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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(2): e210202, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1858185

ABSTRACT

Importance: Owing to concerns of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreaks, many congregant settings are forced to close when cases are detected because there are few data on the risk of different markers of transmission within groups. Objective: To determine whether symptoms and laboratory results on the first day of COVID-19 diagnosis are associated with development of a case cluster in a congregant setting. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study of trainees with COVID-19 from May 11 through August 24, 2020, was conducted at Joint Base San Antonio-Lackland, the primary site of entry for enlistment in the US Air Force. Symptoms and duration, known contacts, and cycle threshold for trainees diagnosed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were collected. A cycle threshold value represents the number of nucleic acid amplification cycles that occur before a specimen containing the target material generates a signal greater than the predetermined threshold that defines positivity. Cohorts with 5 or more individuals with COVID-19 infection were defined as clusters. Participants included 10 613 trainees divided into 263 parallel cohorts of 30 to 50 people arriving weekly for 7 weeks of training. Exposures: All trainees were quarantined for 14 days on arrival. Testing was performed on arrival, on day 14, and anytime during training when indicated. Protective measures included universal masking, physical distancing, and rapid isolation of trainees with COVID-19. Main Outcomes and Measures: Association between days of symptoms, specific symptoms, number of symptoms, or cycle threshold values of individuals diagnosed with COVID-19 via reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and subsequent transmission within cohorts. Results: In this cohort study of 10 613 US Air Force basic trainees in 263 cohorts, 403 trainees (3%) received a diagnosis of COVID-19 in 129 cohorts (49%). Among trainees with COVID-19 infection, 318 (79%) were men, and the median (interquartile range [IQR]) age was 20 (19-23) years; 204 (51%) were symptomatic, and 199 (49%) were asymptomatic. Median (IQR) cycle threshold values were lower in symptomatic trainees compared with asymptomatic trainees (21.2 [18.4-27.60] vs 34.8 [29.3-37.4]; P < .001). Cohorts with clusters of individuals with COVID-19 infection were predominantly men (204 cohorts [89%] vs 114 cohorts [64%]; P < .001), had more symptomatic trainees (146 cohorts [64%] vs 53 cohorts [30%]; P < .001), and had more median (IQR) symptoms per patient (3 [2-5] vs 1 [1-2]; P < .001) compared with cohorts without clusters. Within cohorts, subsequent development of clusters of 5 or more individuals with COVID-19 infection compared with those that did not develop clusters was associated with cohorts that had more symptomatic trainees (31 of 58 trainees [53%] vs 43 of 151 trainees [28%]; P = .001) and lower median (IQR) cycle threshold values (22.3 [18.4-27.3] vs 35.3 [26.5-37.8]; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of US Air Force trainees living in a congregant setting during the COVID-19 pandemic, higher numbers of symptoms and lower cycle threshold values were associated with subsequent development of clusters of individuals with COVID-19 infection. These values may be useful if validated in future studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/transmission , Military Personnel/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Carrier State/diagnosis , Carrier State/epidemiology , Carrier State/transmission , Cohort Studies , Cough/physiopathology , Female , Headache/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Myalgia/physiopathology , Pharyngitis/physiopathology , Residence Characteristics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
2.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e92, 2021 04 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169347

ABSTRACT

Case identification is an ongoing issue for the COVID-19 epidemic, in particular for outpatient care where physicians must decide which patients to prioritise for further testing. This paper reports tools to classify patients based on symptom profiles based on 236 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 positive cases and 564 controls, accounting for the time course of illness using generalised multivariate logistic regression. Significant symptoms included abdominal pain, cough, diarrhoea, fever, headache, muscle ache, runny nose, sore throat, temperature between 37.5 and 37.9 °C and temperature above 38 °C, but their importance varied by day of illness at assessment. With a high percentile threshold for specificity at 0.95, the baseline model had reasonable sensitivity at 0.67. To further evaluate accuracy of model predictions, leave-one-out cross-validation confirmed high classification accuracy with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.92. For the baseline model, sensitivity decreased to 0.56. External validation datasets reported similar result. Our study provides a tool to discern COVID-19 patients from controls using symptoms and day from illness onset with good predictive performance. It could be considered as a framework to complement laboratory testing in order to differentiate COVID-19 from other patients presenting with acute symptoms in outpatient care.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Abdominal Pain/physiopathology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/physiopathology , Case-Control Studies , Clinical Decision Rules , Cough/physiopathology , Diarrhea/physiopathology , Disease Progression , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Female , Fever/physiopathology , Headache/physiopathology , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Myalgia/physiopathology , Odds Ratio , Patient Selection , Pharyngitis/physiopathology , Rhinorrhea/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
3.
Saudi Med J ; 42(4): 391-398, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1168263

