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1.
Molecules ; 27(6)2022 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765796

ABSTRACT

The rosehip (Rosa canina L.) fruit has gained researchers' attention due to its rich chemical composition in vitamin C, phenols, carotenoids, and high antioxidant activity; meanwhile, polymers such as pea protein are generally recognized as exhibiting a protection role against the extrusion process. Corn snacks extrudates obtained by replacing corn flour with 10% R. canina powder (R) and 10% R. canina with pea protein (RPP) were evaluated for the physicochemical, textural, optical, and nutritional characteristics. A sample manufactured without R. canina powder was used as a control. Hardness, crispiness, chewiness, and solubility index (WSI) of the final extrudates were improved by addition of R. canina and pea protein powder (PP); meanwhile, b* (yellow/blue coordinate), C (chroma), and h* (tone) optical parameters were significantly different from the control sample (p < 0.05). Extrusion highlighted a negative impact on total phenols, carotenoids, vitamin C, and antioxidant activity extrudates, while PP exhibited a good protection against the extrusion process. In vitro digestion increased the bioaccessibility of vitamin C, folate, antioxidant activity, total phenols, and total carotenoids mainly on RPP extrudates.


Subject(s)
Rosa , Antioxidants , Ascorbic Acid , Phenols/chemistry , Rosa/chemistry , Zea mays/chemistry
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745034

ABSTRACT

A convenient method for the synthesis of the first generation PAMAM dendrimers based on the thiacalix[4]arene has been developed for the first time. Three new PAMAM-calix-dendrimers with the macrocyclic core in cone, partial cone, and 1,3-alternate conformations were obtained with high yields. The interaction of the obtained compounds with salmon sperm DNA resulted in the formation of the associates of the size up to 200 nm, as shown by the UV-Vis spectroscopy, DLS, and TEM. It was demonstrated by the CD method that the structure of the DNA did not undergo significant changes upon binding. The PAMAM-calix-dendrimer based on the macrocycle in cone conformation stabilized DNA and prevented its degradation.


Subject(s)
DNA/chemistry , DNA/metabolism , Dendrimers/chemistry , Phenols/chemistry , Sulfides/chemistry , Animals , Male , Molecular Conformation , Salmon , Spermatozoa/metabolism
3.
J Med Chem ; 64(19): 14332-14343, 2021 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621195

ABSTRACT

In addition to a variety of viral-glycoprotein receptors (e.g., heparan sulfate, Niemann-Pick C1, etc.), dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN), from the C-type lectin receptor family, plays one of the most important pathogenic functions for a wide range of viruses (e.g., Ebola, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), HIV-1, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, etc.) that invade host cells before replication; thus, its inhibition represents a relevant extracellular antiviral therapy. We report two novel p-tBu-calixarene glycoclusters 1 and 2, bearing tetrahydroxamic acid groups, which exhibit micromolar inhibition of soluble DC-SIGN binding and provide nanomolar IC50 inhibition of both DC-SIGN-dependent Jurkat cis-cell infection by viral particle pseudotyped with Ebola virus glycoprotein and the HCMV-gB-recombinant glycoprotein interaction with monocyte-derived dendritic cells expressing DC-SIGN. A unique cooperative involvement of sugar, linker, and calixarene core is likely behind the strong avidity of DC-SIGN for these low-valent systems. We claim herein new promising candidates for the rational development of a large spectrum of antiviral therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Calixarenes/chemistry , Cell Adhesion Molecules/antagonists & inhibitors , Glycoconjugates/metabolism , Glycoproteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Hydroxamic Acids/chemistry , Lectins, C-Type/antagonists & inhibitors , Phenols/chemistry , Receptors, Cell Surface/antagonists & inhibitors , Viral Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cell Adhesion Molecules/metabolism , Cell Line , Cytomegalovirus/metabolism , Dendritic Cells/cytology , Dendritic Cells/metabolism , Ebolavirus/physiology , Glycoconjugates/chemistry , Glycoconjugates/pharmacology , Glycoproteins/genetics , Glycoproteins/metabolism , Humans , Jurkat Cells , Lectins, C-Type/metabolism , Models, Biological , Protein Binding , Receptors, Cell Surface/metabolism , Recombinant Proteins/biosynthesis , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/isolation & purification , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/metabolism
4.
J Mol Model ; 27(11): 341, 2021 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499466

