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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(24)2021 Dec 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572492

ABSTRACT

Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) rank as one of the top 10 leading causes of death and illness in developed countries. ADRs show differential features depending upon genotype, age, sex, race, pathology, drug category, route of administration, and drug-drug interactions. Pharmacogenomics (PGx) provides the physician effective clues for optimizing drug efficacy and safety in major problems of health such as cardiovascular disease and associated disorders, cancer and brain disorders. Important aspects to be considered are also the impact of immunopharmacogenomics in cutaneous ADRs as well as the influence of genomic factors associated with COVID-19 and vaccination strategies. Major limitations for the routine use of PGx procedures for ADRs prevention are the lack of education and training in physicians and pharmacists, poor characterization of drug-related PGx, unspecific biomarkers of drug efficacy and toxicity, cost-effectiveness, administrative problems in health organizations, and insufficient regulation for the generalized use of PGx in the clinical setting. The implementation of PGx requires: (i) education of physicians and all other parties involved in the use and benefits of PGx; (ii) prospective studies to demonstrate the benefits of PGx genotyping; (iii) standardization of PGx procedures and development of clinical guidelines; (iv) NGS and microarrays to cover genes with high PGx potential; and (v) new regulations for PGx-related drug development and PGx drug labelling.


Subject(s)
Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/genetics , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/metabolism , Pharmacogenetics/trends , Biomarkers , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Central Nervous System Diseases/drug therapy , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Drug Development , Genotype , Humans , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Pharmacogenetics/methods , Phenotype
2.
OMICS ; 25(11): 681-692, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541502

ABSTRACT

Multiomics study designs have significantly increased understanding of complex biological systems. The multiomics literature is rapidly expanding and so is their heterogeneity. However, the intricacy and fragmentation of omics data are impeding further research. To examine current trends in multiomics field, we reviewed 52 articles from PubMed and Web of Science, which used an integrated omics approach, published between March 2006 and January 2021. From studies, data regarding investigated loci, species, omics type, and phenotype were extracted, curated, and streamlined according to standardized terminology, and summarized in a previously developed graphical summary. Evaluated studies included 21 omics types or applications of omics technology such as genomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics, epigenomics, environmental omics, and pharmacogenomics, species of various phyla including human, mouse, Arabidopsis thaliana, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and various phenotypes, including cancer and COVID-19. In the analyzed studies, diverse methods, protocols, results, and terminology were used and accordingly, assessment of the studies was challenging. Adoption of standardized multiomics data presentation in the future will further buttress standardization of terminology and reporting of results in systems science. This shall catalyze, we suggest, innovation in both science communication and laboratory medicine by making available scientific knowledge that is easier to grasp, share, and harness toward medical breakthroughs.


Subject(s)
Computational Biology/trends , Genomics/trends , Metabolomics/trends , Proteomics/trends , Animals , COVID-19 , Computer Graphics , Epigenomics/trends , Gene Expression Profiling/trends , Humans , Pharmacogenetics/trends , Publications , SARS-CoV-2 , Terminology as Topic
4.
Pharmacogenomics ; 22(9): 515-517, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242272

ABSTRACT

The Pharmacogenomics Access & Reimbursement Symposium, a landmark event presented by the Golden Helix Foundation and the Pharmacogenomics Access & Reimbursement Coalition, was a 1-day interactive meeting comprised of plenary keynotes from thought leaders across healthcare that focused on value-based strategies to improve patient access to personalized medicine. Stakeholders including patients, healthcare providers, industry, government agencies, payer organizations, health systems and health policy organizations convened to define opportunities to improve patient access to personalized medicine through best practices, successful reimbursement models, high quality economic evaluations and strategic alignment. Session topics included health technology assessment, health economics, health policy and value-based payment models and innovation.


Subject(s)
Congresses as Topic/trends , Health Services Accessibility/trends , Insurance, Health, Reimbursement/trends , Medical Assistance/trends , Pharmacogenetics/trends , District of Columbia , Health Personnel/economics , Health Personnel/trends , Health Services Accessibility/economics , Humans , Insurance, Health, Reimbursement/economics , Medical Assistance/economics , Pharmacogenetics/economics , Precision Medicine/economics , Precision Medicine/trends , Technology Assessment, Biomedical/economics , Technology Assessment, Biomedical/trends
5.
Pharmacogenomics J ; 21(3): 275-284, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065847

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has evolved into an emergent global pandemic. Many drugs without established efficacy are being used to treat COVID-19 patients either as an offlabel/compassionate use or as a clinical trial. Although drug repurposing is an attractive approach with reduced time and cost, there is a need to make predictions on success before the start of therapy. For the optimum use of these repurposed drugs, many factors should be considered such as drug-gene or dug-drug interactions, drug toxicity, and patient co-morbidity. There is limited data on the pharmacogenomics of these agents and this may constitute an obstacle for successful COVID-19 therapy. This article reviewed the available human genome interactions with some promising repurposed drugs for COVID-19 management. These drugs include chloroquine (CQ), hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), azithromycin, lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r), atazanavir (ATV), favipiravir (FVP), nevirapine (NVP), efavirenz (EFV), oseltamivir, remdesivir, anakinra, tocilizumab (TCZ), eculizumab, heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) regulators, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, ivermectin, and nitazoxanide. Drug-gene variant pairs that may alter the therapeutic outcomes in COVID-19 patients are presented. The major drug variant pairs that associated with variations in clinical efficacy include CQ/HCQ (CYP2C8, CYP2D6, ACE2, and HO-1); azithromycin (ABCB1); LPV/r (SLCO1B1, ABCB1, ABCC2 and CYP3A); NVP (ABCC10); oseltamivir (CES1 and ABCB1); remdesivir (CYP2C8, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, and OATP1B1); anakinra (IL-1a); and TCZ (IL6R and FCGR3A). The major drug variant pairs that associated with variations in adverse effects include CQ/HCQ (G6PD; hemolysis and ABCA4; retinopathy), ATV (MDR1 and UGT1A1*28; hyperbilirubinemia; and APOA5; dyslipidemia), NVP (HLA-DRB1*01, HLA-B*3505 and CYP2B6; skin rash and MDR1; hepatotoxicity), and EFV (CYP2B6; depression and suicidal tendencies).


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/genetics , Drug Repositioning/methods , Genome, Human/genetics , Pharmacogenetics/methods , Drug Repositioning/trends , Humans , Pharmacogenetics/trends
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