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine the demographic and clinical characteristics, underlying comorbidities, and outcomes of children with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we reported 62 pediatric patients (age <14 years) with confirmed COVID-19 between March 2 and July 1, 2020, at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. RESULTS: Comorbid conditions, including cardiac, neurological, respiratory, and malignant disorders, were reported in 9 patients (14.5%). The most prominent presenting complaints were fever (80.6%) and cough (48.4%). Most of our patients (80.6%) had mild disease, 11.3% had moderate disease, and 8.1% exhibited severe and critical illness. Twenty-one patients (33.9%) were hospitalized, with 4 patients (6.5%) admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit, and 3 (4.8%) patients died. CONCLUSION: All pediatric age groups are susceptible to COVID-19, with no gender difference. COVID-19 infection may result in critical illness and even mortality in subsets of pediatric patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Abdominal Pain/physiopathology , Adolescent , Asthma/epidemiology , Atrophy , Brain/pathology , Bronchiolitis Obliterans/epidemiology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Cough/physiopathology , Diarrhea/physiopathology , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Female , Fever/physiopathology , Heart Defects, Congenital/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Hydrocephalus/epidemiology , Infant , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Male , Pharyngitis/physiopathology , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency/physiopathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Rhinorrhea/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index , Vomiting/physiopathology
4.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 171, 2021 Mar 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154035

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The pandemic of this century has overwhelmed the healthcare systems of affected countries, and all resources have been diverted to coronavirus disease 2019. At the onset, coronavirus disease 2019 can present as any other acute febrile undifferentiated illness. In tropical regions, clinicians are increasingly challenged to differentiate these febrile illnesses without the use of diagnostics. With this pandemic, many of these tropical diseases are neglected and go underreported. Dengue is holoendemic in the Maldives, and dengue viruses circulate throughout the year. Reports about coinfections with dengue virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 are scarce, and the outcome and the dynamics of the disease may be altered in the presence of coinfection. We have described the clinical manifestation and serial laboratory profile, and highlighted the atypical findings uncommon in dengue infection. CASE PRESENTATION: Case 1 was a 39-year old Asian male, presented on day 6 of dengue infection with warning signs. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 that was done as per hospital protocol was found to be positive. Case 2 was a 38-year old Asian male, was admitted on day 5 of illness with symptoms of acute respiratory infection with positive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Evaluation of progressive leukopenia and thrombocytopenia showed positive dengue serology. CONCLUSION: Clinicians must be conscientious when working on the differential diagnosis of possible tropical diseases in cases of coronavirus disease 2019, specifically, when patients develop hemoconcentration, thrombocytopenia, and transaminitis with elevated expression of aspartate higher than alanine transaminase, which is frequently observed in dengue infection. Caution must be taken during the administration of intravenous fluids when treating patients with coronavirus disease 2019 and dengue coinfection, as coronavirus disease 2019 patients are more prone to develop pulmonary edema. Timely diagnosis and appropriate management are essential to avoid the devastating complications of severe forms of dengue infection. It is important to repeat and reconfirm the dengue serology in coronavirus disease 2019 patients to avoid false positivity. Diligence and care must be taken not to neglect other endemic tropical diseases in the region during the present pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Dengue/complications , Leukopenia/blood , Thrombocytopenia/blood , Abdominal Pain/physiopathology , Adult , Anosmia/physiopathology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Coinfection , Cough/physiopathology , Dengue/blood , Dengue/physiopathology , Dengue/therapy , Diarrhea/physiopathology , Dysgeusia/physiopathology , Fever/physiopathology , Fluid Therapy , Headache/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Myalgia/physiopathology , Pharyngitis/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vomiting/physiopathology
5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(3): e211085, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125122

ABSTRACT

Importance: Solid estimates of the risk of developing symptoms and of progressing to critical disease in individuals infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are key to interpreting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) dynamics, identifying the settings and the segments of the population where transmission is more likely to remain undetected, and defining effective control strategies. Objective: To estimate the association of age with the likelihood of developing symptoms and the association of age with the likelihood of progressing to critical illness after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study analyzed quarantined case contacts, identified between February 20 and April 16, 2020, in the Lombardy region of Italy. Contacts were monitored daily for symptoms and tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection, by either real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction using nasopharyngeal swabs or retrospectively via IgG serological assays. Close contacts of individuals with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were selected as those belonging to clusters (ie, groups of contacts associated with an index case) where all individuals were followed up for symptoms and tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Data were analyzed from February to June 2020. Exposure: Close contact with individuals with confirmed COVID-19 cases as identified by contact tracing operations. Main Outcomes and Measures: Age-specific estimates of the risk of developing respiratory symptoms or fever greater than or equal to 37.5 °C and of experiencing critical disease (defined as requiring intensive care or resulting in death) in SARS-CoV-2-infected case contacts. Results: In total, 5484 case contacts (median [interquartile range] age, 50 [30-61] years; 3086 female contacts [56.3%]) were analyzed, 2824 of whom (51.5%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (median [interquartile range] age, 53 [34-64] years; 1604 female contacts [56.8%]). The proportion of infected persons who developed symptoms ranged from 18.1% (95% CI, 13.9%-22.9%) among participants younger than 20 years to 64.6% (95% CI, 56.6%-72.0%) for those aged 80 years or older. Most infected contacts (1948 of 2824 individuals [69.0%]) did not develop respiratory symptoms or fever greater than or equal to 37.5 °C. Only 26.1% (95% CI, 24.1%-28.2%) of infected individuals younger than 60 years developed respiratory symptoms or fever greater than or equal to 37.5 °C; among infected participants older than 60 years, 6.6% (95% CI, 5.1%-8.3%) developed critical disease. Female patients were 52.7% (95% CI, 24.4%-70.7%) less likely than male patients to develop critical disease after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Conclusions and Relevance: In this Italian cohort study of close contacts of patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, more than one-half of individuals tested positive for the virus. However, most infected individuals did not develop respiratory symptoms or fever. The low proportion of children and young adults who developed symptoms highlights the possible challenges in readily identifying SARS-CoV-2 infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Carrier State/epidemiology , Cough/epidemiology , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Fever/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Chest Pain/epidemiology , Chest Pain/physiopathology , Child , Child, Preschool , Contact Tracing , Cough/physiopathology , Critical Illness , Disease Progression , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Female , Fever/physiopathology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pharyngitis/epidemiology , Pharyngitis/physiopathology , Quarantine , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Tachypnea/epidemiology , Tachypnea/physiopathology , Young Adult
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(2): e210202, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1100834

