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1.
Int J Mol Med ; 49(3)2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625254

ABSTRACT

Mefenamic acid is a non­steroidal anti­inflammatory drug exhibiting a wide range of anti­inflammatory, antipyretic, analgesic and probable antiviral activities. The present study evaluated the efficacy of treatment with mefenamic acid combined with standard medical care vs. standard medical care plus a placebo in ambulatory patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID­19; nasal/oropharyngeal swabs reverse transcription­PCR test results positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2). The present study is a phase II prospective, two­arm, parallel­group, randomized, double­blind placebo­controlled clinical trial which analyzed 36 patients. Two aspects were evaluated during the 14­day follow­up period: i) The time for reaching a patient acceptable symptom state (PASS), and ii) the last day of each COVID­19 symptom presentation. Adverse effects were evaluated. The clinical severity for all the patients in the study was mild (88.9%) and moderate (11.1%). The control (placebo) group achieved PASS on day 8.0±1.3, compared with day 4.4±0.8 in the mefenamic acid group (P=0.020, Kaplan­Meier analyses using log­rank tests). Patients that received mefenamic acid plus standard medical care had a ~16­fold higher probability of achieving PASS on day 8 (adjusted RR, 15.57; 95% CI, 1.22­198.71; P=0.035), compared with the placebo plus standard medical care group. All symptoms lasted for fewer days in the mefenamic acid group, compared with the placebo group; however, only the symptoms of headache (P=0.008), retro­orbital eye pain (P=0.049), and sore throat (P=0.029) exhibited statistically significant differences. The experimental treatment produced no severe adverse effects. On the whole, the present study demonstrates that the administration of mefenamic acid markedly reduced the symptomatology and time to reach PASS in ambulatory patients with COVID­19. Due to its probable antiviral effects and potent anti­inflammatory mechanisms, mefenamic acid may prove to be useful in the treatment of COVID­19, in combination with other drugs, including the new antivirals (remdesivir, molnupiravir, or favipiravir). However, future studies are also required to confirm these findings.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Mefenamic Acid/therapeutic use , Ambulatory Care , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Combined Modality Therapy , Double-Blind Method , Eye Pain/etiology , Headache/etiology , Humans , Pharyngitis/etiology , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
2.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 89(1): 1-8, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561815

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptoms among people living with HIV (PLWH) are not well described. SETTING: Longitudinal survey within the MACS/WIHS Combined Cohort Study (MWCCS) of PLWH compared with similar HIV-seronegative (SN) individuals. METHODS: Telephone-administered survey of MWCCS participants at 13 clinical research sites across the United States addressing COVID-19 symptoms, SARS-CoV-2 testing, and pandemic impact on social distancing and antiretroviral therapy (ART) use. Primary data collection occurred during May (wave 1), June-July (wave 2), and August-September, 2020 (wave 3). RESULTS: One-third of MWCCS participants were tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection; 10% was tested ≥2 times. Similar proportions of PLWH and SN participants were tested, but SARS-CoV-2 positivity was higher among PLWH than among SN individuals (9.4% vs 4.8%, P = 0.003). Odds of SARS-CoV-2 positivity remained higher among PLWH after adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and study site (adjusted odds ratio = 2.0, 95% confidence interval = 1.2 to 3.2). SARS-CoV-2 positivity was not associated with CD4 cell counts among PLWH. Among SARS-CoV-2 positive participants, 9% had no symptoms, 7% had 1-2 mild symptoms, and 84% had ≥3 symptoms. Most of the (98%) participants reported physical distancing during all survey waves; self-reported ART adherence among PLWH was not adversely affected during the pandemic compared with the previous year (similar adherence in 89% of participants, improved in 9% of participants, and decreased in 2% of participants). CONCLUSIONS: Despite similar SARS-CoV-2 testing and physical distancing profiles by HIV serostatus among MWCCS participants, PLWH who reported SARS-CoV-2 testing were more likely to have a positive test result. Additional studies are needed to determine whether and why PLWH are at increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Fever/etiology , HIV Infections/complications , Pharyngitis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Aged , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Cohort Studies , Cough , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence
3.
Arch Pediatr ; 28(7): 573-575, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1491712

