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1.
J Laryngol Otol ; 136(7): 588-603, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133061

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This meta-analysis provides a quantitative measure of the otorhinolaryngological manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 in children. METHODS: A structured literature review was carried out using PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Central, employing pertinent search terms. The statistical analysis was performed using Stata version 14.2 software, and the analysed data were expressed as the pooled prevalence of the symptoms with 95 per cent confidence intervals. RESULTS: The commonest symptoms noted were cough (38 per cent (95 per cent confidence interval = 33-42; I2 = 97.5 per cent)), sore throat (12 per cent (95 per cent confidence interval =10-14; I2 = 93.7 per cent)), and nasal discharge (15 per cent (95 per cent confidence interval = 12-19; I2 = 96.9 per cent)). Anosmia and taste disturbances showed a pooled prevalence of 8 per cent each. Hearing loss, vertigo and hoarseness were rarely reported. CONCLUSION: Cough, sore throat and nasal discharge were the commonest otorhinolaryngological symptoms in paediatric patients with coronavirus disease 2019. Compared with adults, anosmia and taste disturbances were infrequently reported in children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharyngitis , Adult , Anosmia , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/etiology , Humans , Pharyngitis/epidemiology
2.
Immun Inflamm Dis ; 10(6): e632, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850064

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To analyze the epidemic characteristics of the human rhinovirus (HRV) outbreaks in Guangzhou, China, in 2020. METHODS: Descriptive epidemiological methods were used to analyze the HRV-related outbreaks in Guangzhou, 2020. RESULTS: Seventeen outbreaks were reported in 2020 during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Guangzhou, a total of 465 patients (290 males and 175 females) were enrolled, with a median age of 10. A total of 223 (47.96%) had been tested for HRV, 89 (39.91%) of which were positive; 344/465 (73.98%) had a fever, 138/465 (29.68%) had a runny nose, 139/465 (29.89%) had a sore throat, 86/465 (18.49%) had a cough, 41/465 (8.82%) had a headache, and 37/465 (7.96%) had a sneeze. Patients at age of 13-15 had the highest rate of sore throat and runny nose, patients aged 11-12 had the highest rate of sneezing, and patients at age of 12-14 had the highest rate of positive rate. Patients tested positive had a higher rate of fever (χ2 = 11.271, p = .001), cough (χ2 = 6.987, p = .008), runny nose (χ2 = 7.980, p = .005), and sneeze (χ2 = 4.676, p = .031). CONCLUSION: The HRV was restored during the fighting of the COVID-19 pandemic. The conventional COVID-19 control measures were not effective enough in preventing rhinovirus. More appropriate control measures should be used to control HRV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharyngitis , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cough/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pharyngitis/epidemiology , Rhinorrhea , Rhinovirus
4.
Pediatr Int ; 64(1): e14958, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784728

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To combat the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, many countries, including Japan, implemented policies limiting social activities and encouraging preventive behaviors. This study examines the influence of such policies on the trends of 10 infectious pediatric diseases: pharyngoconjunctival fever; group A streptococcal pharyngitis; infectious gastroenteritis; chickenpox; erythema infectiosum; hand, foot, and mouth disease; herpangina; respiratory syncytial virus; exanthem subitum; and mumps. METHODS: The research adopted a retrospective cohort study design. We collected data from Japan's National Epidemiological Surveillance Program detailing the incidences of the 10 diseases per pediatric sentinel site for a period beginning at 9 weeks before government-ordered school closures and ending at 9 weeks after the end of the state of emergency. We obtained corresponding data for the equivalent weeks in 2015-2019. We estimated the influence of the policies using a difference-in-differences regression model. RESULTS: For seven diseases (pharyngoconjunctival fever; group A streptococcal pharyngitis; infectious gastroenteritis; chickenpox; erythema infectiosum; hand, foot, and mouth disease; and herpangina), the incidence in 2020 decreased significantly during and after the school closures. Sensitivity analysis, in which the focus area was limited to the policy-implementation period or existing trend patterns, replicated these significant decreases for one of the above mentioned seven diseases - infectious gastroenteritis. CONCLUSIONS: Policies such as school closures and encouragement of preventive behaviors were associated with significant decreases in the incidences of most of the 10 diseases, which sensitivity analysis replicated in infectious gastroenteritis. To determine the long-term effects of these policies, prospective cohort studies are needed.