ABSTRACT

From the beginning of pandemic, more than 240 million people have been infected with a death rate higher than 2%. Indeed, the current exit strategy involving the spreading of vaccines must be combined with progress in effective treatment development. This scenario is sadly supported by the vaccine's immune activation time and the inequalities in the global immunization schedule. Bringing the crises under control means providing the world population with accessible and impactful new therapeutics. We screened a natural product library that contains a unique collection of 2370 natural products into the binding site of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) main protease (Mpro). According to the docking score and to the interaction at the active site, three phenylethanoid glycosides (forsythiaside A, isoacteoside, and verbascoside) were selected. In order to provide better insight into the atomistic interaction and test the impact of the three selected compounds at the binding site, we resorted to a half microsecond-long molecular dynamics simulation. As a result, we are showing that forsythiaside A is the most stable molecule and it is likely to possess the highest inhibitory effect against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. Phenylethanoid glycosides also have been reported to have both protease and kinase activity. This kinase inhibitory activity is very beneficial in fighting viruses inside the body as kinases are required for viral entry, metabolism, and/or reproduction. The dual activity (kinase/protease) of phenylethanoid glycosides makes them very promising anit-COVID-19 agents.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Glycosides/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Binding Sites , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Coronavirus Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Glucosides/chemistry , Glucosides/metabolism , Glucosides/pharmacology , Glycosides/chemistry , Glycosides/metabolism , Hydrogen Bonding , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Phenols/chemistry , Phenols/metabolism , Phenols/pharmacology
5.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 43: 128079, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385131

ABSTRACT

In the current study, the interaction of SARS-CoV-2 protein (A and B chains of nsp13) with different recently synthesized phenolic compounds (Sreenivasulu et al., Synthetic Communications, 2020, 112-122) has been studied. The interactions have been investigated by using molecular docking, quantum chemical and molecular dynamics simulations methods. The molecular structures of all the ligands are studied quantum chemically in terms of their optimized structures, 3-D orbital distributions, global chemical descriptors, molecular electrostatic potential plots and HOMO-LUMO orbital energies. All the ligands show reasonably good binding affinities with nsp-13 protein. The ligand L2 shows to have better binding affinities to Chain A and Chain B of nsp13 protein, which are -6.7 and -6.4 kcal/mol. The study of intermolecular interactions indicates that L2 shows different hydrophobic and hydrogen bond interactions with both chains. Furthermore, molecular dynamic simulations of the nsp13-L2 complex are obtained over a time scale of 60 ns, which indicates its stability and flexibility behavior as assessed in terms of its RMSD and RMSF graphs. The ADMET analysis also shows no violation of Lipinski rule (RO5) by studied phenolic compounds. We believe that the current findings will be further confirmed by in vitro and in vivo studies of these recent phenolic compounds for their potential as inhibitors for SARS-Co-V-2 virus.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Phenols/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Molecular Structure , Phenols/chemistry , Quantum Theory , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
6.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255807, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1362087

