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1.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1044, 2022 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865292

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 infection has disproportionately affected socially disadvantaged neighborhoods. Despite this disproportionate burden of infection, these neighborhoods have also lagged in COVID-19 vaccinations. To date, we have little understanding of the ways that various types of social conditions intersect to explain the complex causes of lower COVID-19 vaccination rates in neighborhoods. METHODS: We used configurational comparative methods (CCMs) to study COVID-19 vaccination rates in Philadelphia by neighborhood (proxied by zip code tabulation areas). Specifically, we identified neighborhoods where COVID-19 vaccination rates (per 10,000) were persistently low from March 2021 - May 2021. We then assessed how different combinations of social conditions (pathways) uniquely distinguished neighborhoods with persistently low vaccination rates from the other neighborhoods in the city. Social conditions included measures of economic inequities, racial segregation, education, overcrowding, service employment, public transit use, health insurance and limited English proficiency. RESULTS: Two factors consistently distinguished neighborhoods with persistently low COVID-19 vaccination rates from the others: college education and concentrated racial privilege. Two factor values together - low college education AND low/medium concentrated racial privilege - identified persistently low COVID-19 vaccination rates in neighborhoods, with high consistency (0.92) and high coverage (0.86). Different values for education and concentrated racial privilege - medium/high college education OR high concentrated racial privilege - were each sufficient by themselves to explain neighborhoods where COVID-19 vaccination rates were not persistently low, likewise with high consistency (0.93) and high coverage (0.97). CONCLUSIONS: Pairing CCMs with geospatial mapping can help identify complex relationships between social conditions linked to low COVID-19 vaccination rates. Understanding how neighborhood conditions combine to create inequities in communities could inform the design of interventions tailored to address COVID-19 vaccination disparities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Segregation , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Philadelphia/epidemiology , Residence Characteristics , Vaccination
3.
Prev Med ; 158: 107020, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740318

ABSTRACT

Recent increases in firearm violence in U.S. cities are well-documented, however dynamic changes in the people, places and intensity of this public health threat during the COVID-19 pandemic are relatively unexplored. This descriptive epidemiologic study spanning from January 1, 2015 - March 31, 2021 utilizes the Philadelphia Police Department's registry of shooting victims, a database which includes all individuals shot and/or killed due to interpersonal firearm violence in the city of Philadelphia. We compared victim and event characteristics prior to the pandemic with those following implementation of pandemic containment measures. In this study, containment began on March 16, 2020, when non-essential businesses were ordered to close in Philadelphia. There were 331 (SE = 13.9) individuals shot/quarter pre-containment vs. 545 (SE = 66.4) individuals shot/quarter post-containment (p = 0.031). Post-containment, the proportion of women shot increased by 39% (95% CI: 1.21, 1.59), and the proportion of children shot increased by 17% (95% CI: 1.00, 1.35). Black women and children were more likely to be shot post-containment (RR 1.11, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.20 and RR 1.08, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.14, respectively). The proportion of mass shootings (≥4 individuals shot within 100 m within 1 h) increased by 53% post-containment (95% CI: 1.25, 1.88). Geographic analysis revealed relative increases in all shootings and mass shootings in specific city locations post-containment. The observed changes in firearm injury epidemiology following COVID-19 containment in Philadelphia demonstrate an intensification in firearm violence, which is increasingly impacting people who are likely made more vulnerable by existing social and structural disadvantage. These findings support existing knowledge about structural causes of interpersonal firearm violence and suggest structural solutions are required to address this public health threat.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Firearms , Wounds, Gunshot , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Philadelphia/epidemiology , Violence , Wounds, Gunshot/epidemiology
4.
Am J Public Health ; 112(3): 408-416, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706319

ABSTRACT

Objectives. To evaluate the occurrence of HIV and COVID-19 infections in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, through July 2020 and identify ecological correlates driving racial disparities in infection incidence. Methods. For each zip code tabulation area, we created citywide comparison Z-score measures of COVID-19 cases, new cases of HIV, and the difference between the scores. Choropleth maps were used to identify areas that were similar or dissimilar in terms of disease patterning, and weighted linear regression models helped identify independent ecological predictors of these patterns. Results. Relative to COVID-19, HIV represented a greater burden in Center City Philadelphia, whereas COVID-19 was more apparent in Northeast Philadelphia. Areas with a greater proportion of Black or African American residents were overrepresented in terms of both diseases. Conclusions. Although race is a shared nominal upstream factor that conveys increased risk for both infections, an understanding of separate structural, demographic, and economic risk factors that drive the overrepresentation of COVID-19 cases in racial/ethnic communities across Philadelphia is critical. Public Health Implications. Difference-based measures are useful in identifying areas that are underrepresented or overrepresented with respect to disease occurrence and may be able to elucidate effective or ineffective mitigation strategies. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(3):408-416. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306538).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Aged , COVID-19/ethnology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , HIV Infections/ethnology , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Philadelphia/epidemiology , Residence Characteristics , SARS-CoV-2 , Spatial Analysis , Young Adult
5.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263777, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705282