Subject(s)
Adenovirus Infections, Human , COVID-19 , Chickenpox , Communicable Diseases , Erythema Infectiosum , Gastroenteritis , Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease , Herpangina , Pharyngitis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Pharyngitis/epidemiology , Policy , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Streptococcus pyogenes
5.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(14): e106, 2022 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785311

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although several characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an ongoing pandemic disease, have been identified, data on the infectivity of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are limited. METHODS: This prospective cohort study was conducted to analyze the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 based on data of all patients diagnosed with COVID-19 confirmed using real-time polymerase chain reaction test from January to April 2020 in Gyeonggi-do, the largest province in Korea. RESULTS: Of the 502 patients, 298 consisting of 106 clusters with 5,909 contacts were included. Of these, 277 (93.0%) were symptomatic, and the most common symptoms were cough, fever, sputum, sore throat, and headache. A total of 94 patients (31.5%) had pneumonia, while 8 (2.7%) died during the follow-up period. The secondary attack rate (SAR) in the study population was 3.5% (204/5,909). In exposure settings, the SAR was higher in religious gathering (13.5% [95% confidence interval, 10.7-16.8%]), workplaces (8.49% [95% CI, 6.08-11.74%]), and schools (6.38% [95% CI, 3.39-11.69%]) than in health care facilities (1.92% [95% CI, 1.45-2.55%]). Sore throat at any period, dyspnea at diagnosis or any period, lower cycle threshold value in the lower respiratory tract samples, leukocytosis, and higher bilirubin levels were associated with higher infectivity of COVID-19. The presence of symptoms was not related to the infectivity. CONCLUSION: In establishing the infection control strategies for COVID-19, the variables associated with high infectivity may be considered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharyngitis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Pharyngitis/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 279(8): 4157-4166, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712236

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To longitudinally evaluate the impact of the COVID-19-pandemic on the incidence of inpatient tonsil surgery and outpatient primary care of sore throat in Germany. METHODS: A retrospective interrupted time-series analysis was conducted. The national database of the Hospital Remuneration System was used to retrieve the number of operations performed between January 2019 and September 2021 including elective and non-elective cases with the exception of malign diseases. Three episodes were compared on a weekly basis: before, during, and after the first national lockdown (March 16-May 3, 2020). We also analysed the number of outpatient doctor contacts of sore throat patients in 2019 and 2020. RESULTS: Overall, 144,069 surgical cases were included in the analysis. The first lockdown resulted in an abrupt and significant decrease of all types of tonsil surgery (p < 0.01). The incidence of tonsillectomy decreased from 556 (before) to 111 (during) and 326 (after) cases per week (relative risk 0.24; 95% CI 0.19-0.30, and 0.82; 95% CI 0.73-0.92). After the lockdown, the incidence persisted on a lower level compared to 2019. The number of doctor contacts decreased from 2,967,322 in 2019 to 1,976,617 in 2020 (- 33.4%). CONCLUSIONS: The first lockdown was associated with a significant decrease of all types of tonsil surgery. A return to pre-pandemic surgical activity was not identified. The findings were accompanied by a significant decrease of outpatient doctor contacts of sore throat patients in primary care, particularly in the subgroup of children and adolescents. The impact of the second lockdown, starting in December 2020, was by far not comparable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharyngitis , Tonsillectomy , Tonsillitis , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Incidence , Palatine Tonsil , Pandemics , Pharyngitis/complications , Pharyngitis/epidemiology , Pharyngitis/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Tonsillectomy/methods , Tonsillitis/complications , Tonsillitis/epidemiology , Tonsillitis/surgery
8.
Ghana Med J ; 54(4 Suppl): 23-32, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436191

