharmacist competent to help. Medicines-related concerns were more common among Russians (p = 0.037), however, they sought less contact to consult a pharmacist than Estonians (p < 0.001). Furthermore, expectations about different medicines-related services in the future were higher among Estonians than among Russians (p < 0.001). Community pharmacists in Estonia should focus more on person-centered care to better meet the expectations and needs of different ethnic groups about medicines-related services. It is also important to reduce the language barrier and to increase the recognition of cultural traditions by health professionals.


Subject(s)
Community Pharmacy Services , Pharmacies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Estonia , Humans , Motivation , Pharmacists , Professional Role
5.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak ; 22(1): 99, 2022 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789119

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Following the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the health authorities recommended the implementation of strict social distancing and complete lockdown regulations to reduce disease spread. The pharmacists quickly adopted telemedicine (telepharmacy) as a solution against this crisis, but awareness about this technology is lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to explore the patients' perspectives and preferences regarding telepharmacy instead of traditional in-person visits. METHODS: An electronic questionnaire was designed and sent to 313 patients who were eligible for the study (from March to April 2021). The questionnaire used five-point Likert scales to inquire about motivations for adopting telepharmacy and in-person visits, their perceived advantages and disadvantages, and the declining factors of telepharmacy. Finally, the results were descriptively analyzed using SPSS 22. RESULTS: Of all 313 respondents, a total of 241 (77%) preferred appointments via telepharmacy while 72 (23%) preferred in-person services. There was a significant difference between the selection percentage of telepharmacy and in-person services (chi-square 91.42; p < 0.0001). Preference bout the telepharmacy system versus in-person visits to the pharmacy was associated with factors such as "reducing the incidence of contagious disease" (4.41; ± 0.78), "spending less time receiving pharmaceutical services" (4.24; ± 0.86)), and "traveling a shorter distance for receiving pharmaceutical services" (4.25; ± 0.86). "Reducing costs" (90.87%), "saving time" (89.21%), and "reducing the incidence of contagious disease" (87.13%) were the most important reasons for choosing telepharmacy services. Also, "face-to-face communication with the pharmacist" (25%), "low internet bandwidth" (25%), and "reduction of patients' anxiety and the increase of their peace of mind" (23.61%) were the most important reasons for choosing in-person visits. CONCLUSION: Survey data indicate that most participants are likely to prefer the use of telepharmacy, especially during crises such as the current COVID-19 pandemic. Telepharmacy can be applied as an important means and a crucial service to lessen the load on healthcare organizations and expand drug supply shelters in pharmacies. However, there are still substantial hurdles to overcome in order to successfully implement the telemedicine platform as part of mainstream practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmaceutical Services , Pharmacies , Pharmacy , Telemedicine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telemedicine/methods
6.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 467, 2022 Apr 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779646

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the wake of COVID-19, community pharmacists (CP) were called upon to free up healthcare providers to treat more serious conditions and alleviate overcrowded healthcare centers. CPs were placed under tremendous pressure, where many patients primarily sought their health advice. This situation raised concerns about the preparedness of CPs in facing these challenges. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the appropriateness of pharmaceutical care provided by CPs to patients with suspected COVID-19 and to investigate their communication skills. METHODS: A simulated patient (SP) study was conducted among randomly selected community pharmacies in Beirut, Lebanon. Each pharmacy was visited by the SP who complained of fever and loss of smell sensation. Interactions between the attending pharmacist and the suspected COVID-19 patient were documented directly after each visit in a standardized data collection form. RESULTS: More than half of the CPs (56%) did not retrieve any relevant information to assess the patient's condition. While pharmacists' responses were limited to one to two recommendations, with the majority recommending the patient to perform the PCR test (90%). Inappropriate recommendations made by the CPs included mainly the confirmation that the patient had COVID-19 without prior testing (9%), and prescribing either an antimicrobial drug (5%) or dietary supplements (20%), claiming that the latter are essential to boost the patient's immunity. As for the pharmacist-patient communication skills, the mean total score was 2.25 ± 0.79 (out of 4), displaying nonoptimal and ineffective communication. CONCLUSION: An unsatisfactory and suboptimal provision of pharmaceutical care to a suspected COVID-19 case was evident. This may be a public health threat, particularly for developing countries that lack an efficient and unified healthcare system. The findings should alert health authorities to support and guide community pharmacists in assisting suspected COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community Pharmacy Services , Pharmacies , Pharmacy , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Pharmacists , Professional Role
8.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 79(13): 1023-1024, 2022 Jun 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774341
9.
BMJ Open ; 12(3): e054122, 2022 03 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741631