ABSTRACT

This study examines changes in gun violence at the census tract level in Philadelphia, PA before and after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Piecewise generalized linear mixed effects models are used to test the relative impacts of social-structural and demographic factors, police activity, the presence of and proximity to drug markets, and physical incivilities on shooting changes between 2017 and June, 2021. Model results revealed that neighborhood structural characteristics like concentrated disadvantage and racial makeup, as well as proximity to drug markets and police activity were associated with higher shooting rates. Neighborhood drug market activity and police activity significantly predicted changes in shooting rates over time after the onset of COVID-19. This work demonstrates the importance of understanding whether there are unique factors that impact the susceptibility to exogenous shocks like the COVID-19 pandemic. The increasing risk of being in a neighborhood with an active drug market during the pandemic suggests efforts related to disrupting drug organizations, or otherwise curbing violence stemming from drug markets, may go a long way towards quelling citywide increases in gun violence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Gun Violence/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/virology , Databases, Factual , Drug Trafficking/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Pandemics , Philadelphia/epidemiology , Police , Racism , Residence Characteristics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
6.
Pediatrics ; 149(2)2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662454

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: With the onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, pediatric ambulatory encounter volume and antibiotic prescribing both decreased; however, the durability of these reductions in pediatric primary care in the United States has not been assessed. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational study to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and associated public health measures on antibiotic prescribing in 27 pediatric primary care practices. Encounters from January 1, 2018, through June 30, 2021, were included. The primary outcome was monthly antibiotic prescriptions per 1000 patients. Interrupted time series analysis was performed. RESULTS: There were 69 327 total antibiotic prescriptions from April through December in 2019 and 18 935 antibiotic prescriptions during the same months in 2020, a 72.7% reduction. The reduction in prescriptions at visits for respiratory tract infection (RTI) accounted for 87.3% of this decrease. Using interrupted time series analysis, overall antibiotic prescriptions decreased from 31.6 to 6.4 prescriptions per 1000 patients in April 2020 (difference of -25.2 prescriptions per 1000 patients; 95% CI: -32.9 to -17.5). This was followed by a nonsignificant monthly increase in antibiotic prescriptions, with prescribing beginning to rebound from April to June 2021. Encounter volume also immediately decreased, and while overall encounter volume quickly started to recover, RTI encounter volume returned more slowly. CONCLUSIONS: Reductions in antibiotic prescribing in pediatric primary care during the COVID-19 pandemic were sustained, only beginning to rise in 2021, primarily driven by reductions in RTI encounters. Reductions in viral RTI transmission likely played a substantial role in reduced RTI visits and antibiotic prescriptions.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Drug Prescriptions/statistics & numerical data , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , Primary Health Care , Child , Female , Humans , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Male , Pandemics , Pediatrics , Philadelphia/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
7.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261398, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1631249

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To quantify changes in adherence to mask and distancing guidelines in outdoor settings in Philadelphia, PA before and after President Trump announced he was infected with COVID-19. METHODS: We used Systematic Observation of Masking Adherence and Distancing (SOMAD) to assess mask adherence in parks, playgrounds, and commercial streets in the 10 City Council districts in Philadelphia PA. We compared adherence rates between August and September 2020 and after October 2, 2020. RESULTS: Disparities in mask adherence existed by age group, gender, and race/ethnicity, with females wearing masks correctly more often than males, seniors having higher mask use than other age groups, and Asians having higher adherence than other race/ethnicities. Correct mask use did not increase after the City released additional mask guidance in September but did after Oct 2. Incorrect mask use also decreased, but the percentage not having masks at all was unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: Vulnerability of leadership appears to influence population behavior. Public health departments likely need more resources to effectively and persuasively communicate critical safety messages related to COVID-19 transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Masks/trends , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Guideline Adherence/trends , Humans , Male , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Philadelphia , Physical Distancing , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Young Adult
8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(12): e2136582, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544184