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This analysis described the clinical features of COVID-19 in the early phase of the pandemic in Ghana. METHODS: Data were extracted from two national COVID-19 treatment centers in Ghana for over 11 weeks(from March to May 2020). Descriptive and inferential statistics were performed. Modified Ordered Logistic and Negative Binomial Regression analysis were applied to establish factors associated with illness severity and Non-communicable Disease (NCDs) counts respectively. All analysis was conducted at the 95% confidence level (p-value ≤ 0.05) using Stata 16. RESULTS: Among the 275 patients, the average age was 40.7±16.4, with a preponderance of males (54.5%). The three commonest symptoms presented were cough (21.3%), headache (15.7%), and sore throat (11.7%). Only 7.6% of the patients had a history of fever. Most patients were asymptomatic (51.65). Approximately 38.9% have an underlying co-morbid NCDs, with Hypertension (32.1%), Diabetes (9.9%), and Asthma (5.2%) being the three commonest. The odds of Moderate/severe (MoS) was significantly higher for those with unknown exposures to similar illness [aOR(95%CI) = 4.27(1.12-10.2)] compared with non-exposure to similar illness. An increased unit of NCD's count significantly increased the odds of COVID-19 MoS illness by 26%[cOR(95%CI) =1.26(1.09-1.84)] and 67% (adjusting for age) [aOR(95%CI)=1.67(1.13-2.49)]. CONCLUSION: The presence of cardiovascular co-morbidities dictated the frequency of reported symptoms and severity of COVID-19 infection in this sample of Ghanaians. Physicians should be aware of the presence of co-morbid NCDs and prepare to manage effectively among COVID-19 patients. FUNDING: None declared.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/virology , Female , Ghana/epidemiology , Headache/epidemiology , Headache/virology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pharyngitis/epidemiology , Pharyngitis/virology , Regression Analysis
9.
Ghana Med J ; 54(4 Suppl): 16-22, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436190

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 is a new disease, knowledge on the mode of transmission and clinical features are still evolving, new tests are being developed with inherent challenges regarding interpretation of tests results. There is generally, a gap in knowledge on the virus globally as the pandemic evolves and in Ghana, there is dearth of information and documentation on the clinical characteristics of the virus. With these in mind, we set out to profile the initial cohort of COVID-19 patients who recovered in Ghana. METHODS: We reviewed clinical records of all confirmed cases of COVID-19 who had recovered from the two main treatment centres in Accra, Ghana. Descriptive data analysis was employed and presented in simple and relational tables. Independent t-test and ANOVA were used to determine differences in the mean age of the sexes and the number of days taken for the first and second retesting to be done per selected patient characteristics. RESULTS: Of the 146 records reviewed, 54% were male; mean age of patients was 41.9 ± 17.5 years, nearly half were asymptomatic, with 9% being severely ill. The commonest presenting symptoms were cough (22.6%), headache (13%) and sore throat (11%) while the commonest co-morbidities were hypertension (25.3%), diabetes mellitus (14%) and heart disease (3.4%). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 affected more males than females; nearly half of those infected were asymptomatic. Cough, headache and sore throat were the commonest symptoms and mean duration from case confirmation to full recovery was 19 days. Further research is required as pandemic evolves. FUNDING: None declared.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Age Distribution , Analysis of Variance , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/virology , Female , Ghana/epidemiology , Headache/epidemiology , Headache/virology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pharyngitis/epidemiology , Pharyngitis/virology , Sex Distribution
10.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e193, 2021 07 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1366777

ABSTRACT

There is a paucity of evidence about the prevalence and risk factors for symptomatic infection among children. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of symptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its risk factors in children and adolescents aged 0-18 years in Qatar. We conducted a cross-sectional study of all children aged 0-18 years diagnosed with COVID-19 using polymerase chain reaction in Qatar during the period 1st March to 31st July 2020. A generalised linear model with a binomial family and identity link was used to assess the association between selected factors and the prevalence of symptomatic infection. A total of 11 445 children with a median age of 8 years (interquartile range (IQR) 3-13 years) were included in this study. The prevalence of symptomatic COVID-19 was 36.6% (95% confidence interval (CI) 35.7-37.5), and it was similar between children aged <5 years (37.8%), 5-9 years (34.3%) and 10 + years (37.3%). The most frequently reported symptoms among the symptomatic group were fever (73.5%), cough (34.8%), headache (23.2%) and sore throat (23.2%). Fever (82.8%) was more common in symptomatic children aged <5 years, while cough (38.7%) was more prevalent in those aged 10 years or older, compared to other age groups. Variables associated with an increased risk of symptomatic infection were; contact with confirmed cases (RD 0.21; 95% CI 0.20-0.23; P = 0.001), having visited a health care facility (RD 0.54; 95% CI 0.45-0.62; P = 0.001), and children aged under 5 years (RD 0.05; 95% CI 0.02-0.07; P = 0.001) or aged 10 years or older (RD 0.04; 95% CI 0.02-0.06; P = 0.001). A third of the children with COVID-19 were symptomatic with a higher proportion of fever in very young children and a higher proportion of cough in those between 10 and 18 years of age.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cough/epidemiology , Fever/epidemiology , Headache/epidemiology , Pharyngitis/epidemiology , Adolescent , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Qatar/epidemiology , Risk Factors
11.
J Res Health Sci ; 21(2): e00512, 2021 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1326174