ABSTRACT

Importance: Owing to concerns of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreaks, many congregant settings are forced to close when cases are detected because there are few data on the risk of different markers of transmission within groups. Objective: To determine whether symptoms and laboratory results on the first day of COVID-19 diagnosis are associated with development of a case cluster in a congregant setting. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study of trainees with COVID-19 from May 11 through August 24, 2020, was conducted at Joint Base San Antonio-Lackland, the primary site of entry for enlistment in the US Air Force. Symptoms and duration, known contacts, and cycle threshold for trainees diagnosed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were collected. A cycle threshold value represents the number of nucleic acid amplification cycles that occur before a specimen containing the target material generates a signal greater than the predetermined threshold that defines positivity. Cohorts with 5 or more individuals with COVID-19 infection were defined as clusters. Participants included 10 613 trainees divided into 263 parallel cohorts of 30 to 50 people arriving weekly for 7 weeks of training. Exposures: All trainees were quarantined for 14 days on arrival. Testing was performed on arrival, on day 14, and anytime during training when indicated. Protective measures included universal masking, physical distancing, and rapid isolation of trainees with COVID-19. Main Outcomes and Measures: Association between days of symptoms, specific symptoms, number of symptoms, or cycle threshold values of individuals diagnosed with COVID-19 via reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and subsequent transmission within cohorts. Results: In this cohort study of 10 613 US Air Force basic trainees in 263 cohorts, 403 trainees (3%) received a diagnosis of COVID-19 in 129 cohorts (49%). Among trainees with COVID-19 infection, 318 (79%) were men, and the median (interquartile range [IQR]) age was 20 (19-23) years; 204 (51%) were symptomatic, and 199 (49%) were asymptomatic. Median (IQR) cycle threshold values were lower in symptomatic trainees compared with asymptomatic trainees (21.2 [18.4-27.60] vs 34.8 [29.3-37.4]; P < .001). Cohorts with clusters of individuals with COVID-19 infection were predominantly men (204 cohorts [89%] vs 114 cohorts [64%]; P < .001), had more symptomatic trainees (146 cohorts [64%] vs 53 cohorts [30%]; P < .001), and had more median (IQR) symptoms per patient (3 [2-5] vs 1 [1-2]; P < .001) compared with cohorts without clusters. Within cohorts, subsequent development of clusters of 5 or more individuals with COVID-19 infection compared with those that did not develop clusters was associated with cohorts that had more symptomatic trainees (31 of 58 trainees [53%] vs 43 of 151 trainees [28%]; P = .001) and lower median (IQR) cycle threshold values (22.3 [18.4-27.3] vs 35.3 [26.5-37.8]; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of US Air Force trainees living in a congregant setting during the COVID-19 pandemic, higher numbers of symptoms and lower cycle threshold values were associated with subsequent development of clusters of individuals with COVID-19 infection. These values may be useful if validated in future studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/transmission , Military Personnel/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Carrier State/diagnosis , Carrier State/epidemiology , Carrier State/transmission , Cohort Studies , Cough/physiopathology , Female , Headache/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Myalgia/physiopathology , Pharyngitis/physiopathology , Residence Characteristics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
7.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 90(4)2020 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059803