ABSTRACT

The use of saliva for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 has shown to be a good alternative to nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS), since it permits self-collection, avoids the exposure of healthy persons to infected patients, reduces waiting times, eliminates the need of personal protective equipment and is non-invasive. Yet current saliva testing is still expensive due to the need of specialized tubes containing buffers to stabilize the RNA of SARS-CoV-2 and inactivate the virus. These tubes are expensive and not always accessible in sufficient quantities. We now developed an alternative saliva testing method, using TRIzol for extraction, viral inactivation, and storage of SARS-CoV-2 RNA, combined with RT-qPCR, which was comparable in its performance to NPS. Paired saliva samples and NPS were taken from 15 asymptomatic healthcare workers and one patient with SARS-CoV-2. Further 13 patients with SARS-CoV-2 were only saliva-tested. All the tests were performed according to CDC 2019-Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Real-Time RT-PCR Diagnostic Panel. Saliva (4 mL) was taken in sterile 50 mL tubes, 1.5 mL TRIzol were added and mixed. Our results show that 5 µL of saliva RNA extracted with TRIzol allow for an adequate detection of the virus in patients positive for SARS-CoV-2 and was equally sensitive to NPS in TRIzol. We conclude that saliva testing using TRIzol is a recommendable method for diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 since it has several advantages over currently used saliva tests: it can be done with normal sterile tubes, does not need cold-chain handling, is stable at room temperature, is non-invasive and less costly, making it more accessible for low-income countries. Cheaper saliva testing using TRIzol is especially relevant for low-income countries to optimize diagnosis and help define quarantine durations for families, healthcare workers, schools, and other public workplaces, thus decreasing infections and mortality caused by SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Saliva/virology , Specimen Handling/instrumentation , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Developing Countries , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/economics , Early Diagnosis , Guanidines/chemistry , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Phenols/chemistry , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Socioeconomic Factors , Specimen Handling/economics , Young Adult
7.
Bioorg Chem ; 114: 105153, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1324044

ABSTRACT

A series of novel substituted phenyl 1, 3-thiazolidin-4-one sulfonyl derivatives 5 (a-t) were synthesized and screened for their in-vitro anti-microbial and anti-viral activity. The result of the anti-microbial assay demonstrated compounds 5d, 5f, 5g, 5h, 5i, 5j showed prominent inhibitory activity against all the tested Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains, while compounds 5g, 5j, 5o, 5p, 5q showed significant activity against the entire set of fungal strains as compared to standard drug Ampicillin and Clotrimazole, respectively. The antimicrobial study revealed that compounds having electron-withdrawing groups showed significant antimicrobial potency. The most active antibacterial compound 5j showed potent inhibition of S. aureus DNA Gyrase enzyme as a possible mechanism of action for antimicrobial activity. Moreover, the antiviral testing of selected compounds showed considerable activity against Herpes simplex virus-1(KOS), Herpes simplex virus-2 (G), Herpes simplex virus-1(TK- KOS ACVr), Vaccinia virus, Human Coronavirus (229E), Reovirus-1, Sindbis virus, Coxsackie virus B4, Yellow Fever virus and Influenza A, B virus. Compounds 5h exhibited low anti-viral activity against HIV-1(strain IIIB) and HIV-2 (strain ROD). The study clearly outlined that synthesized compounds endowed with good antimicrobial property together with considerable antiviral activity.


Subject(s)
Phenols/chemical synthesis , Sulfonamides/chemical synthesis , Toluene/analogs & derivatives , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemical synthesis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/drug effects , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Phenols/chemistry , Phenols/pharmacology , Sulfonamides/chemistry , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Toluene/chemical synthesis , Toluene/chemistry , Toluene/pharmacology , Vero Cells , Viruses/classification , Viruses/drug effects
8.
Future Med Chem ; 13(8): 691-700, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1190567

ABSTRACT

Aim: To identify virtual bioisosteric replacements of two GPR40 agonists. Materials & methods: Bioinformatic docking of candidate molecules featuring a wide range of carboxylic acid bioisosteres into complex with GPR40 was performed using TAK-875 and GW9508 templates. Results: This study suggests that 2,6-difluorophenol and squaric acid motifs are the preferred bioisosteric groups for conferring GPR40 affinity. Conclusion: This study suggests that compounds 10 and 20 are worthy synthetic targets.


