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6.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 77(19): 1592-1597, 2020 09 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317905

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Guidance on alternate care site planning based on the experience of a health-system pharmacy department in preparing for an expected surge in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases is provided. SUMMARY: In disaster response situations such as the COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare institutions may be compelled to transition to a contingency care model in which staffing and supply levels are no longer consistent with daily practice norms and, while usual patient care practices are maintained, establishment of alternate care sites (eg, a convention center) may be necessitated by high patient volumes. Available resources to assist hospitals and health systems in alternate care site planning include online guidance posted within the COVID-19 resources section of the US Army Corps of Engineers website, which provides recommended medication and supply lists; and the Federal Healthcare Resilience Task Force's alternate care site toolkit, a comprehensive resource for all aspects of alternate care site planning, including pharmacy services. Important pharmacy planning issues include security and storage of drugs, state board of pharmacy and Drug Enforcement Administration licensing considerations, and staff credentialing, education, and training. Key medication management issues to be addressed in alternate site care planning include logistical challenges of supply chain maintenance, optimal workflow for compounded sterile preparations (eg, on-site preparation vs off-site preparation and delivery from a nearby hospital), and infusion pump availability and suitability to patient acuity levels. CONCLUSION: Planning for and operation of alternate care sites in disaster response situations should include involvement of pharmacists in key decision-making processes at the earliest planning stages.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Decision Making, Organizational , Disaster Planning/organization & administration , Health Facility Planning/organization & administration , Pharmacy Service, Hospital/organization & administration , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergencies , Health Facility Planning/standards , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Humans , Medication Therapy Management/organization & administration , Models, Organizational , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pharmacists/organization & administration , Pharmacy Service, Hospital/standards , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Workflow
7.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 77(19): 1598-1605, 2020 09 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317904

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To describe our medical center's pharmacy services preparedness process and offer guidance to assist other institutions in preparing for surges of critically ill patients such as those experienced during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. SUMMARY: The leadership of a department of pharmacy at an urban medical center in the US epicenter of the COVID-19 pandemic proactively created a pharmacy action plan in anticipation of a surge in admissions of critically ill patients with COVID-19. It was essential to create guidance documents outlining workflow, provide comprehensive staff education, and repurpose non-intensive care unit (ICU)-trained clinical pharmacotherapy specialists to work in ICUs. Teamwork was crucial to ensure staff safety, develop complete scheduling, maintain adequate drug inventory and sterile compounding, optimize the electronic health record and automated dispensing cabinets to help ensure appropriate prescribing and effective management of medication supplies, and streamline the pharmacy workflow to ensure that all patients received pharmacotherapeutic regimens in a timely fashion. CONCLUSION: Each hospital should view the COVID-19 crisis as an opportunity to internally review and enhance workflow processes, initiatives that can continue even after the resolution of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Medication Therapy Management/organization & administration , Pharmacy Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Academic Medical Centers/organization & administration , Academic Medical Centers/standards , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitals, Urban/organization & administration , Hospitals, Urban/standards , Humans , Leadership , New York/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personnel Staffing and Scheduling/organization & administration , Personnel Staffing and Scheduling/standards , Pharmacists/organization & administration , Pharmacy Service, Hospital/standards , Tertiary Care Centers/organization & administration , Tertiary Care Centers/standards , Workflow , Workforce/organization & administration , Workforce/standards
9.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 77(18): 1510-1515, 2020 09 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317902