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a pandemic with over 5 million cases worldwide. The disease has imposed a huge burden on health resources. Evaluation of clinical and epidemiological profiles of such patients can help in understanding and managing the outbreak more efficiently. This study was a prospective observational analysis of 200 diagnosed COVID-19 patients admitted to a tertiary care center from 20th march to 8th May 2020. All these patients were positive for COVID-19 by an oro-nasopharyngeal swab-rtPCR based testing. Analyses of demographic factors, clinical characteristics, comorbidities, laboratory parameters, and the outcomes were performed. The mean age of the population was 40 years with a slight male predominance (116 patients out of 200, 58%). A majority of the patients (147, 73.5 %) were symptomatic, with fever being the most common symptom (109, 54.5%), followed by cough (91, 45.5%). An older age, presence of symptoms and their duration, leukocytosis, a high quick SOFA score, a high modified SOFA score, need for ventilator support, an AST level more than 3 times the upper limit of normal (ULN), and a serum creatinine level of 2 mg/dl or greater were at a significantly higher risk of ICU admission and mortality. Presence of diabetes mellitus, AST > three times ULN, serum creatinine 2 mg/dl or higher, and a qSOFA score of 1 or higher were all associated with significantly greater odds of critical care requirement. Triage and severity assessment helps in deciding the requirement for a hospital stay and ICU admission for COVID-19 which can easily be done using clinical and laboratory parameters. A mild, moderate and severe category approach with defined criteria and treatment guidelines will help in judicious utilization of health-care resources, especially for developing countries like India.   *Other members of the Safdarjung Hospital COVID-19 working group: Balvinder Singh (Microbiology), MK Sen (Pulmonary Medicine), Shibdas Chakrabarti (Pulmonary Medicine), NK Gupta (Pulmonary medicine), AJ Mahendran (Pulmonary Medicine), Ramesh Meena (Medicine), G Usha (Anaesthesiology), Santvana Kohli (Anaesthesiology), Sahil Diwan (Anaesthesiology), Rushika Saksena (Microbiology), Vikramjeet Dutta (Microbiology), Anupam Kr Anveshi (Microbiology).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Anemia/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Cough/physiopathology , Creatinine/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Fever/physiopathology , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypoxia/physiopathology , India/epidemiology , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Leukocyte Count , Leukocytosis/blood , Lymphopenia/blood , Lymphopenia/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Myalgia/physiopathology , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Pandemics , Pharyngitis/physiopathology , Platelet Count , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Tachypnea/physiopathology , Tertiary Care Centers , Time Factors , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Young Adult
8.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 14(6): 1841-1845, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059536

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To elucidate the clinical features of COVID-19 patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) under hospitalization and home isolation conditions. METHOD: This retrospective study was conducted among 32 patients with COVID-19 and T1D, who sought treatment at the Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between May 01, 2020 and July 30, 2020. Patients data were extracted from electronic medical records. RESULTS: Of the total of 32 COVID-19 patients with T1D, 21.9% required hospitalization, while 78.1% underwent home isolation. Among the study population, 9.4% (3/32) were reported to have hypertension, 21.9% (7/32) had chronic pulmonary disease (CPD), 18.8% (6/32) had thyroid disorders, and 18.8% (6/32) had the celiac disease. Of the 32 studied patients, 68.8% (22/32) of them were reported as normal, while 28.1% (9/32) had chronic kidney disease (CKD) II and 3.1% (1/32) had end-stage renal failure. The most common symptoms observed among the hospitalized patients were nausea and vomiting (71.4%; 5/7), followed by fever (57.1%; 4/7), cough (42.8%; 3/7), sore throat (42.8%; 3/7), abdominal pain (42.8%; 3/7) and dyspnea (42.%; 3/7). The most common reasons for hospitalization were diabetic ketoacidosis (71.4%; 5/7) followed by bacterial pneumonia (14.3%; 1/7), fever (14.3%; 1/7), sore throat (14.3%; 1/7), severe hyperglycemia (14.3%; 1/7) and COVID-19 pneumonia (14.3%; 1/7). Except the severity of COVID-19 (p = 0.0001), none of the demographic and clinical parameters indicated statistically significant differences between patients requiring hospitalization and home isolation. CONCLUSION: Majority of the COVID-19 patients with T1D recovered with conservative treatment at home. Diabetic ketoacidosis was the most common reason for hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/complications , Hospitalization , Patient Isolation , Abdominal Pain/physiopathology , Age Factors , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Celiac Disease/epidemiology , Cough/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Female , Fever/physiopathology , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Lung Diseases , Male , Nausea/physiopathology , Pharyngitis/physiopathology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index , Thyroid Diseases/epidemiology , Vomiting/physiopathology , Young Adult
9.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(2)2021 Jan 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1055083