ABSTRACT

In the context of the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, cutaneous lesions are being described. Here, we report on a 13-year-old girl with SARS-CoV-2-associated Henoch-Schönlein purpura and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. She presented without any respiratory symptoms, only a purpuric skin rash, abdominal pain, low-grade fever, and pharyngitis. Virology tests by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were positive for SARS-CoV-2 and EBV. The potential association of Henoch-Schönlein purpura and SARS-CoV-2 should be kept in mind in order to reduce the spread of the virus, particularly in children with few respiratory symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/diagnosis , Herpesvirus 4, Human/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Adolescent , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/complications , Exanthema/etiology , Female , Fever/etiology , Herpesvirus 4, Human/genetics , Humans , Pharyngitis/etiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
6.
PLoS Med ; 18(9): e1003777, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440982

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rapid detection, isolation, and contact tracing of community COVID-19 cases are essential measures to limit the community spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We aimed to identify a parsimonious set of symptoms that jointly predict COVID-19 and investigated whether predictive symptoms differ between the B.1.1.7 (Alpha) lineage (predominating as of April 2021 in the US, UK, and elsewhere) and wild type. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We obtained throat and nose swabs with valid SARS-CoV-2 PCR test results from 1,147,370 volunteers aged 5 years and above (6,450 positive cases) in the REal-time Assessment of Community Transmission-1 (REACT-1) study. This study involved repeated community-based random surveys of prevalence in England (study rounds 2 to 8, June 2020 to January 2021, response rates 22%-27%). Participants were asked about symptoms occurring in the week prior to testing. Viral genome sequencing was carried out for PCR-positive samples with N-gene cycle threshold value < 34 (N = 1,079) in round 8 (January 2021). In univariate analysis, all 26 surveyed symptoms were associated with PCR positivity compared with non-symptomatic people. Stability selection (1,000 penalized logistic regression models with 50% subsampling) among people reporting at least 1 symptom identified 7 symptoms as jointly and positively predictive of PCR positivity in rounds 2-7 (June to December 2020): loss or change of sense of smell, loss or change of sense of taste, fever, new persistent cough, chills, appetite loss, and muscle aches. The resulting model (rounds 2-7) predicted PCR positivity in round 8 with area under the curve (AUC) of 0.77. The same 7 symptoms were selected as jointly predictive of B.1.1.7 infection in round 8, although when comparing B.1.1.7 with wild type, new persistent cough and sore throat were more predictive of B.1.1.7 infection while loss or change of sense of smell was more predictive of the wild type. The main limitations of our study are (i) potential participation bias despite random sampling of named individuals from the National Health Service register and weighting designed to achieve a representative sample of the population of England and (ii) the necessary reliance on self-reported symptoms, which may be prone to recall bias and may therefore lead to biased estimates of symptom prevalence in England. CONCLUSIONS: Where testing capacity is limited, it is important to use tests in the most efficient way possible. We identified a set of 7 symptoms that, when considered together, maximize detection of COVID-19 in the community, including infection with the B.1.1.7 lineage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Models, Biological , Ageusia/diagnosis , Ageusia/etiology , Ageusia/virology , Anosmia/diagnosis , Anosmia/etiology , Anosmia/virology , Appetite , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/virology , Chills/diagnosis , Chills/etiology , Chills/virology , Communicable Disease Control , Cough/diagnosis , Cough/etiology , Cough/virology , England , False Positive Reactions , Female , Fever/diagnosis , Fever/etiology , Fever/virology , Humans , Male , Mass Screening , Myalgia/diagnosis , Myalgia/etiology , Myalgia/virology , Pharyngitis/diagnosis , Pharyngitis/etiology , Pharyngitis/virology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , State Medicine
7.
Arch Pediatr ; 28(7): 573-575, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358159

ABSTRACT

In the context of the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, cutaneous lesions are being described. Here, we report on a 13-year-old girl with SARS-CoV-2-associated Henoch-Schönlein purpura and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. She presented without any respiratory symptoms, only a purpuric skin rash, abdominal pain, low-grade fever, and pharyngitis. Virology tests by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were positive for SARS-CoV-2 and EBV. The potential association of Henoch-Schönlein purpura and SARS-CoV-2 should be kept in mind in order to reduce the spread of the virus, particularly in children with few respiratory symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/diagnosis , Herpesvirus 4, Human/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Adolescent , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/complications , Exanthema/etiology , Female , Fever/etiology , Herpesvirus 4, Human/genetics , Humans , Pharyngitis/etiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
9.
J Res Health Sci ; 21(2): e00512, 2021 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1326174