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to analyze the demographic and epidemiological features of identified COVID-19 cases in Kazakhstan. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. METHODS: This cross-sectional study aimed to analyze COVID-19 cases (n=5116) collected from March 13 to June 6, 2020, in Kazakhstan. The data were obtained from a state official medical electronic database. The study investigated the geographic and demographic data of patients as well as the association of COVID-19 cases with gender and age. The prevalence of symptoms, the presence of comorbidities, complications, and COVID-19 mortality were determined for all patients. RESULTS: The mean±SD age of the patients in this study was 34.8±17.6 years, and the majority (55.7%) of COVID-19 cases were male and residents of cities (79.6%). In total, 80% of the cases had the asymptomatic/mild form of the disease. Cough (20.8 %) and sore throat (17.1%) were the most common symptoms among patients, and pneumonia was diagnosed in 1 out of 5 cases. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was recorded in 1.2% of the patients. The fatality rate was 1% in the study population and lethality was 2.6 times higher in males compared to females.  Each additional year in age increased the probability of COVID-19 infection by 1.06 times. The presence of cardiovascular, diabetes, respiratory, and kidney diseases affected the rate of mortality (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: The results demonstrated a high proportion (40%) of the asymptomatic type of coronavirus infection in the Kazakhstan population. The severity of COVID-19 symptoms and lethality were directly related to the age of patients and the presence of comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carrier State/virology , Cough/etiology , Pandemics , Pharyngitis/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Carrier State/epidemiology , Child , Comorbidity , Cough/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Kazakhstan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pharyngitis/epidemiology , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pneumonia/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Young Adult
12.
Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica ; 37(2): 335-340, 2020.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1128201

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is rarely reported in children and they are mildly affected in most cases. The most common clinical presentation of COVID-19 is cough, fever and sore throat; severe cases show tachypnea. The course of the disease is from one to two weeks. Laboratory findings are nonspecific; lymphopenia, elevation of C-reactive protein and procalcitonin have been described. Early chest X-ray is usually normal, and the most common tomographic findings are consolidations with halo, ground-glass opacities and tiny nodules which mainly affects subpleural areas. Management of the disease is supportive; in severe cases, it should be focused on respiratory support. It is recommended to limit the handling of respiratory secretions and to follow the same preventive measures provided to adults.


La enfermedad del coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) es poco frecuente en niños y su salud se ve poco comprometida en la mayoría de casos. La presentación clínica más común es tos, fiebre y eritema faríngeo, los casos graves suelen presentarse con taquipnea. El curso de la enfermedad es de una a dos semanas. Los hallazgos de laboratorio son inespecíficos, entre ellos, linfopenia, elevación de la proteína C reactiva y la procalcitonina. En fases iniciales, la radiografía torácica es usualmente normal, y los hallazgos tomográficos más comunes son consolidaciones con signo del halo, vidrio esmerilado y nódulos pequeños, que afectan principalmente las zonas subpleurales. El manejo es sintomático y, en los casos graves, debe estar enfocado a brindar soporte respiratorio. Se recomienda que la manipulación de las secreciones respiratorias sea limitada y que se tengan las mismas precauciones para evitar contaminación que en pacientes adultos.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cough/epidemiology , Fever/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Age Factors , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Cough/virology , Fever/virology , Humans , Pandemics , Pharyngitis/epidemiology , Pharyngitis/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
13.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(3): e211085, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125122