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To synthesise evidence around over-the-counter (OTC) emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) to expand the evidence base on self-care interventions. DESIGN: Systematic review (PROSPERO# CRD42021231625). ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: We included publications comparing OTC or pharmacy-access ECP with prescription-only ECPs and measuring ECP uptake, correct use, unintended pregnancy, abortion, sexual practices/behaviour, self-efficacy and side-effects/harms. We also reviewed studies assessing values/preferences and costs of OTC ECPs. DATA SOURCES: We searched PubMed, CINAL, LILACS, EMBASE, clinicaltrials.gov, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, Pan African Clinical Trials Registry, Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, Cochrane Fertility Regulation and International Consortium for Emergency Contraception through 2 December 2020. RISK OF BIAS: For trials, we used Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias; for other studies, we used the Evidence Project risk of bias tool. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: We summarised data in duplicate using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) Evidence Profile tables, reporting findings by study design and outcome. We qualitatively synthesised values/preferences and cost data. RESULTS: We included 19 studies evaluating effectiveness of OTC ECP, 56 on values/preferences and 3 on costs. All studies except one were from high-income and middle-income settings. Broadly, there were no differences in overall ECP use, pregnancy or sexual behaviour, but an increase in timely ECP use, when comparing OTC or pharmacy ECP to prescription-only ECP groups. Studies showed similar/lower abortion rates in areas with pharmacy availability of ECPs. Users and providers generally supported OTC ECPs; decisions for use were influenced by privacy/confidentiality, convenience, and cost. Three modelling studies found pharmacy-access ECPs would lower health sector costs. CONCLUSION: OTC ECPs are feasible and acceptable. They may increase access to and timely use of effective contraception. Existing evidence suggests OTC ECPs do not substantively change reproductive health outcomes. Future studies should examine OTC ECP's impacts on user costs, among key subgroups and in low-resource settings.


Subject(s)
Contraception, Postcoital , Contraceptives, Postcoital , Pharmacies , Australia , Contraceptives, Postcoital/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Nonprescription Drugs/therapeutic use , Pregnancy
10.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 79(13): 1110-1114, 2022 Jun 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740800

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To explore the perceptions of pharmacists and administrators who had an integral role in designing and operationalizing an integrated community pharmacist hypertension management program with collaboration between an academic medical center and a regional chain community pharmacy. SUMMARY: Community pharmacists (n = 3), ambulatory care pharmacists (n = 2), medical directors (n = 2), and health-system (n = 1) and pharmacy (n = 1) administrators reported positive experiences engaging with the hypertension management program. Strengths of the program included comprehensive training by the ambulatory care pharmacists, community pharmacist access to the electronic health record (EHR), and primary care providers who were receptive to referring patients and accepting recommendations from the community pharmacists. All participants felt that the program had a positive outlook and saw opportunity for expansion, such as extended hours of operation, new locations, and additional pharmacists. CONCLUSION: Pharmacists are well positioned to extend hypertension management programs from primary care clinics into local pharmacies if they have appropriate training, access to the EHR, and ongoing support from collaborating primary care offices. Additional research using implementation science methods is needed to further test the scalability and replicability of the program among different patient populations, community pharmacies, and health systems.