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to analyze the demographic and epidemiological features of identified COVID-19 cases in Kazakhstan. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. METHODS: This cross-sectional study aimed to analyze COVID-19 cases (n=5116) collected from March 13 to June 6, 2020, in Kazakhstan. The data were obtained from a state official medical electronic database. The study investigated the geographic and demographic data of patients as well as the association of COVID-19 cases with gender and age. The prevalence of symptoms, the presence of comorbidities, complications, and COVID-19 mortality were determined for all patients. RESULTS: The mean±SD age of the patients in this study was 34.8±17.6 years, and the majority (55.7%) of COVID-19 cases were male and residents of cities (79.6%). In total, 80% of the cases had the asymptomatic/mild form of the disease. Cough (20.8 %) and sore throat (17.1%) were the most common symptoms among patients, and pneumonia was diagnosed in 1 out of 5 cases. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was recorded in 1.2% of the patients. The fatality rate was 1% in the study population and lethality was 2.6 times higher in males compared to females.  Each additional year in age increased the probability of COVID-19 infection by 1.06 times. The presence of cardiovascular, diabetes, respiratory, and kidney diseases affected the rate of mortality (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: The results demonstrated a high proportion (40%) of the asymptomatic type of coronavirus infection in the Kazakhstan population. The severity of COVID-19 symptoms and lethality were directly related to the age of patients and the presence of comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carrier State/virology , Cough/etiology , Pandemics , Pharyngitis/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Carrier State/epidemiology , Child , Comorbidity , Cough/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Kazakhstan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pharyngitis/epidemiology , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pneumonia/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Young Adult
10.
West Afr J Med ; 38(1): 54-58, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1037633

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 infection continues to ravage the global community since it was declared a pandemic. The socio-demographic and clinical characteristics defining the disease are mainly from Europe and Asia. The disease symptomatology is similar to the prevalent diseases in our environment, this could result in the delay in prompt identification and appropriate management of suspected cases toward combating community transmission. This study evaluates the prevalence, socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of positive cases of COVID -19. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study. Data on the socio-demographic, clinical characteristics and the results of the SARS-CoV-2 test of participants at the Nigerian Institute of Medical Research [NIMR] Modified Drive-through Centre for COVID-19 test sample collection over two months [24th February 2020- 27th April 2020] were retrieved from the electronic medical records (EMR). Data obtained were analyzed using SPSS version 22.0. RESULTS: A total number of 481 clients were evaluated in this review. The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the population was 14.6%. The mean age of the positive cases was 42.2 [±15.9] years. The common symptoms reported by the positive cases were fever (40.0%), cough (32.9%), sore throat (17.1%) and running nose (15.7%). Fever depicted statistical significance with positive cases with the majority being of mild to moderate clinical severity. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among this cohort was 14.6% with a male preponderance. Fever and sore throat were the variables that predicted SARS CoV-2 infection among our cohort.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/etiology , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/etiology , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/etiology , Headache/epidemiology , Headache/etiology , Humans , Male , Nigeria/epidemiology , Pharyngitis/epidemiology , Pharyngitis/etiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies
11.
Ear Nose Throat J ; 100(2_suppl): 182S-185S, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992240