Subject(s)
Benzofurans/pharmacology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/chemistry , Methylamines/pharmacology , Propionates/pharmacology , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/agonists , Sulfones/pharmacology , Animals , Benzofurans/metabolism , Cyclobutanes/chemistry , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Methylamines/metabolism , Molecular Docking Simulation , Phenols/chemistry , Propionates/metabolism , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , Sulfones/metabolism
9.
J Immunoassay Immunochem ; 41(6): 976-999, 2020 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1124732

ABSTRACT

At present, specific therapies for COVID-19 are not well established, being certain only that the immune system plays a decisive role in the initiation and progression of the disease. Plants have given and continue to give compounds with great efficiency and low toxicity, some of them being a starting point for extremely effective synthetic substances. Although herbal remedies are used mainly for preventive purposes, there are also guidelines issued by some countries that indicate the use of traditional remedies for different stages of COVID-19 disease.Europe has a long and strong tradition of using medicinal plants for therapeutic purposes, but clinical trials for this type of approach are scarce, compared to Asia. In this regard, a bridge between tradition and science, would have a strong impact on the capacity for prevention and treatment of COVID-19. The paper reviews compounds of plant origin that have previously proven effective in counteracting some coronaviruses but also some of their major effects - direct action on virus replicative apparatus (viral entry or replication, action on the viral enzymatic system), collateral action of natural compounds on the immune system and also the contribution of herbal medicine as vaccine adjuvants are tackled.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Clinical Trials as Topic , Europe , Humans , Immune System/drug effects , Lectins/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Phenols/chemistry , Phytotherapy , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Saponins/chemistry , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
10.
J Chem Inf Model ; 60(12): 5771-5780, 2020 12 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065771

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has infected several million people and caused thousands of deaths worldwide since December 2019. As the disease is spreading rapidly all over the world, it is urgent to find effective drugs to treat the virus. The main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2 is one of the potential drug targets. Therefore, in this context, we used rigorous computational methods, including molecular docking, fast pulling of ligand (FPL), and free energy perturbation (FEP), to investigate potential inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. We first tested our approach with three reported inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, and our computational results are in good agreement with the respective experimental data. Subsequently, we applied our approach on a database of ∼4600 natural compounds, as well as 8 available HIV-1 protease (PR) inhibitors and an aza-peptide epoxide. Molecular docking resulted in a short list of 35 natural compounds, which was subsequently refined using the FPL scheme. FPL simulations resulted in five potential inhibitors, including three natural compounds and two available HIV-1 PR inhibitors. Finally, FEP, the most accurate and precise method, was used to determine the absolute binding free energy of these five compounds. FEP results indicate that two natural compounds, cannabisin A and isoacteoside, and an HIV-1 PR inhibitor, darunavir, exhibit a large binding free energy to SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, which is larger than that of 13b, the most reliable SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibitor recently reported. The binding free energy largely arises from van der Waals interaction. We also found that Glu166 forms H-bonds to all of the inhibitors. Replacing Glu166 by an alanine residue leads to ∼2.0 kcal/mol decreases in the affinity of darunavir to SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. Our results could contribute to the development of potential drugs inhibiting SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , HIV Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , HIV Protease/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Amino Acid Sequence , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Binding Sites , Biological Products/chemistry , Biological Products/pharmacology , Darunavir/chemistry , Darunavir/pharmacology , Databases, Factual , Drug Design , Glucosides/chemistry , Glucosides/pharmacology , HIV Protease Inhibitors/metabolism , HIV Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Peptides/chemistry , Phenols/chemistry , Phenols/pharmacology , Protein Binding , Structure-Activity Relationship , Thermodynamics
11.
Comput Biol Chem ; 89: 107408, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-898662