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To describe our hospital pharmacy department's preparation for an influx of critically ill patients during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and offer guidance on clinical pharmacy services preparedness for similar crisis situations. SUMMARY: Personnel within the department of pharmacy at a medical center at the US epicenter of the COVID-19 pandemic proactively prepared a staffing and pharmacotherapeutic action plan in anticipation of an expected surge in admissions of critically ill patients with COVID-19 and expansion of acute care and intensive care unit (ICU) capacity. Guidance documents focusing on supportive care and pharmacotherapeutic treatment options were developed. Repurposing of non-ICU-trained clinical pharmacotherapy specialists to work collaboratively with clinician teams in ICUs was quickly implemented; staff were prepared for these duties through use of shared tools to facilitate education and practice standardization. CONCLUSION: As challenges were encountered at the initial peak of the pandemic, interdisciplinary collaboration and teamwork was crucial to ensure that all patients were proactively assessed and that their respective pharmacotherapeutic regimens were optimized.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Medication Therapy Management/standards , Pharmacists/organization & administration , Pharmacy Service, Hospital/standards , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Care/organization & administration , Critical Care/standards , Critical Illness , Disaster Planning/organization & administration , Disaster Planning/standards , Emergencies , Humans , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Intensive Care Units/standards , Medication Therapy Management/organization & administration , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Care Team/organization & administration , Patient Care Team/standards , Pharmacy Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Professional Role , Workforce/organization & administration , Workforce/standards
10.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 77(17): 1403-1408, 2020 08 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317901

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: After community transmission of the novel virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was detected in the State of Washington in February 2020, innovative measures, such as telehealth appointments, were needed to safely continue to provide optimal pharmaceutical care for patients with chronic conditions and cancer. SUMMARY: Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, federal regulations limited the scope of telehealth pharmacist services. However, enactment of the Coronavirus Preparedness and Response Supplemental Appropriations Act, followed by guidance by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and the Department of Health and Human Services, allowed currently credentialed providers (including pharmacists) to continue to provide patient care services via telehealth with fewer restrictions. Our health system has numerous credentialed pharmacists across multiple ambulatory care clinics. In this article, we highlight our process of expediting the implementation of telehealth services. This process included obtaining authorization for the credentialed pharmacists to provide telehealth services, completion of training modules, implementation of new technology platforms, development of new workflows, and utilization of resources for providers and patients to facilitate successful completion of telehealth visits. We also highlight the consent and documentation components crucially important to the telehealth visit and share some of our successes, as well as identified limitations, in providing pharmacist services via telehealth. CONCLUSION: In the setting of the COVID-19 pandemic, our institution was able to swiftly implement clinical pharmacist telehealth services for many patients, offering a safe and effective way to continue providing a high level of care. This article discusses our experience with and potential limitations of telehealth to assist other pharmacists seeking to implement and/or expand their telehealth services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Medication Therapy Management/organization & administration , Pharmacists/organization & administration , Pharmacy Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Telemedicine/organization & administration , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Chronic Disease/drug therapy , Humans , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Pandemics/prevention & control , Professional Role , Washington/epidemiology
11.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 77(17): 1409-1416, 2020 08 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317900

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has created unprecedented strains on healthcare systems around the world. Challenges surrounding an overwhelming influx of patients with COVID-19 and changes in care dynamics prompt the need for care models and processes that optimize care in this medically complex patient population. The purpose of this report is to describe our institution's strategy to deploy pharmacy resources and standardize pharmacy processes to optimize the management of patients with COVID-19. METHODS: This retrospective, descriptive report characterizes documented pharmacy interventions in the acute care of patients admitted for COVID-19 during the period April 1 to April 15, 2020. Patient monitoring, interprofessional communication, and intervention documentation by pharmacy staff was facilitated through the development of a COVID-19-specific care bundle integrated into the electronic medical record. RESULTS: A total of 1,572 pharmacist interventions were documented in 197 patients who received a total of 15,818 medication days of therapy during the study period. The average number of interventions per patient was 8. The most common interventions were regimen simplification (15.9%), timing and dosing adjustments (15.4%), and antimicrobial therapy and COVID-19 treatment adjustments (15.2%). Patients who were admitted to an intensive care unit care at any point during their hospital stay accounted for 66.7% of all interventions documented. CONCLUSION: A pharmacy department's response to the COVID-19 pandemic was optimized through standardized processes. Pharmacists intervened to address a wide scope of medication-related issues, likely contributing to improved management of COVID-19 patients. Results of our analysis demonstrate the vital role pharmacists play as members of multidisciplinary teams during times of crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Medication Therapy Management/organization & administration , Pharmacists/organization & administration , Pharmacy Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Care/organization & administration , Drug Therapy, Combination/adverse effects , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Electrolytes/administration & dosage , Electrolytes/adverse effects , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Interdisciplinary Communication , Male , Medical Records Systems, Computerized/organization & administration , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Professional Role , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
13.
Rev Infirm ; 70(270): 40-42, 2021 Apr.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1164385