ABSTRACT

Importance: Solid estimates of the risk of developing symptoms and of progressing to critical disease in individuals infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are key to interpreting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) dynamics, identifying the settings and the segments of the population where transmission is more likely to remain undetected, and defining effective control strategies. Objective: To estimate the association of age with the likelihood of developing symptoms and the association of age with the likelihood of progressing to critical illness after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study analyzed quarantined case contacts, identified between February 20 and April 16, 2020, in the Lombardy region of Italy. Contacts were monitored daily for symptoms and tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection, by either real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction using nasopharyngeal swabs or retrospectively via IgG serological assays. Close contacts of individuals with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were selected as those belonging to clusters (ie, groups of contacts associated with an index case) where all individuals were followed up for symptoms and tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Data were analyzed from February to June 2020. Exposure: Close contact with individuals with confirmed COVID-19 cases as identified by contact tracing operations. Main Outcomes and Measures: Age-specific estimates of the risk of developing respiratory symptoms or fever greater than or equal to 37.5 °C and of experiencing critical disease (defined as requiring intensive care or resulting in death) in SARS-CoV-2-infected case contacts. Results: In total, 5484 case contacts (median [interquartile range] age, 50 [30-61] years; 3086 female contacts [56.3%]) were analyzed, 2824 of whom (51.5%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (median [interquartile range] age, 53 [34-64] years; 1604 female contacts [56.8%]). The proportion of infected persons who developed symptoms ranged from 18.1% (95% CI, 13.9%-22.9%) among participants younger than 20 years to 64.6% (95% CI, 56.6%-72.0%) for those aged 80 years or older. Most infected contacts (1948 of 2824 individuals [69.0%]) did not develop respiratory symptoms or fever greater than or equal to 37.5 °C. Only 26.1% (95% CI, 24.1%-28.2%) of infected individuals younger than 60 years developed respiratory symptoms or fever greater than or equal to 37.5 °C; among infected participants older than 60 years, 6.6% (95% CI, 5.1%-8.3%) developed critical disease. Female patients were 52.7% (95% CI, 24.4%-70.7%) less likely than male patients to develop critical disease after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Conclusions and Relevance: In this Italian cohort study of close contacts of patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, more than one-half of individuals tested positive for the virus. However, most infected individuals did not develop respiratory symptoms or fever. The low proportion of children and young adults who developed symptoms highlights the possible challenges in readily identifying SARS-CoV-2 infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Carrier State/epidemiology , Cough/epidemiology , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Fever/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Chest Pain/epidemiology , Chest Pain/physiopathology , Child , Child, Preschool , Contact Tracing , Cough/physiopathology , Critical Illness , Disease Progression , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Female , Fever/physiopathology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pharyngitis/epidemiology , Pharyngitis/physiopathology , Quarantine , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Tachypnea/epidemiology , Tachypnea/physiopathology , Young Adult
14.
West Afr J Med ; 38(1): 54-58, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1037633

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 infection continues to ravage the global community since it was declared a pandemic. The socio-demographic and clinical characteristics defining the disease are mainly from Europe and Asia. The disease symptomatology is similar to the prevalent diseases in our environment, this could result in the delay in prompt identification and appropriate management of suspected cases toward combating community transmission. This study evaluates the prevalence, socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of positive cases of COVID -19. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study. Data on the socio-demographic, clinical characteristics and the results of the SARS-CoV-2 test of participants at the Nigerian Institute of Medical Research [NIMR] Modified Drive-through Centre for COVID-19 test sample collection over two months [24th February 2020- 27th April 2020] were retrieved from the electronic medical records (EMR). Data obtained were analyzed using SPSS version 22.0. RESULTS: A total number of 481 clients were evaluated in this review. The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the population was 14.6%. The mean age of the positive cases was 42.2 [±15.9] years. The common symptoms reported by the positive cases were fever (40.0%), cough (32.9%), sore throat (17.1%) and running nose (15.7%). Fever depicted statistical significance with positive cases with the majority being of mild to moderate clinical severity. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among this cohort was 14.6% with a male preponderance. Fever and sore throat were the variables that predicted SARS CoV-2 infection among our cohort.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/etiology , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/etiology , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/etiology , Headache/epidemiology , Headache/etiology , Humans , Male , Nigeria/epidemiology , Pharyngitis/epidemiology , Pharyngitis/etiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies
15.
Rev Recent Clin Trials ; 16(3): 294-302, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1034907