Subject(s)
Community Pharmacy Services , Hypertension , Pharmaceutical Services , Pharmacies , Academic Medical Centers , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Pharmacists , Professional Role
11.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(10): 378-383, 2022 Mar 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1737448

ABSTRACT

On October 29, 2021, the Pfizer-BioNTech pediatric COVID-19 vaccine received Emergency Use Authorization for children aged 5-11 years in the United States.† For a successful immunization program, both access to and uptake of the vaccine are needed. Fifteen million doses were initially made available to pediatric providers to ensure the broadest possible access for the estimated 28 million eligible children aged 5-11 years, especially those in high social vulnerability index (SVI)§ communities. Initial supply was strategically distributed to maximize vaccination opportunities for U.S. children aged 5-11 years. COVID-19 vaccination coverage among persons aged 12-17 years has lagged (1), and vaccine confidence has been identified as a concern among parents and caregivers (2). Therefore, COVID-19 provider access and early vaccination coverage among children aged 5-11 years in high and low SVI communities were examined during November 1, 2021-January 18, 2022. As of November 29, 2021 (4 weeks after program launch), 38,732 providers were enrolled, and 92% of U.S. children aged 5-11 years lived within 5 miles of an active provider. As of January 18, 2022 (11 weeks after program launch), 39,786 providers had administered 13.3 million doses. First dose coverage at 4 weeks after launch was 15.0% (10.5% and 17.5% in high and low SVI areas, respectively; rate ratio [RR] = 0.68; 95% CI = 0.60-0.78), and at 11 weeks was 27.7% (21.2% and 29.0% in high and low SVI areas, respectively; RR = 0.76; 95% CI = 0.68-0.84). Overall series completion at 11 weeks after launch was 19.1% (13.7% and 21.7% in high and low SVI areas, respectively; RR = 0.67; 95% CI = 0.58-0.77). Pharmacies administered 46.4% of doses to this age group, including 48.7% of doses in high SVI areas and 44.4% in low SVI areas. Although COVID-19 vaccination coverage rates were low, particularly in high SVI areas, first dose coverage improved over time. Additional outreach is critical, especially in high SVI areas, to improve vaccine confidence and increase coverage rates among children aged 5-11 years.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunization Programs , Vaccination Coverage , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Pharmacies/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Social Vulnerability
12.
BMJ Sex Reprod Health ; 48(1): 66-67, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736083
13.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264427, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731598

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Conducting high quality investigator-initiated trials (IITs) is challenging and costly. The costs of investigational medicinal products (IMPs) in IITs and the role of hospital pharmacies in the planning of IITs are unclear. We conducted a mixed-methods study to compare planned and actual costs of IMPs in Swiss IITs, to examine potential reasons for differences, and to gather stakeholder views about hospital services for IITs. METHODS: We included all IITs with IMP services from the Basel hospital pharmacy invoiced between January 2014 and June 2020 (n = 24). We documented trial and IMP characteristics including planned and actual IMP costs. Our working definition for a substantial cost difference was that the actual IMP costs were more than 10% higher than the planned IMP costs in a trial. We conducted semi-structured interviews with investigators, clinical trials unit and hospital pharmacy staff, and qualitatively analyzed transcribed interviews. RESULTS: For 13 IITs we observed no differences between planned and actual costs of IMPs (median, 11'000 US$; interquartile range [IQR], 8'882-16'302 US$), but for 11 IITs we found cost increases from a median of 11'000 US$ (IQR, 8'922-36'166 US$) to a median over 28'000 US$ (IQR, 13'004-49'777 US$). All multicenter trials and 10 of 11 IITs with patients experienced substantial cost differences. From the interviews we identified four main themes: 1) Patient recruitment and organizational problems were identified as main reasons for cost differences, 2) higher actual IMP costs were bearable for most investigators, 3) IMP services for IITs were not a priority for the hospital pharmacy, and 4) closer collaboration between clinical trial unit and hospital pharmacy staff, and sufficient staff for IITs at the hospital pharmacy could improve IMP services. CONCLUSIONS: Multicenter IITs enrolling patients are particularly at risk for higher IMP costs than planned. These trials are more difficult to plan and logistically challenging, which leads to delays and expiring IMP shelf-lives. IMP services of hospital pharmacies are important for IITs in Switzerland, but need to be further developed.