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, patients with chronic diseases suffering exacerbations have required acute medical care. The purpose of our study was to determine useful criteria for the differentiation of patients with acute clinical syndromes and suspicion of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Materials and Methods: This was an observational retrospective study, conducted in an internal medicine clinic from April to May 2020. We collected clinical, biological, and computed tomography (CT) data on patients with exacerbations of chronic diseases and clinical suspicion of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Patients with an already-positive real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test for SARS-CoV-2 on presentation at the emergency department were excluded from our study. Results: Of 253 suspected cases, 20 were laboratory-confirmed as having SARS-CoV-2 infection by RT-PCR, whereas COVID-19 diagnosis was ruled out in the remaining 233. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) correlated significantly with COVID-19 diagnosis in suspected patients, while laboratory markers were not significantly different between the two groups. Of the suspected patients, significantly higher percentages of dry cough, fever, myalgias, sore throat, loss of smell and appetite, and ground-glass opacities (GGOs) on CT were found in SARS-CoV-2-positive individuals. Conclusions: The study demonstrated that, until receiving the result of an RT-PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 (usually 12-24 h), association with VTE as a comorbidity, fever, dry cough, and myalgia as clinical features, and GGO on CT are the main markers for the identification of COVID-19 patients among those suspected with acute clinical syndromes. Our results also provide evidence for doctors not to rely solely on biological markers in the case of suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with exacerbations of chronic diseases. These data are useful for faster decision-making with regard to suspected COVID-19 patients before receiving RT-PCR test results, thus avoiding keeping patients in crowded emergency departments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Cough/physiopathology , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Fever/physiopathology , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pharyngitis/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , Romania/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Syndrome , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
10.
Artif Intell Med ; 112: 102018, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1032418

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is considered a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). As of April 3, 2020, there were 1,009,625 reported confirmed cases, and 51,737 reported deaths. Doctors have been faced with a myriad of patients who present with many different symptoms. This raises two important questions. What are the common symptoms, and what are their relative importance? METHODS: A non-structured and incomplete COVID-19 dataset of 14,251 confirmed cases was preprocessed. This produced a complete and organized COVID-19 dataset of 738 confirmed cases. Six different feature selection algorithms were then applied to this new dataset. Five of these algorithms have been proposed earlier in the literature. The sixth is a novel algorithm being proposed by the authors, called Variance Based Feature Weighting (VBFW), which not only ranks the symptoms (based on their importance) but also assigns a quantitative importance measure to each symptom. RESULTS: For our COVID-19 dataset, the five different feature selection algorithms provided different rankings for the most important top-five symptoms. They even selected different symptoms for inclusion within the top five. This is because each of the five algorithms ranks the symptoms based on different data characteristics. Each of these algorithms has advantages and disadvantages. However, when all these five rankings were aggregated (using two different aggregating methods) they produced two identical rankings of the five most important COVID-19 symptoms. Starting from the most important to least important, they were: Fever/Cough, Fatigue, Sore Throat, and Shortness of Breath. (Fever and cough were ranked equally in both aggregations.) Meanwhile, the sixth novel Variance Based Feature Weighting algorithm, chose the same top five symptoms, but ranked fever much higher than cough, based on its quantitative importance measures for each of those symptoms (Fever - 75 %, Cough - 39.8 %, Fatigue - 16.5 %, Sore Throat - 10.8 %, and Shortness of Breath - 6.6 %). Moreover, the proposed VBFW method achieved an accuracy of 92.1 % when used to build a one-class SVM model, and an NDCG@5 of 100 %. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the dataset, and the feature selection algorithms employed here, symptoms of Fever, Cough, Fatigue, Sore Throat and Shortness of Breath are important symptoms of COVID-19. The VBFW algorithm also indicates that Fever and Cough symptoms were especially indicative of COVID-19, for the confirmed cases that are documented in our database.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Computational Biology/methods , Algorithms , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cough/physiopathology , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Fatigue/physiopathology , Fever/physiopathology , Humans , Pandemics , Pharyngitis/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
11.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 12: 2150132720987432, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1032285

ABSTRACT

A "superspreader" refers to an unusually contagious organism infected with a disease. With respect to a human borne illnesses, a superspreader is someone who is more likely to infect other humans when compared to a typically infected person. The existence of human superspreaders is deeply entrenched in history; the most famous case being that of Typhoid Mary. Through contact tracing, epidemiologists have identified human superspreaders in measles, tuberculosis, rubella, monkeypox, smallpox, Ebola hemorrhagic fever, and SARS. The recent outbreak of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has shifted the focus back on the superspreaders. We herein present a case report of a COVID-19 superspreader with a hitherto unusually high number of infected contacts. The index case was a 33 year old male who resided in a low income settlement comprising of rehabilitated slum dwellers and worked as a healthcare worker (HCW) in a tertiary care hospital and had tested positive for COVID-19.On contact tracing, he had a total of 125 contacts, of which 49 COVID-19 infections had direct or indirect contact with the index case, qualifying him as a "superspreader." This propagated infection led to an outbreak in the community. Contact tracing, testing and isolation of such superspreaders from the other members of the community is essential to stop the spread of this disease and contain the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Basic Reproduction Number , COVID-19/transmission , Contact Tracing , Health Personnel , Adult , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cough/physiopathology , Disease Outbreaks , Fever/physiopathology , Humans , India , Male , Pharyngitis/physiopathology , Poverty Areas , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers , Workplace
12.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(6): 2339-2342, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-874754