ABSTRACT

Observation, interpretation, actions for improvement, questioning are all terms that echo the situation of caregivers since the outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic in France at the beginning of 2020. All those involved in the healthcare chain have had to cope with the influx of patients and to show that they are capable of seeing their practices evolve on a daily basis. What was recommended a few weeks earlier could quickly become obsolete. It was necessary to be reactive and the question of drug treatments was at the heart of the concerns, requiring prescribers to keep themselves informed and pharmacists to be as mobilized as possible to respond to requests from the field as quickly as possible.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmacy Service, Hospital , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Caregivers/psychology , France/epidemiology , Humans , Pharmacy Service, Hospital/organization & administration
15.
Recenti Prog Med ; 112(3): 219-224, 2021 03.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1123711

ABSTRACT

The pandemic period has generated major problems in the pharmacies of hospitals and local health care companies regarding the distribution of drugs to patients undergoing treatment with chronic drugs. This is because the patient, during the lockdown, was forced to leave the house and go several miles away to reach the place where the drug was dispensed. Moreover, very often, the place was placed in covid-19 hospitals, like the one in Perugia, and was also a risk for the patient himself. The logistical organization allows, in addition to the advantages of traceability, efficiency and savings, with the arrival of the drug at home, a very high patient compliance that also translates into greater security in a pandemic period. To the Usl Umbria 1 of Perugia (Italy) has been centralized the activity of warehouse for all the South area that includes three hospitals and four sanitary districts. Such warehouse, through computerized procedure, guarantees the direct distribution with sending of the medicines directly to the district of belonging of the patient. In this way the patient was not forced to make long and risky trips to continue their chronic therapies. Moreover, this logistic warehouse has also allowed to cope with the correct management of many medicinal specialties that have been used against the SARS-CoV-2 virus avoiding their temporary deficiency for patients already on therapy according to the normal therapeutic indications (anti-inflammatory, antiretroviral and immunomodulatory). This paper aims to demonstrate how logistical organization is of vital importance for a National Health System that has to face increasing costs, ensure the traceability of all processes and, last but not least, survive a worldwide pandemic period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug Storage , Pandemics , Pharmaceutical Preparations/supply & distribution , SARS-CoV-2 , Anti-Infective Agents/supply & distribution , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/supply & distribution , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/supply & distribution , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/supply & distribution , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/supply & distribution , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Catchment Area, Health , Drug Costs/statistics & numerical data , Drug Repositioning , Drug Storage/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunologic Factors/supply & distribution , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Italy , Organization and Administration , Pharmaceutical Preparations/economics , Pharmacy Service, Hospital/organization & administration
16.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 78(10): 890-895, 2021 05 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091260