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: At the time of writing this paper, no data was available for the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of African patients with COVID-19. Herein, we profiled retrospectively the epidemiological characteristics (clinical, laboratory, radiological, treatment, and clinical outcomes) of 64 confirmed cases of COVID-19 in the Regional Hospital Center (RHC) of Errachidia in Morocco. The aim of this study was to analyze the epidemiological characteristics and laboratory Findings of Covid-19 patients in Errachidia Province, Morocco. METHODS: This is a retrospective single-center study that included all COVID-19 confirmed patients (died or discharged) hospitalized in the Regional Center of Errachidia, Morocco, between March 20, 2020 and May 23, 2020. Patients were confirmed by real-time RT-PCR and epidemiological, demographic, clinical, laboratory, treatment, and outcomes of patients were extracted manually from patient's medical records. RESULTS: In a total of 64 patients with COVID-19, 60.9% of patients were men, with a mean age of 41.5 years (SD 18.62). At the admission, 38 patients were asymptomatic (59.4%), and 58 (90.6%) were clinically classified as being in a benign state. Chronic illnesses were the most comorbidities observed, including diabetes with 8 cases (12.5%), hypertension 3 cases (4.7%), and hyperlipidemia 1 patient (1.6%). The main symptoms were cough 15 (23.4%), fever 10 (15.6), diarrhea 8 (12.5%), headache 5 (7.8%), and sore throat 5 (7.8%). Only 7 patients (10.9%) had lung lesions, and lymphopenia was present in only 7 patients (11.1%). The median duration of viral shedding was 14.5 days (9-22). Concerning deceased cases, they were elderly subjects aged 69.75 years, and they have presented dyspnea, breathing problems, and respiratory distress as specific symptoms. In addition, an increase of the medians of serum AST, CRP, and glucose levels was noticed in this group. During hospitalization, they presented acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and they were transferred to intensive care before they died. CONCLUSION: This study revealed that covid-19 infection often appeared in a benign form in the studied population (90.6% in this study). This finding may incriminate the implication of some protective parameters such as genetic, nutritional or other factors in the Moroccan population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Asymptomatic Diseases/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/virology , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/virology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/virology , Headache/epidemiology , Headache/virology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Morocco/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pharyngitis/epidemiology , Pharyngitis/virology , Retrospective Studies , Virus Shedding
16.
Arch Argent Pediatr ; 118(6): 418-426, 2020 12.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-940640

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Despite the magnitude of the COVID-19 pandemic, the information about its development in pediatrics is still limited. This report describes the characteristics of patients admitted to a children's hospital due to COVID-19 during the first three months of the pandemic. METHOD: Descriptive study including all patients hospitalized due to COVID-19 between 4/1/2020 and 6/30/2020. RESULTS: A total of 191 patients were hospitalized due to COVID-19; their median age was 7.7 years; 89% had a history of close contact. Of them, 35.6 % were considered asymptomatic; 61.2 %, mild cases; and 3.2 %, moderate cases (no severe cases). None of them received a specific treatment for the disease. The most common symptoms were fever, sore throat, and cough. The median length of stay was 6 days. CONCLUSION: A total of 191 cases of children and adolescents admitted due to COVID-19 are reported. Most were asymptomatic or presented with a mild disease.


Introducción. A pesar de la magnitud de la pandemia por COVID-19, la información sobre su desarrollo en pediatría es aún limitada. Se describen las características de pacientes hospitalizados por COVID-19 en un hospital pediátrico durante los primeros tres meses de la pandemia. Método. Estudio descriptivo, que incluyó a todos los pacientes hospitalizados por COVID-19, desde el 1/4/2020 al 30/6/2020. Resultados. Se hospitalizaron 191 pacientes por COVID-19; la edad mediana fue 7,7 años; el 89 % presentaban antecedente de contacto. El 35,6 % se consideraron asintomáticos; el 61,2 %, leves, y el 3,2 %, moderados (no se observaron pacientes graves). Ninguno recibió tratamiento específico para la enfermedad. Los síntomas más frecuentes fueron fiebre, odinofagia y tos. La duración de la hospitalización tuvo una mediana de 6 días. Conclusión. Se reportaron 191 casos de niños y adolescentes hospitalizados por COVID-19. La mayoría fueron asintomáticos o presentaron enfermedad leve.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, Pediatric , Adolescent , Argentina , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/virology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/virology , Humans , Infant , Length of Stay , Male , Pharyngitis/epidemiology , Pharyngitis/virology , Severity of Illness Index
17.
J Int Med Res ; 48(10): 300060520961276, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-883486