Subject(s)
Pharmacies , Pharmacy Service, Hospital , Humans , Inosine Monophosphate , Organizations , Research Personnel
14.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 79(13): 1070-1078, 2022 Jun 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730641

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify and build consensus on operational tasks that occur within a health-system pharmacy. METHODS: An expert panel of 8 individuals was invited to participate in a 3-round modified Delphi process. In the first round, the expert panel independently reviewed an initial list and provided feedback. All feedback was incorporated into the second round and then reviewed and discussed as a group. The expert panel reviewed an updated list based on feedback from the second round and reached consensus on a final list of operational processes and corresponding tasks. RESULTS: All 8 participants agreed to serve on the Delphi expert panel and reviewed an initial list of 9 process categories (hazardous intravenous [IV] medications, nonhazardous IV medications, hazardous oral medications, nonhazardous oral medications, controlled substances, total parenteral nutrition [TPN]/fluid preparations, distribution and delivery, clinical tasks, and miscellaneous operational tasks) and 44 corresponding tasks. Through the Delphi process, 72 new tasks were identified in the first round, while 34 new tasks were identified in the second round. In the third and final round, the expert panel reviewed the updated list of 9 process categories and 150 corresponding tasks, made additional edits, and reached consensus on a final list of 9 processes and 138 corresponding tasks that represented operational work within a health-system pharmacy. CONCLUSION: The modified Delphi process effectively identified operational processes and corresponding tasks occurring within hospital pharmacies in a diverse health system. This process facilitated consensus building, and the findings may inform development of an operational workload model.


Subject(s)
Pharmaceutical Services , Pharmacies , Pharmacy , Consensus , Delphi Technique , Humans
15.
Sr Care Pharm ; 37(3): 96-103, 2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708107

ABSTRACT

Objective To determine community pharmacists' experience with foreign language and American Sign Language (ASL) interpretation services. Design A survey was drafted to gather information about pharmacists' familiarity with ASL and foreign language interpreting services as well as the frequency with which pharmacists encountered patients who needed these services. Setting Independent and chain community pharmacies in Spokane County, Washington, USA. Participants Fifty-two community pharmacies were identified using a provider-credential search. Fifty-one pharmacists (98%) agreed to participate and completed the survey. Interventions Surveys were initially conducted in person, but after the COVID-19 pandemic began data collection was halted and restarted via phone in accordance with the Washington State University Office of Research Support and Operations. Results Four out of 51 pharmacists surveyed (7.84%) indicated that they were fluent in a language besides English. Pharmacists reported encountering patients who spoke Spanish (31%), Russian (31%), ASL (8%), Arabic (5%), Mandarin Chinese (5%), Vietnamese (5%), Marshallese (5%), and Ukrainian (2%). Some pharmacists (8%) reported not encountering patients who spoke other languages besides English. Most pharmacists (72.5%) indicated their company offered interpreting services for foreign languages, but less than half of pharmacists surveyed (43.1%) had experience using these services. Forty-five percent of pharmacists surveyed did not know whether their company offered an interpreting service for ASL, and only 23.5% indicated that they had experience using ASL interpreting services. Conclusion Pharmacists are less familiar with services for patients who speak ASL and are less likely to have experience with ASL interpretation services than they are to have assisted foreign-language-speaking patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community Pharmacy Services , Pharmacies , Communication Barriers , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sign Language , United States
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 Feb 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704737

ABSTRACT

(1) Introduction: Pharmacists are medical professionals who play an active role in the protection of public health. Since 2021, pharmacists with an appropriate certification have been authorised to administer vaccines against COVID-19. (2) Objective: The objective of this study was to ascertain the perceptions of patients about receiving vaccinations through community pharmacies. (3) Material and methods: This study was conducted in 2021. The research tool was an anonymous questionnaire published on the websites of patient organisations. Ultimately, 1062 patients participated in this study. (4) Results: This study shows that most of the respondents find community pharmacies more accessible than outpatient clinics (85.3%). Sixty-one percent of the respondents stated that getting vaccinated at pharmacies would be less time consuming than at outpatient clinics. Nearly every third respondent (29.5%) declared that they would get vaccinated if they received such a recommendation from a pharmacist. Fifty-six percent of the respondents were of the opinion that the administration of vaccines by pharmacists would relieve the burden on medical staff and the healthcare system. (5) Conclusions: Polish patients participating in the study have a positive attitude towards the implementation of vaccination services in community pharmacies as an effective way of combating infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community Pharmacy Services , Pharmacies , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
17.
BMJ Open ; 12(2): e057934, 2022 02 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700402