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Alteration of smell and taste has been reported in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The incidence and clinical-symptomatic manifestation of COVID-19 is different between northern and southern Italy. This study aims to evaluate the onset of alteration of smell and taste in asymptomatic and symptomatic patients in Sicily (extreme south of Italy). METHODS: This prospective cross-sectional study was performed on asymptomatic and symptomatic COVID-19 patients tested for severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) from May 1 to May 15, 2020. A questionnaire was used for evaluating the prevalence of smell and taste disorders in COVID-19 patients before performing nasopharyngeal swab. RESULTS: Of the total 292 patients, 242 (83.2%) were negative for SARS-CoV-2 and 50 were positive (16.8%). Twenty-six of the 50 (52%) SARS-CoV-2 positive patients reported smell/taste disorders. Twenty-eight of the 50 (57.1%) SARS-CoV-2 positive patients were hospitalized (group A), and 22 (42.9%) were nonhospitalized (group B). The mean age in group A and group B was 45.4 ± 13.7 years and 57.0 ± 15.0, respectively (P = .007). The symptoms reported by hospitalized patients were fever (71.4%), cough (64.2%), fatigue (82.1%), and dyspnea (100%), while in nonhospitalized patients, the most reported symptoms were sore throat (72.7%), rhinorrhea (77.2%), and altered smell (81.8%). Anosmia/hyposmia reported in group A and group B was 28.5% and 81.8%, respectively (P = .001). CONCLUSION: These preliminary results indicate that the majority of SARS-Cov-2 positive patients in southern Italy did not require hospitalization and presented with milder symptoms or no symptoms and the alterations in smell and taste occurred.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Carrier State/physiopathology , Hospitalization , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anosmia/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Cough/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dyspnea/etiology , Fatigue/etiology , Female , Fever/etiology , Humans , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pharyngitis/etiology , Prospective Studies , Rhinorrhea/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sicily/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/etiology
12.
Respir Investig ; 59(2): 263-265, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-949731

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hiccups are involuntary diaphragmatic muscle contractions with early glottis closure terminating inspiration. They are classified into two types: acute (<48 hours) and persistent (>48 hours). COVID-19 is the defining health crisis of our generation. Although there are common symptoms of the disease (e.g. fever, cough), several atypical presentations have appeared as the pandemic has evolved. Here, we present a patient with COVID-19 presenting with fever, sore throat, and persistent hiccups. METHODS AND RESULTS: A 48-year-old man presented to the hospital with a seven-day history of persistent hiccups, fever, and sore throat. Physical examination was unremarkable and abdominal ultrasound showed gaseous abdominal distension. Laboratory values were remarkable for elevated C-reactive protein, ferritin, and lactate dehydrogenase levels. Computed tomography of the chest showed bilateral subpleural areas of ground-glass attenuation and crazy-paving pattern. A COVID-19 test was positive, and hydroxychloroquine, oseltamivir, baclofen, and symptomatic treatment were initiated. The hiccups improved, and the patient was discharged home after ten days. CONCLUSION: Physicians should maintain a high level of suspicion and be aware of atypical presentations of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Hiccup/etiology , Baclofen/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Testing , Fever/etiology , Hiccup/therapy , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Oseltamivir/therapeutic use , Pharyngitis/etiology , Rare Diseases , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome , Ultrasonography
13.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200494, 2020. tab
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-740419

ABSTRACT

Abstract Diagnosing cases of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) with only non-respiratory symptoms has been challenging. We reported the diagnosis of a child who tested positive for COVID-19 with abdominal pain/diarrhea and tracked his family cluster. One member of the family tested positive for COVID-19 on real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assay and three other family members had anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Pandemics , Pharyngitis/etiology , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Cluster Analysis , Contact Tracing , Coronavirus Infections , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Diarrhea/etiology , Fever/etiology , Betacoronavirus
14.
Eur Respir J ; 55(6)2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-622479