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: A collaborative advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) education model established within a healthcare institution during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is described. SUMMARY: The COVID-19 pandemic caused a nationwide disruption of APPE pharmacy education. Healthcare institutions faced the challenge of educating APPE students while attempting to simultaneously de-densify work areas and reduce transmission risk for employees and patients. A pharmacist coordinator and pharmacist academic partners at a large teaching hospital created a collaborative common core curriculum model for resourceful implementation of APPE education. Healthcare network pharmacists, clinical pharmacist academic partners, and pharmacy residents delivered the curriculum to 35 pharmacy students over a 9-week time period. Main components of the curriculum included patient case discussions, topic discussions, journal club presentations, live continuing education (CE) webinars, and development of pharmacy technician CE programs. A majority of students reported positive experiences working with a variety of preceptors from different specialties (81%) and collaborating with students from other universities (62%). CONCLUSION: A health system can leverage institutional, network-wide, and academic partner resources to implement a collaborative APPE curriculum during challenging times such as those experienced during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Curriculum , Education, Pharmacy/methods , Pandemics , Pharmacy Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Problem-Based Learning/methods , Adult , Education, Pharmacy, Continuing , Educational Measurement , Female , Humans , Male , Pharmacists , Pharmacy Residencies , Pharmacy Technicians/education , Students, Pharmacy , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
17.
Farm Hosp ; 44(7): 28-31, 2020 06 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1073743

ABSTRACT

During the pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, pharmacy services have  had to adapt their service portfolio, and yet ensure efficient, equitable and  quality pharmaceutical care. Given the limited scientific evidence available, most drugs have been used off-label or in the context of clinical trials, which should be the preferred option in order to create new evidence. Among kind different  situations we have faced are the increase in workload, the expansion of  coverage to new wards and ICUs and shortages, which have caused the use of  alternative drugs and even other routes of administration. Given that covid-19  affects elderly population with greater severity and many of them are  polymedicated, great effort have been focused on monitoring interactions, both  pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (specially prolongation of the QT  interval), monitoring correct concentrations of electrolytes, nutritional support,  adaptation of chemotherapy treatment protocols and anticoagulant  management, among others. The use of personal protective equipment added  difficulty for nursing work and some measures had been taken to minimize the  number of entries into the rooms. Eventually, team's split to guarantee care, the challenge of teleworking, remote validation, telemedicine and telepharmacy for  communication between professionals and patients, as well as training in this pandemic situation have been a challenge for our profession. These  difficulties have risen up new learning opportunities we hope will be useful to us  in the event we have to face similar situations in the future.


La pandemia ocasionada por el virus SARS-CoV-2 ha hecho que los servicios de  farmacia hayan tenido que adaptar su cartera de servicios, y sin embargo  asegurar una atención farmacéutica eficiente, equitativa y de calidad. Dada la  escasa evidencia científica disponible, la mayoría de los medicamentos se han  empleado fuera de indicación o en el contexto de ensayos clínicos, que debería  ser la opción preferente para generar nueva evidencia. Entre las diversas  situaciones que se han tenido que afrontar se encuentran el incremento de  trabajo asistencial, la ampliación de la cobertura a nuevas salas y unidades de  cuidados intensivos y los desabastecimientos, que han ocasionado el uso de  fármacos alternativos e incluso otras vías de administración. Dado que la  COVID-19 afecta con mayor gravedad a población de edad avanzada, muchos de ellos polimedicados, se ha tenido que dedicar un gran esfuerzo al seguimiento de interacciones, tanto farmacocinéticas como farmacodinámicas (en especial,  prolongación del intervalo QT), monitorización de concentraciones correctas de  electrolitos, soporte nutricional, adaptación de pautas de quimioterapia y manejo e los anticoagulantes, entre otros. La dificultad adicional para enfermería de la  administración de medicamentos con equipos de protección individual ha  supuesto la adaptación de formas de administración para minimizar el número  de entradas en las habitaciones. Por último, el fraccionamiento del equipo para  garantizar la atención, el reto del teletrabajo, la validación en remoto, la  telemedicina y la telefarmacia para la comunicación entre profesionales y  pacientes, así como la formación en esta situación de pandemia, han supuesto  un reto para nuestra profesión. Estos desafíos han creado nuevas oportunidades  de aprendizaje que esperemos nos puedan ser de utilidad en el caso de que  tuviéramos que afrontar situaciones semejantes en el futuro.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Inpatients , Pandemics , Pharmacy Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Aftercare , COVID-19 , Communication , Comorbidity , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Drug Administration Routes , Drug Interactions , Drug Monitoring , Forecasting , Health Personnel/education , Health Services Needs and Demand , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/organization & administration , Off-Label Use , Patient Education as Topic , Patient Safety , Personal Protective Equipment , Pharmacovigilance , Professional-Patient Relations , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine
18.
Ann Pharm Fr ; 79(4): 473-480, 2021 Jul.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1057208