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To identify outcomes reported in peer-reviewed literature for evaluating the care of adults with acute dental pain or infection.DesignSystematic narrative review. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Primary research studies published in peer-reviewed literature and reporting care for adults with acute dental pain or infection across healthcare settings. Reports not in English language were excluded. STUDY SELECTION: Seven databases (CINAHL Plus, Dentistry and Oral Sciences Source, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Scopus, Web of Science) were searched from inception to December 2020. Risk of bias assessment used the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme checklist for randomised controlled trials and Quality Assessment Tool for Studies of Diverse Design for other study types. OUTCOMES: Narrative synthesis included all outcomes of care for adults with acute dental pain or infection. Excluded were outcomes about pain management to facilitate treatment, prophylaxis of postsurgical pain/infection or traumatic injuries. RESULTS: Searches identified 19 438 records, and 27 studies (dating from 1993 to 2020) were selected for inclusion. Across dental, pharmacy, hospital emergency and rural clinic settings, the studies were undertaken in high-income (n=20) and low/middle-income (n=7) countries. Two clinical outcome categories were identified: signs and symptoms of pain/infection and complications following treatment (including adverse drug reactions and reattendance for the same problem). Patient-reported outcomes included satisfaction with the care. Data collection methods included patient diaries, interviews and in-person reviews. DISCUSSION: A heterogeneous range of study types and qualities were included: one study, published in 1947, was excluded only due to lacking outcome details. Studies from dentistry reported just clinical outcomes; across wider healthcare more outcomes were included. CONCLUSIONS: A combination of clinical and patient-reported outcomes are recommended to evaluate care for adults with acute dental pain or infection. Further research is recommended to develop core outcomes aligned with the international consensus on oral health outcomes. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020210183.


Subject(s)
Acute Pain , Pharmacies , Acute Pain/therapy , Adult , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Narration
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(6)2022 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671752

ABSTRACT

Encouraging vaccination is a pressing policy problem. To assess whether text-based reminders can encourage pharmacy vaccination and what kinds of messages work best, we conducted a megastudy. We randomly assigned 689,693 Walmart pharmacy patients to receive one of 22 different text reminders using a variety of different behavioral science principles to nudge flu vaccination or to a business-as-usual control condition that received no messages. We found that the reminder texts that we tested increased pharmacy vaccination rates by an average of 2.0 percentage points, or 6.8%, over a 3-mo follow-up period. The most-effective messages reminded patients that a flu shot was waiting for them and delivered reminders on multiple days. The top-performing intervention included two texts delivered 3 d apart and communicated to patients that a vaccine was "waiting for you." Neither experts nor lay people anticipated that this would be the best-performing treatment, underscoring the value of simultaneously testing many different nudges in a highly powered megastudy.


Subject(s)
Immunization Programs , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Pharmacies , Vaccination/methods , Aged , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Male , Middle Aged , Pharmacies/statistics & numerical data , Reminder Systems , Text Messaging , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
19.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 77(3): 803-806, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625483