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), consistent and considerable differences in disease severity and mortality rate of patients treated in Hubei province compared to those in other parts of China have been observed. We sought to compare the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients being treated inside and outside Hubei province, and explore the factors underlying these differences. METHODS: Collaborating with the National Health Commission, we established a retrospective cohort to study hospitalised COVID-19 cases in China. Clinical characteristics, the rate of severe events and deaths, and the time to critical illness (invasive ventilation or intensive care unit admission or death) were compared between patients within and outside Hubei. The impact of Wuhan-related exposure (a presumed key factor that drove the severe situation in Hubei, as Wuhan is the epicentre as well the administrative centre of Hubei province) and the duration between symptom onset and admission on prognosis were also determined. RESULTS: At the data cut-off (31 January 2020), 1590 cases from 575 hospitals in 31 provincial administrative regions were collected (core cohort). The overall rate of severe cases and mortality was 16.0% and 3.2%, respectively. Patients in Hubei (predominantly with Wuhan-related exposure, 597 (92.3%) out of 647) were older (mean age 49.7 versus 44.9 years), had more cases with comorbidity (32.9% versus 19.7%), higher symptomatic burden, abnormal radiologic manifestations and, especially, a longer waiting time between symptom onset and admission (5.7 versus 4.5 days) compared with patients outside Hubei. Patients in Hubei (severe event rate 23.0% versus 11.1%, death rate 7.3% versus 0.3%, HR (95% CI) for critical illness 1.59 (1.05-2.41)) have a poorer prognosis compared with patients outside Hubei after adjusting for age and comorbidity. However, among patients outside Hubei, the duration from symptom onset to hospitalisation (mean 4.4 versus 4.7 days) and prognosis (HR (95%) 0.84 (0.40-1.80)) were similar between patients with or without Wuhan-related exposure. In the overall population, the waiting time, but neither treated in Hubei nor Wuhan-related exposure, remained an independent prognostic factor (HR (95%) 1.05 (1.01-1.08)). CONCLUSION: There were more severe cases and poorer outcomes for COVID-19 patients treated in Hubei, which might be attributed to the prolonged duration of symptom onset to hospitalisation in the epicentre. Future studies to determine the reason for delaying hospitalisation are warranted.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Hospitalization , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , China , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Cough/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Dyspnea/etiology , Fatigue/etiology , Female , Fever/etiology , Geography , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pharyngitis/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
15.
Virulence ; 11(1): 482-485, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-343283

ABSTRACT

Since its outbreak in Wuhan, Hubei Province China, 2019-coronavirus infected disease (COVID-19) had been widely spread all over the world, the control of which calls for a better understanding of its epidemiology and clinical characteristics. We included 12 confirmed cases of COVID-19 in First Affiliated Hospital of Jilin University from 23 January 2020 to 11 February 2020, which were retrospectively analyzed for epidemiological, demographic, clinical, laboratory, and radiological features. All the patients were confirmed by nucleic acid detection, the average age of whom was 45.25 years (range, 23-79 years). Most patients had a history of Wuhan traveling or had contact with Wuhan travelers or infected cases. Obvious family cluster was observed. Clinical manifestations included fever (12/12), fatigue (10/12), cough (6/12), sore throat (4/12), headache (3/12), and diarrhea (2/12). Only three out of eight patients had pneumonia manifestation on radiography. Most patients had a normal white blood cell (WBC) count and normal or reduced lymphocyte (LY) count. Pneumonia changes were observed in all the four patients who underwent a chest CT scan. Only one elderly patient developed severe pneumonia, while all the rest were mild disease and had a self-limiting course.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cough/etiology , Diarrhea/etiology , Fatigue/etiology , Female , Fever/etiology , Headache/etiology , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pharyngitis/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
16.
Acad Emerg Med ; 27(6): 469-474, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-245669

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Symptom criteria for COVID-19 testing of heath care workers (HCWs) limitations on testing availability have been challenging during the COVID-19 pandemic. An evidence-based symptom criteria for identifying HCWs for testing, based on the probability of positive COVID-19 test results, would allow for a more appropriate use of testing resources. METHODS: This was an observational study of outpatient COVID-19 testing of HCWs. Prior to testing, HCWs were asked about the presence of 10 symptoms. Their responses were then compared to their subsequent pharyngeal swab COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction test results. These data were used to derive and evaluate a symptom-based testing criteria. RESULTS: A total of 961 HCWs were included in the analysis, of whom 225 (23%) had positive test results. Loss of taste or smell was the symptom with the largest positive likelihood ratio (3.33). Dry cough, regardless of the presence or absence of other symptoms, was the most sensitive (74%) and the least specific (32%) symptom. The existing testing criteria consisting of any combination of one or more of three symptoms (fever, shortness of breath, dry cough) was 93% sensitive and 9% specific (area unce the curve [AUC] = 0.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.59 to 0.67). The derived testing criteria consisting of any combination of one or more of two symptoms (fever, loss of taste or smell) was 89% sensitive and 48% specific (AUC = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.71 to 0.78). The hybrid testing criteria consisting of any combination of one or more of four symptoms (fever, shortness of breath, dry cough, loss of taste or smell) was 98% sensitive and 8% specific (AUC = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.73 to 0.80). CONCLUSION: An evidence-based approach to COVID-19 testing that at least includes fever and loss of taste or smell should be utilized when determining which HCWs should be tested.