ABSTRACT

We describe the first 11 detected COVID-19 cases in Indonesia, resulting from a local transmission occurring in a club and a restaurant. The virus was detected until an average of 21.3 days (range: 11-25, SD: 4.1) after the onset of illness, and the partial N gene sequences (28,321-28,707 nucleotide position) had 100% similarity with the SARS-CoV-2 sequence from Wuhan. Two subjects were asymptomatic, and one subject has died.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Asymptomatic Diseases , COVID-19/diagnosis , Contact Tracing/statistics & numerical data , Cough/diagnosis , Cough/physiopathology , Cough/virology , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Dyspnea/virology , Female , Fever/diagnosis , Fever/physiopathology , Fever/virology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Indonesia/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pharyngitis/diagnosis , Pharyngitis/physiopathology , Pharyngitis/virology , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/classification , Severity of Illness Index
13.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(3): e2179, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-842504

ABSTRACT

We compared clinical symptoms, laboratory findings, radiographic signs and outcomes of COVID-19 and influenza to identify unique features. Depending on the heterogeneity test, we used either random or fixed-effect models to analyse the appropriateness of the pooled results. Overall, 540 articles included in this study; 75,164 cases of COVID-19 (157 studies), 113,818 influenza type A (251 studies) and 9266 influenza type B patients (47 studies) were included. Runny nose, dyspnoea, sore throat and rhinorrhoea were less frequent symptoms in COVID-19 cases (14%, 15%, 11.5% and 9.5%, respectively) in comparison to influenza type A (70%, 45.5%, 49% and 44.5%, respectively) and type B (74%, 33%, 38% and 49%, respectively). Most of the patients with COVID-19 had abnormal chest radiology (84%, p < 0.001) in comparison to influenza type A (57%, p < 0.001) and B (33%, p < 0.001). The incubation period in COVID-19 (6.4 days estimated) was longer than influenza type A (3.4 days). Likewise, the duration of hospitalization in COVID-19 patients (14 days) was longer than influenza type A (6.5 days) and influenza type B (6.7 days). Case fatality rate of hospitalized patients in COVID-19 (6.5%, p < 0.001), influenza type A (6%, p < 0.001) and influenza type B was 3%(p < 0.001). The results showed that COVID-19 and influenza had many differences in clinical manifestations and radiographic findings. Due to the lack of effective medication or vaccine for COVID-19, timely detection of this viral infection and distinguishing from influenza are very important.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Influenza, Human/physiopathology , Respiratory Tract Infections/physiopathology , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Cough/diagnosis , Cough/physiopathology , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Electronic Health Records , Fever/diagnosis , Fever/physiopathology , Humans , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , Influenza A virus/pathogenicity , Influenza A virus/physiology , Influenza B virus/pathogenicity , Influenza B virus/physiology , Influenza, Human/diagnostic imaging , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/mortality , Pharyngitis/diagnosis , Pharyngitis/physiopathology , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/mortality , Rhinorrhea/diagnosis , Rhinorrhea/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
14.
Am J Prev Med ; 60(1): 13-19, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-778345

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: As an emerging infectious disease, the clinical and virologic course of COVID-19 requires better investigation. The aim of this study is to identify the potential risk factors associated with persistent positive nasopharyngeal swab real-time reverse transcription‒polymerase chain reaction tests in a large sample of patients who recovered from COVID-19. METHODS: After the acute phase of SARS-CoV-2 epidemic infection, the Fondazione Policlinico A. Gemelli IRCSS of Rome established a post-acute care service for patients discharged from the hospital and recovered from COVID-19. Between April 21 and May 21, 2020, a total of 137 individuals who officially recovered from COVID-19 were enrolled in this study. All patients were tested for the SARS-CoV-2 virus with nucleic acid RT-PCR tests. Analysis was conducted in June 2020. RESULTS: Of the 131 patients who repeated the nasopharyngeal swab, 22 patients (16.7%) tested positive again. Some symptoms such as fatigue (51%), dyspnea (44%), and coughing (17%) were still present in a significant percentage of the patients, with no difference between patients with a negative test and those who tested positive. The likelihood of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection was significantly higher among participants with persistent sore throat (prevalence ratio=6.50, 95% CI=1.38, 30.6) and symptoms of rhinitis (prevalence ratio=3.72, 95% CI=1.10, 12.5). CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to provide a given rate of patients (16.7%) who test positive on RT-PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid after recovering from COVID-19. These findings suggest that a significant proportion of patients who have recovered from COVID-19 still could be potential carriers of the virus. In particular, if patients continue to have symptoms related to COVID-19, such as sore throat and rhinitis, it is reasonable to be cautious by avoiding close contact, wearing a face mask, and possibly repeating a nasopharyngeal swab.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Carrier State/epidemiology , Nasopharynx/virology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Pharyngitis/physiopathology , RNA, Viral , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rhinitis/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
15.
BMJ Open ; 10(9): e041079, 2020 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-772179