ABSTRACT

With regard to the hospital drug supply chain, the safest system is the individual automated drug dispensing one provided by the pharmacy. For several years we have been trying to convince hospital decision-makers to set it up. In the meantime, to mitigate the risks of medication errors incurred by patients and caregivers, we have set up several work teams within the care units. These teams, made up of one pharmacist and one or two hospital pharmacy technicians, who notably manage the medicine cabinets in care units. The close collaboration with doctors and nurses developed over the years was a determining factor when it became necessary to provide the newly created additional intensive care units with drugs and medical devices (MDs) in order to cope with the crisis triggered by the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic. Daily monitoring of the drugs consumed by each patient, particularly neuromuscular blocking agents and MDs was a key element in managing stocks and anticipating changes of drugs, packaging and/or devices references. These facts give weight to the Claris report published in France which recognizes that the interactions of pharmacy technicians and pharmacists in the care units have positive effects in terms of quality and safety of patient care. They highlight the dangers to which patients and caregivers are exposed on Saturdays, Sundays and holidays when the pharmacy is closed. They legitimize the question of extending the opening of the pharmacy with a full team 365 days a year.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Critical Care/methods , Medication Systems, Hospital/organization & administration , Pandemics , Patient Care Team , Pharmacy Service, Hospital/organization & administration , SARS-CoV-2 , Attitude of Health Personnel , Bed Conversion , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Critical Care/organization & administration , Drug Storage/methods , France , Hospital Departments/organization & administration , Hospitals, University/organization & administration , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/organization & administration , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Medication Errors/prevention & control , Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents/supply & distribution , Night Care/organization & administration , Patient Care Team/organization & administration , Pharmacists , Pharmacy Technicians , Physicians/psychology , Prescriptions/statistics & numerical data , Recovery Room/organization & administration , Security Measures/organization & administration
20.
J Oncol Pharm Pract ; 27(2): 389-394, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1033287

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: With the rapid spread of COVID-19 in New York City since early March 2020, innovative measures were needed for clinical pharmacy specialists to provide direct clinical care safely to cancer patients. Allocating the workforce was necessary to meet the surging needs of the inpatient services due to the COVID-19 outbreak, which had the potential to compromise outpatient services. We present here our approach of restructuring clinical pharmacy services and providing direct patient care in outpatient clinics during the pandemic. DATA SOURCES: We conducted a retrospective review of electronic clinical documentation involving clinical pharmacy specialist patient encounters in 9 outpatient clinics from March 1, 2020 to May 31, 2020. The analysis of the clinical pharmacy specialist interventions and the impact of the interventions was descriptive. DATA SUMMARY: As hospital services were modified to handle the surge due to COVID-19, select clinical pharmacy specialists were redeployed from the outpatient clinics or research blocks to COVID-19 inpatient teams. During these 3 months, clinical pharmacy specialists were involved in 2535 patient visits from 9 outpatient clinics and contributed a total of 4022 interventions, the majority of which utilized telemedicine. The interventions provided critical clinical pharmacy care during the pandemic and omitted 199 in-person visits for medical care. CONCLUSION: The swift transition to telemedicine allowed the provision of direct clinical pharmacy services to patients with cancer during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care Facilities/organization & administration , COVID-19 , Cancer Care Facilities/organization & administration , Neoplasms/therapy , Pandemics , Pharmacy Service, Hospital/organization & administration , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , New York City , Patient Care , Pharmacists , Professional Role , Retrospective Studies , Telemedicine
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