ABSTRACT

Caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the COVID-19 pandemic is ongoing, with no proven safe and effective vaccine to date. Further, effective therapeutic agents for COVID-19 are limited, and as a result, the identification of potential small molecule antiviral drugs is of particular importance. A critical antiviral target is the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro), and our aim was to identify lead compounds with potential inhibitory effects. We performed an initial molecular docking screen of 300 small molecules, which included phenolic compounds and fatty acids from our OliveNet™ library (224), and an additional group of curated pharmacological and dietary compounds. The prototypical α-ketoamide 13b inhibitor was used as a control to guide selection of the top 30 compounds with respect to binding affinity to the Mpro active site. Further studies and analyses including blind docking were performed to identify hypericin, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and SRT2104 as potential leads. Molecular dynamics simulations demonstrated that hypericin (ΔG = -18.6 and -19.3 kcal/mol), cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (ΔG = -50.8 and -42.1 kcal/mol), and SRT2104 (ΔG = -8.7 and -20.6 kcal/mol), formed stable interactions with the Mpro active site. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay indicated that, albeit, not as potent as the covalent positive control (GC376), our leads inhibited the Mpro with activity in the micromolar range, and an order of effectiveness of hypericin and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside > SRT2104 > SRT1720. Overall, our findings, and those highlighted by others indicate that hypericin and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside are suitable candidates for progress to in vitro and in vivo antiviral studies.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Coronavirus Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Small Molecule Libraries/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Coronavirus Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Fatty Acids/chemistry , Fatty Acids/pharmacology , Humans , Ligands , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Models, Molecular , Phenols/chemistry , Phenols/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Small Molecule Libraries/chemistry
12.
Comb Chem High Throughput Screen ; 24(6): 874-878, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-895209

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 which is known as the novel coronavirus was reported in December 2019 in Wuhan city, China and many people have been contaminated by environmental contamination and transmission from one human to another until now. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present work is to establish the inhibitory potential of nicotiflorin, a Kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside flavonoid, against the deadly coronavirus (COVID-19) 6W63 (main protease 3Clpro protein), using molecular docking approach. METHODS: The Molegro Virtual Docker software (MVD) with a 30 Å grid resolution was used. The structure was drawn by Chem 3D software and energy minimization was done by the MM2 force field. The protein 6W63 was downloaded from the protein data bank. Molegro modeller was used for score calculations. RESULT: The molecular docking studies were carried out on nicotiflorin and standard inhibitor X77, where standard inhibitor was observed in a co-crystallized state with main protease 3Clpro protein 6W63. The MolDock score, Rerank Sore, and H Bond score of nicotiflorin and standard inhibitor X77 were observed as -173.058, -127.302, -21.9398 and -156.913,-121.296,-5.7369, respectively. CONCLUSION: Molecular docking studies have confirmed that the affinity of flavonoid nicotiflorin with the amino acids of the viral protein 6W63 was relatively more than the standard X77. For the effective treatment of novel coronavirus COVID-19, the effectiveness of the identified flavonoid nicotiflorin can further be evaluated for safety and efficacy parameters at both preclinical and clinical stages.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Flavonoids/chemistry , Phenols/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Catalytic Domain , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Flavonoids/metabolism , Molecular Docking Simulation , Phenols/metabolism
13.
Molecules ; 25(16)2020 Aug 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-833356

ABSTRACT

Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have got huge interest as new green and sustainable solvents for the extraction of bioactive compounds from plants in recent decades. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effectiveness of hydrophilic DES for the extraction of anthocyanin and polyphenol antioxidants from Roselle. A natural hydrophilic DES constituted of sodium acetate (hydrogen bond acceptor) and formic acid (hydrogen bond donor) designed to evaluate the total phenolic compound (TPC), total flavonoid (TFC), total anthocyanin (TACN), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) values of Roselle. Distilled water, 70% ethanol, and 80% methanol used as conventional solvents for comparison. The results indicated that the DES prepared in molarity ratio (SAFAm) was the most efficient. Subsequently, this prominent DES selected for the optimization and the optimum extraction conditions were 1:3.6 molarity ratio, 0% additional water, and 10 mL solvent. TPC, TFC, TACN, FRAP, and DPPH radical scavenging at the optimum point were 233.26 mg GAE/g, 10.14 mg ECE/g, 10.62 mg D3S/g, 493.45 mmol ISE/g, and 343.41 mmol TE/g, respectively. The stability tests showed that anthocyanins were more stable in SAFAm. These findings revealed that SAFAm is an effective green solvent for the extraction of polyphenols from various plants.


Subject(s)
Anthocyanins/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Ethanol/chemistry , Hibiscus/chemistry , Methanol/chemistry , Phenols/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Drug Stability
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