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Health Personnel , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Ageusia/etiology , Anorexia/etiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Cough/etiology , Diarrhea/etiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Fatigue/etiology , Fever/etiology , Humans , Myalgia/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Pandemics , Pharyngitis/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Euro Surveill ; 25(16)2020 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-108723

ABSTRACT

Healthcare workers (n = 803) with mild symptoms were tested for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (n = 90 positive) and asked to complete a symptom questionnaire. Anosmia, muscle ache, ocular pain, general malaise, headache, extreme tiredness and fever were associated with positivity. A predictive model based on these symptoms showed moderate discriminative value (sensitivity: 91.2%; specificity: 55.6%). While our models would not justify presumptive SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis without molecular confirmation, it can contribute to targeted screening strategies.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Health Personnel , Pandemics , Personnel, Hospital , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Cough/etiology , Eye Pain/etiology , Fatigue/etiology , Fever/etiology , Headache/etiology , Health Policy , Humans , Middle Aged , Myalgia/etiology , Netherlands , Patient Isolation , Pharyngitis/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Predictive Value of Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
19.
J Korean Med Sci ; 35(13): e142, 2020 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-31389

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected pneumonia emerged in Wuhan, China in December 2019. In this retrospective multicenter study, we investigated the clinical course and outcomes of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from early cases in Republic of Korea. METHODS: All of the cases confirmed by real time polymerase chain reaction were enrolled from the 1st to the 28th patient nationwide. Clinical data were collected and analyzed for changes in clinical severity including laboratory, radiological, and virologic dynamics during the progression of illness. RESULTS: The median age was 40 years (range, 20-73 years) and 15 (53.6%) patients were male. The most common symptoms were cough (28.6%) and sore throat (28.6%), followed by fever (25.0%). Diarrhea was not common (10.7%). Two patients had no symptoms. Initial chest X-ray (CXR) showed infiltration in 46.4% of the patients, but computed tomography scan confirmed pneumonia in 88.9% (16/18) of the patients. Six patients (21.4%) required supplemental oxygen therapy, but no one needed mechanical ventilation. Lymphopenia was more common in severe cases. Higher level of C-reactive protein and worsening of chest radiographic score was observed during the 5-7 day period after symptom onset. Viral shedding was high from day 1 of illness, especially from the upper respiratory tract (URT). CONCLUSION: The prodromal symptoms of COVID-19 were mild and most patients did not have limitations of daily activity. Viral shedding from URT was high from the prodromal phase. Radiological pneumonia was common from the early days of illness, but it was frequently not evident in simple CXR. These findings could be plausible explanations for the easy and rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 in the community.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , Aged , Asymptomatic Diseases , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Cough/etiology , Diarrhea/etiology , Fever/etiology , Humans , Lymphopenia/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pharyngitis/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Prodromal Symptoms , Radiography, Thoracic , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Republic of Korea , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
20.
Indian J Pediatr ; 87(4): 281-286, 2020 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-8490

ABSTRACT

There is a new public health crises threatening the world with the emergence and spread of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) or the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The virus originated in bats and was transmitted to humans through yet unknown intermediary animals in Wuhan, Hubei province, China in December 2019. There have been around 96,000 reported cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-2019) and 3300 reported deaths to date (05/03/2020). The disease is transmitted by inhalation or contact with infected droplets and the incubation period ranges from 2 to 14 d. The symptoms are usually fever, cough, sore throat, breathlessness, fatigue, malaise among others. The disease is mild in most people; in some (usually the elderly and those with comorbidities), it may progress to pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multi organ dysfunction. Many people are asymptomatic. The case fatality rate is estimated to range from 2 to 3%. Diagnosis is by demonstration of the virus in respiratory secretions by special molecular tests. Common laboratory findings include normal/ low white cell counts with elevated C-reactive protein (CRP). The computerized tomographic chest scan is usually abnormal even in those with no symptoms or mild disease. Treatment is essentially supportive; role of antiviral agents is yet to be established. Prevention entails home isolation of suspected cases and those with mild illnesses and strict infection control measures at hospitals that include contact and droplet precautions. The virus spreads faster than its two ancestors the SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), but has lower fatality. The global impact of this new epidemic is yet uncertain.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Disease Outbreaks , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cough/etiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Fatigue/etiology , Fever/etiology , Humans , Pharyngitis/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2
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