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Our research question was: what are the most frequent baseline clinical characteristics in adult patients with COVID-19? Our major aim was to identify common baseline clinical features that could help recognise adult patients at high risk of having COVID-19. DESIGN: We conducted a scoping review of all the evidence available at LitCovid, until 23 March 2020. SETTING: Studies conducted in any setting and any country were included. PARTICIPANTS: Studies had to report the prevalence of sociodemographic characteristics, symptoms and comorbidities specifically in adults with a diagnosis of infection by SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: In total, 1572 publications were published on LitCovid. We have included 56 articles in our analysis, with 89% conducted in China and 75% containing inpatients. Three studies were conducted in North America and one in Europe. Participants' age ranged from 28 to 70 years, with balanced gender distribution. The proportion of asymptomatic cases were from 2% to 79%. The most common reported symptoms were fever (4%-99%), cough (4%-92%), dyspnoea/shortness of breath (1%-90%), fatigue (4%-89%), myalgia (3%-65%) and pharyngalgia (2%-61%), while regarding comorbidities, we found cardiovascular disease (1%-40%), hypertension (0%-40%) and cerebrovascular disease (1%-40%). Such heterogeneity impaired the conduction of meta-analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The infection by COVID-19 seems to affect people in a very diverse manner and with different characteristics. With the available data, it is not possible to clearly identify those at higher risk of being infected with this condition. Furthermore, the evidence from countries other than China is, at the moment, too scarce.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Cough/physiopathology , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Fatigue/physiopathology , Fever/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Myalgia/physiopathology , Pandemics , Pharyngitis/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Infection ; 48(5): 715-722, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-688761

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prognostic value of serum amyloid A (SAA) in the patients with Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: The medical data of 89 COVID-19 patients admitted to Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University from January 3, 2020 to February 26, 2020 were collected. Eighty-nine cases were divided into survival group (53 cases) and non-survival group (36 cases) according to the results of 28-day follow-up. The SAA levels of all patients were recorded and compared on 1 day after admission (before treatment) and 3 days, 5 days, and 7 days after treatment. The ROC curve was drawn to analyze the prognosis of patients with COVID-19 by SAA. RESULTS: The difference of comparison of SAA between survival group and non-survival group before treatment was not statistically significant, Z1 = - 1.426, P = 0.154. The Z1 values (Z1 is the Z value of the rank sum test) of the two groups of patients at 3 days, 5 days, and 7 days after treatment were - 5.569, - 6.967, and - 7.542, respectively. The P values were all less than 0.001, and the difference was statistically significant. The ROC curve results showed that SAA has higher sensitivity to the prognostic value of 1 day (before treatment), 3 days, 5 days, and 7 days after treatment, with values of 0.806, 0.972, 0.861, and 0.961, respectively. Compared with SAA on the 7th day and C-reactive protein, leukocyte count, neutrophil count, lymphocyte count, and hemoglobin on the 7th day, the sensitivities were: 96.1%, 83.3%, 88.3%, 83.3%, 67.9%, and 83.0%, respectively, of which SAA has the highest sensitivity. CONCLUSION: SAA can be used as a predictor of the prognosis in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Cough/diagnosis , Fever/diagnosis , Pharyngitis/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Serum Amyloid A Protein/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Cough/blood , Cough/mortality , Cough/physiopathology , Female , Fever/blood , Fever/mortality , Fever/physiopathology , Hemoglobins/metabolism , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pharyngitis/blood , Pharyngitis/mortality , Pharyngitis/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
17.
Microbes Infect ; 22(9): 481-488, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-599130

ABSTRACT

Clinical descriptions about influenza-like illnesses (ILI) in COVID-19 seem non-specific. We aimed to compare the clinical features of COVID-19 and influenza. We retrospectively investigated the clinical features and outcomes of confirmed cases of COVID-19 and influenza in Nord Franche-Comté Hospital between February 26th and March 14th 2020. We used SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR and influenza virus A/B RT-PCR in respiratory samples to confirm the diagnosis. We included 124 patients. The mean age was 59 (±19 [19-98]) years with 69% female. 70 patients with COVID-19 and 54 patients with influenza A/B. Regarding age, sex and comorbidities, no differences were found between the two groups except a lower Charlson index in COVID-19 group (2 [±2.5] vs 3 [±2.4],p = 0.003). Anosmia (53% vs 17%,p < 0.001), dysgeusia (49% vs 20%,p = 0.001), diarrhea (40% vs 20%,p = 0.021), frontal headache (26% vs 9%,p = 0.021) and bilateral cracklings sounds (24% vs 9%,p = 0.034) were statistically more frequent in COVID-19. Sputum production (52% vs 29%,p = 0.010), dyspnea (59% vs 34%,p = 0.007), sore throat (44% vs 20%,p = 0.006), conjunctival hyperhemia (30% vs 4%,p < 0.001), tearing (24% vs 6%,p = 0.004), vomiting (22% vs 3%,p = 0.001) and rhonchi sounds (17% vs 1%,p = 0.002) were more frequent with influenza infection. We described several clinical differences which can help the clinicians during the co-circulation of influenza and SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Influenza A virus/pathogenicity , Influenza B virus/pathogenicity , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Diagnosis, Differential , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Diarrhea/physiopathology , Diarrhea/virology , Dysgeusia/diagnosis , Dysgeusia/physiopathology , Dysgeusia/virology , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Dyspnea/virology , Female , France , Headache/diagnosis , Headache/physiopathology , Headache/virology , Humans , Influenza, Human/physiopathology , Influenza, Human/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Pandemics , Pharyngitis/diagnosis , Pharyngitis/physiopathology , Pharyngitis/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Vomiting/diagnosis , Vomiting/physiopathology , Vomiting/virology
18.
Auris Nasus Larynx ; 47(4): 559-564, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-598872