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To survey perceived general and ear-nose-throat (ENT) symptoms of COVID-19 in relation to psychological impact, mental health, perception of information and demographic characteristics in quarantined subjects during a lockdown period in Italy. METHODS: Participants were 1380 respondents who completed an online survey. A logistic regression model was used to evaluate the association between the independent variables and perceived symptoms. RESULTS: Participants reported different prevalences of perceived ENT and general symptoms. Coryza, cough, sore throat and tinnitus were the most common symptoms, and there was a low prevalence of anxiety, depression and stress compared with the psychological impact of the symptom. Comparison of the two symptom groups demonstrated a common need for updates, their relationship with the media and correct information about the route of transmission. CONCLUSIONS: The health information provided during a disease outbreak must be grounded in evidence. This would help to prevent adverse psychological reactions and somatization symptoms that can engulf healthcare systems, especially in clinical areas like ENT, which frequently treat airway problems.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cough/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pharyngitis/epidemiology , Rhinitis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tinnitus/epidemiology , Young Adult
18.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 32(2): 358-362, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-760184

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Milder symptoms were observed in children with COVID-19. However, whether this also holds true for neonates is not known. METHODS: The clinical data of a total of 3213 patients aged 2 years or below, including 749 neonates, in Brazil nationwide were studied. Comparisons were made between neonate and infant patients by conducting statistical tests. RESULTS: Neonates appeared to bear more severe clinical courses. In addition to higher case fatality rates, newborns with COVID-19 had much shorter time from symptom onset to death and longer time from symptom onset to discharge. Dyspnoea, sore throat and cough were more prominent in neonate patients, suggestive of both upper and lower respiratory tract infection, as opposed to upper respiratory tract symptoms mostly observed in children. CONCLUSION: Findings suggested that trained immunity provides a possible explanation because the innate immune system in newborns is not "well-trained" while that in adult tends to hyperactive.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Child, Preschool , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pharyngitis/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Brain Behav Immun ; 88: 559-565, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-100653

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Since the declaration of the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak as pandemic, there are reports on the increased prevalence of physical symptoms observed in the general population. We investigated the association between psychological outcomes and physical symptoms among healthcare workers. METHODS: Healthcare workers from 5 major hospitals, involved in the care for COVID-19 patients, in Singapore and India were invited to participate in a study by performing a self-administered questionnaire within the period of February 19 to April 17, 2020. Healthcare workers included doctors, nurses, allied healthcare workers, administrators, clerical staff and maintenance workers. This questionnaire collected information on demographics, medical history, symptom prevalence in the past month, Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21) and the Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R) instrument. The prevalence of physical symptoms displayed by healthcare workers and the associations between physical symptoms and psychological outcomes of depression, anxiety, stress, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were evaluated. RESULTS: Out of the 906 healthcare workers who participated in the survey, 48 (5.3%) screened positive for moderate to very-severe depression, 79 (8.7%) for moderate to extremely-severe anxiety, 20 (2.2%) for moderate to extremely-severe stress, and 34 (3.8%) for moderate to severe levels of psychological distress. The commonest reported symptom was headache (32.3%), with a large number of participants (33.4%) reporting more than four symptoms. Participants who had experienced symptoms in the preceding month were more likely to be older, have pre-existing comorbidities and a positive screen for depression, anxiety, stress, and PTSD. After adjusting for age, gender and comorbidities, it was found that depression (OR 2.79, 95% CI 1.54-5.07, p = 0.001), anxiety (OR 2.18, 95% CI 1.36-3.48, p = 0.001), stress (OR 3.06, 95% CI 1.27-7.41, p = 0.13), and PTSD (OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.12-4.35, p = 0.023) remained significantly associated with the presence of physical symptoms experienced in the preceding month. Linear regression revealed that the presence of physical symptoms was associated with higher mean scores in the IES-R, DASS Anxiety, Stress and Depression subscales. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates a significant association between the prevalence of physical symptoms and psychological outcomes among healthcare workers during the COVID-19 outbreak. We postulate that this association may be bi-directional, and that timely psychological interventions for healthcare workers with physical symptoms should be considered once an infection has been excluded.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections , Depression/epidemiology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adult , Allied Health Personnel/psychology , Allied Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Female , Headache/epidemiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , India/epidemiology , Internationality , Lethargy/epidemiology , Male , Nurses/psychology , Nurses/statistics & numerical data , Pharyngitis/epidemiology , Physicians/psychology , Physicians/statistics & numerical data , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Singapore/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
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