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1.
Theranostics ; 11(14): 7005-7017, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524524

ABSTRACT

The tumor suppressor protein p53 remains in a wild type but inactive form in ~50% of all human cancers. Thus, activating it becomes an attractive approach for targeted cancer therapies. In this regard, our lab has previously discovered a small molecule, Inauhzin (INZ), as a potent p53 activator with no genotoxicity. Method: To improve its efficacy and bioavailability, here we employed nanoparticle encapsulation, making INZ-C, an analog of INZ, to nanoparticle-encapsulated INZ-C (n-INZ-C). Results: This approach significantly improved p53 activation and inhibition of lung and colorectal cancer cell growth by n-INZ-C in vitro and in vivo while it displayed a minimal effect on normal human Wi38 and mouse MEF cells. The improved activity was further corroborated with the enhanced cellular uptake observed in cancer cells and minimal cellular uptake observed in normal cells. In vivo pharmacokinetic evaluation of these nanoparticles showed that the nanoparticle encapsulation prolongates the half-life of INZ-C from 2.5 h to 5 h in mice. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that we have established a nanoparticle system that could enhance the bioavailability and efficacy of INZ-C as a potential anti-cancer therapeutic.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Indoles/pharmacology , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Phenothiazines/pharmacology , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/metabolism , Animals , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Biological Availability , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Humans , Indoles/chemistry , Indoles/pharmacokinetics , Indoles/therapeutic use , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Nanoparticles/toxicity , Nanoparticles/ultrastructure , Phenothiazines/chemistry , Phenothiazines/pharmacokinetics , Phenothiazines/therapeutic use , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/genetics , Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
2.
Biochem J ; 478(13): 2481-2497, 2021 07 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1289949

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has presented itself as one of the most critical public health challenges of the century, with SARS-CoV-2 being the third member of the Coronaviridae family to cause a fatal disease in humans. There is currently only one antiviral compound, remdesivir, that can be used for the treatment of COVID-19. To identify additional potential therapeutics, we investigated the enzymatic proteins encoded in the SARS-CoV-2 genome. In this study, we focussed on the viral RNA cap methyltransferases, which play key roles in enabling viral protein translation and facilitating viral escape from the immune system. We expressed and purified both the guanine-N7 methyltransferase nsp14, and the nsp16 2'-O-methyltransferase with its activating cofactor, nsp10. We performed an in vitro high-throughput screen for inhibitors of nsp14 using a custom compound library of over 5000 pharmaceutical compounds that have previously been characterised in either clinical or basic research. We identified four compounds as potential inhibitors of nsp14, all of which also showed antiviral capacity in a cell-based model of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Three of the four compounds also exhibited synergistic effects on viral replication with remdesivir.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Exoribonucleases/antagonists & inhibitors , Methyltransferases/antagonists & inhibitors , RNA Caps/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Small Molecule Libraries/pharmacology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Chlorobenzenes/pharmacology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Enzyme Assays , Exoribonucleases/genetics , Exoribonucleases/isolation & purification , Exoribonucleases/metabolism , Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Indazoles/pharmacology , Indenes/pharmacology , Indoles/pharmacology , Methyltransferases/genetics , Methyltransferases/isolation & purification , Methyltransferases/metabolism , Nitriles/pharmacology , Phenothiazines/pharmacology , Purines/pharmacology , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Small Molecule Libraries/chemistry , Substrate Specificity , Trifluperidol/pharmacology , Vero Cells , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/isolation & purification , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/genetics , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/isolation & purification , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/metabolism
3.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 887: 173553, 2020 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-764566

ABSTRACT

In 2020 the whole world focused on antivirus drugs towards SARS-CoV-2. Most of the researchers focused on drugs used in other viral infections or malaria. We have not seen such mobilization towards one topic in this century. The whole situation makes clear that progress needs to be made in antiviral drug development. The first step to do it is to characterize the potential antiviral activity of new or already existed drugs on the market. Phenothiazines are antipsychotic agents used previously as antiseptics, anthelminthics, and antimalarials. Up to date, they are tested for a number of other disorders including the broad spectrum of viruses. The goal of this paper was to summarize the current literature on activity toward RNA-viruses of such drugs like chlorpromazine, fluphenazine, perphenazine, prochlorperazine, and thioridazine. We identified 49 papers, where the use of the phenothiazines for 23 viruses from different families were tested. Chlorpromazine, fluphenazine, perphenazine, prochlorperazine, and thioridazine possess anti-viral activity towards different types of viruses. These drugs inhibit clathrin-dependent endocytosis, cell-cell fusion, infection, replication of the virus, decrease viral invasion as well as suppress entry into the host cells. Additionally, since the drugs display activity at nontoxic concentrations they have therapeutic potential for some viruses, still, further research on animal and human subjects are needed in this field to verify cell base research.


Subject(s)
Antipsychotic Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Phenothiazines/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , RNA Viruses/drug effects , Animals , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Chlorpromazine/pharmacology , Chlorpromazine/therapeutic use , Fluphenazine/pharmacology , Fluphenazine/therapeutic use , Humans , Pandemics , Perphenazine/pharmacology , Perphenazine/therapeutic use , Phenothiazines/therapeutic use , Prochlorperazine/pharmacology , Prochlorperazine/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Thioridazine/pharmacology , Thioridazine/therapeutic use
4.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 211: 111997, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-714374

ABSTRACT

The worldwide infection with the new Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) demands urgently new potent treatment(s). In this study we predict, using molecular docking, the binding affinity of 15 phenothiazines (antihistaminic and antipsychotic drugs) when interacting with the main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, we tested the binding affinity of photoproducts identified after irradiation of phenothiazines with Nd:YAG laser beam at 266 nm respectively 355 nm. Our results reveal that thioridazine and its identified photoproducts (mesoridazine and sulforidazine) have high biological activity on the virus Mpro. This shows that thioridazine and its two photoproducts might represent new potent medicines to be used for treatment in this outbreak. Such results recommend these medicines for further tests on cell cultures infected with SARS-CoV-2 or animal model. The transition to human subjects of the suggested treatment will be smooth due to the fact that the drugs are already available on the market.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Phenothiazines/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/radiation effects , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/enzymology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cysteine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Host Microbial Interactions/drug effects , Humans , Lasers, Solid-State , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pandemics , Phenothiazines/chemistry , Phenothiazines/radiation effects , Photochemical Processes , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Structure-Activity Relationship , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry
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