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: to detect, analyze and discuss the different ear nose throat (ENT) manifestations those were reported in COVID19 positive patients in the reviewed and published literatures. METHODS: We performed a search in the PubMed databases, Web of Science, LILACS, MEDLINE, SciELO, and Cochrane Library using the keywords; COVID-19, Novel coronavirus, corona, 2019-nCoV, SARS-CoV-2, ENT, ear, nose, throat, otorhinolaryngology, ORL, pharynx, ORL, smell, larynx, different ENT related symptoms. We reviewed published and peer reviewed studies that reported the ENT manifestations in COVID-19 laboratory-confirmed positive patients. RESULTS: within the included 1773 COVID-19 laboratory-confirmed positive patients, the most common ENT manifestations of COVID-19 were sore throat (11.3%) and headache (10.7%). While the other reported ENT manifestations were pharyngeal erythema (5.3%), nasal congestion (4.1%), runny nose or rhinorrhea (2.1%), upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) (1.9%), and tonsil enlargement (1.3%). CONCLUSION: ENT manifestations for COVID-19 are not common as fever and cough. But, a universal questionnaire using well-defined COVID-19 manifestations is needed to make the COVID-19 data precisely defined, complete and homogenous.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Pharyngitis/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Adenoids , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cough/physiopathology , Diarrhea/physiopathology , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Erythema/physiopathology , Fatigue/physiopathology , Fever/physiopathology , Headache/physiopathology , Humans , Myalgia/physiopathology , Nasal Obstruction/physiopathology , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/physiopathology , Palatine Tonsil , Pandemics , Respiratory Tract Infections/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Paediatr Respir Rev ; 35: 9-14, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-548224

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome - Coronavirus - 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its related Coronavirus Disease - 19 (COVID-19) has become a health emergency worldwide. The medical community has been concerned since the beginning of the outbreak about the potential impact of COVID-19 in children, especially in those with underlying chronic diseases. Fortunately, COVID-19 has been reported to be less severe in children than in adults. However, epidemiologic and clinical data are scarce. Children show unique features of SARS-CoV-2 involvement that may account for the low rate of infection and death in this age group. The purpose of this review is to summarize the most relevant evidence of COVID-19 in children highlighting similarities and differences with adults.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Cough/physiopathology , Fever/physiopathology , Pharyngitis/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Tachypnea/physiopathology , Adolescent , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Diarrhea/physiopathology , Fatigue/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
20.
Infection ; 48(5): 687-694, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-209401

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We aimed to report the clinical characteristics of 194 cases coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) in Huanggang, Hubei and Taian, Shandong. METHODS: We retrospectively investigated the clinical, laboratory characteristics and CT imaging of confirmed cases of COVID-19 from January 22 to February 28, 2020 in Huanggang Central Hospital and The Second Affiliated Hospital of Shandong First Medical University. Real time PCR was used to detect the new coronavirus in respiratory samples. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the expressions of ACE2 in tissues. RESULTS: Among the 194 patients infected with COVID-19, 108 patients were male, with a median age of 48.3 years. The average preclinical period was 7.44 day. Except for 37 severe or critically ill patients, the rest of the 157 patients exhibited mild or moderate symptoms. 190 (97.94%) patients were confirmed during the three times nucleic acid test. The main clinical symptom of the patients were fever, sore throat and cough, which accounted for 146 cases (75.26%), 98 (50.52%) and 86 cases (44.33%), respectively. 30 patients (15.46%) showed liver dysfunction. Imaging examination showed that 141 patients (72.68%) showed abnormal density shadow, while 53 cases (27.32%) had no obvious abnormality in the parenchyma of both lungs. Up to now, 109 cases have been discharged from the hospital, and 9 patients died. The ACE2 expression levels were up-regulated in patients of severe type and critically ill type. CONCLUSION: Clinical symptoms, laboratory tests and CT imaging should be combined for comprehensive analysis to diagnose COVID-19. ACE2 may be the receptor of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Cough/physiopathology , Fever/physiopathology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Pharyngitis/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , China , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cough/diagnosis , Cough/mortality , Cough/virology , Female , Fever/diagnosis , Fever/mortality , Fever/virology , Gene Expression , Humans , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pharyngitis/diagnosis , Pharyngitis/mortality , Pharyngitis/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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