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The community pharmacy-led Sore Throat Test and Treat (STTT) service in Wales allowed pharmacists to undertake a structured clinical assessment with FeverPAIN/Centor scores and a point-of-care test (POCT) for Group A Streptococcus (GAS) infection. A new service model was temporarily agreed as a result of COVID-19, without routine use of POCT. OBJECTIVES: To explore the impact of removing the requirement for GAS POCT from a community pharmacy STTT service on antibiotic supply. METHODS: Analysis of STTT consultation data, obtained for two periods: November 2018 (date the service went live) to September 2019 (pre-pandemic); and November 2020 (date the new service model was introduced) to May 2021. RESULTS: For consultations eligible for POCT, the antibiotic supply rate increased from 27% (922/3369) (95% CI: 26%-29%) with the pre-pandemic service model (FeverPAIN/Centor + POCT) to 63% (93/147) (95% CI: 55%-71%) with the new model (FeverPAIN/Centor only); the percentage of patients who were not issued an antibiotic, despite their high clinical score, decreased from 56% (646/1154) to 9.3% (8/86). CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary data suggest that for every 100 STTT consultations with patients with a Centor score of ≥3 or a FeverPAIN score of ≥2, the use of POCT may spare up to 36 courses of antibiotics, increasing to 47 for patients with higher clinical scores, suggesting that the pre-COVID delivery model (FeverPAIN/Centor + POCT) is the optimal pathway and POCT in addition to clinical scores may result in fewer antibiotic prescriptions for sore throat symptoms. These findings have implications for STTT service delivery during and beyond the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmacies , Pharyngitis , Streptococcal Infections , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Pandemics , Pharyngitis/diagnosis , Pharyngitis/drug therapy , Point-of-Care Testing , SARS-CoV-2 , Streptococcal Infections/diagnosis , Streptococcal Infections/drug therapy , Streptococcus , Streptococcus pyogenes
20.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e23658, 2021 02 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575249

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lockdowns and shelter-in-place orders during COVID-19 have accelerated the adoption of remote and virtual care (RVC) models, potentially including telehealth, telemedicine, and internet-based electronic physician visits (e-visits) for remote consultation, diagnosis, and care, deterring small health care businesses including clinics, physician offices, and pharmacies from aligning resources and operations to new RVC realities. Current perceptions of small health care businesses toward remote care, particularly perceptions of whether RVC adoption will synergistically improve business sustainability, would highlight the pros and cons of rapidly adopting RVC technology among policy makers. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the perceptions of small health care businesses regarding the impact of RVC on their business sustainability during COVID-19, gauge their perceptions of their current levels of adoption of and satisfaction with RVC models and analyze how well that aligns with their perceptions of the current business scenario (SCBS), and determine whether these perceptions influence their view of their midterm sustainability (SUST). METHODS: We randomly sampled small clinics, physician offices, and pharmacies across Colorado and sought assistance from a consulting firm to collect survey data in July 2020. Focal estimated study effects were compared across the three groups of small businesses to draw several insights. RESULTS: In total, 270 respondents, including 82 clinics, 99 small physician offices, and 89 pharmacies, across Colorado were included. SRVC and SCBS had direct, significant, and positive effects on SUST. However, we investigated the effect of the interaction between SRVC and SCBS to determine whether RVC adoption aligns with their perceptions of the current business scenario and whether this interaction impacts their perception of business sustainability. Effects differed among the three groups. The interaction term SRVC×SCBS was significant and positive for clinics (P=.02), significant and negative for physician offices (P=.05), and not significant for pharmacies (P=.76). These variations indicate that while clinics positively perceived RVC alignment with the current business scenario, the opposite held true for small physician offices. CONCLUSIONS: As COVID-19 continues to spread worldwide and RVC adoption progresses rapidly, it is critical to understand the impact of RVC on small health care businesses and their perceptions of long-term survival. Small physician practices cannot harness RVC developments and, in contrast with clinics, consider it incompatible with business survival during and after COVID-19. If small health care firms cannot compete with RVC (or synergistically integrate RVC platforms into their current business practices) and eventually become nonoperational, the resulting damage to traditional health care services may be severe, particularly for critical care delivery and other important services that RVC cannot effectively replace. Our results have implications for public policy decisions such as incentive-aligned models, policy-initiated incentives, and payer-based strategies for improved alignment between RVC and existing models.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pharmacies/economics , Physicians' Offices/economics , Small Business/economics , Telemedicine/methods , Adult , Colorado/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Referral and Consultation , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Surveys and Questionnaires
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