ABSTRACT

Importance: Several COVID-19 vaccines have been authorized in the US, yet preliminary evidence suggests high levels of vaccine hesitancy and wide racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities in uptake. Objective: To assess COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among health care personnel (HCP) during the first 4 months of availability in a large academic hospital, compare acceptance with previously measured vaccine hesitancy, and describe racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities in vaccine uptake. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study included 12 610 HCP who were offered COVID-19 vaccination at a major academic hospital in Philadelphia between December 16, 2020, and April 16, 2021. Exposures: For each HCP, data were collected on occupational category, age, sex, race and ethnicity (Asian or Pacific Islander, Black or African American [Black], Hispanic, White, and multiracial), and social vulnerability index (SVI) at the zip code of residence. Main Outcomes and Measures: Vaccine uptake by HCP at the employee vaccination clinic. Results: The study population included 4173 men (34.8%) and 7814 women (65.2%) (623 without data). A total of 1480 were Asian or Pacific Islander (12.4%); 2563 (21.6%), Black; 452 (3.8%), Hispanic; 7086 (59.6%), White; and 192 (1.6%), multiracial; 717 had no data for race and ethnicity. The mean (SD) age was 40.9 (12.4) years, and 9573 (76.0%) received at least 1 vaccine dose during the first 4 months of vaccine availability. Adjusted for age, sex, job position, and SVI, Black (relative risk [RR], 0.69; 95% CI, 0.66-0.72) and multiracial (RR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.73-0.89) HCP were less likely to receive vaccine compared with White HCP. When stratified by job position, Black nurses (n = 189; 62.8%), Black HCP with some patient contact (n = 466; 49.9%), and Black HCP with no patient contact (n = 636; 56.3%) all had lower vaccine uptake compared with their White and Asian or Pacific Islander counterparts. Similarly, multiracial HCP with some (n = 26; 52.0%) or no (n = 48; 58.5%) patient contact had lower vaccine uptake. In contrast, Black physicians were just as likely to receive the vaccine as physicians of other racial and ethnic groups. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study, more than two-thirds of HCP at a large academic hospital in Philadelphia received a COVID-19 vaccine within 4 months of vaccine availability. Although racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities were seen in vaccine uptake, no such disparities were found among physicians. Better understanding of factors driving these disparities may help improve uptake.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Personnel, Hospital , Vaccination , Adult , African Americans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nurses , Philadelphia , Physicians , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Class , /ethnology
9.
J Med Virol ; 94(4): 1550-1557, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540145

ABSTRACT

International Statistical Classification of Disease and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision codes (ICD-10) are used to characterize cohort comorbidities. Recent literature does not demonstrate standardized extraction methods. OBJECTIVE: Compare COVID-19 cohort manual-chart-review and ICD-10-based comorbidity data; characterize the accuracy of different methods of extracting ICD-10-code-based comorbidity, including the temporal accuracy with respect to critical time points such as day of admission. DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. MEASUREMENTS: ICD-10-based-data performance characteristics relative to manual-chart-review. RESULTS: Discharge billing diagnoses had a sensitivity of 0.82 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.79-0.85; comorbidity range: 0.35-0.96). The past medical history table had a sensitivity of 0.72 (95% CI: 0.69-0.76; range: 0.44-0.87). The active problem list had a sensitivity of 0.67 (95% CI: 0.63-0.71; range: 0.47-0.71). On day of admission, the active problem list had a sensitivity of 0.58 (95% CI: 0.54-0.63; range: 0.30-0.68)and past medical history table had a sensitivity of 0.48 (95% CI: 0.43-0.53; range: 0.30-0.56). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: ICD-10-based comorbidity data performance varies depending on comorbidity, data source, and time of retrieval; there are notable opportunities for improvement. Future researchers should clearly outline comorbidity data source and validate against manual-chart-review.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Clinical Coding/standards , International Classification of Diseases/standards , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Clinical Coding/methods , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Philadelphia , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
10.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 1094, 2021 Oct 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463236

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To ensure safe delivery of oncologic care during the COVID-19 pandemic, telemedicine has been rapidly adopted. However, little data exist on the impact of telemedicine on quality and accessibility of oncologic care. This study assessed whether conducting an office visit for thoracic oncology patients via telemedicine affected time to treatment initiation and accessibility. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of patients with thoracic malignancies seen by a multidisciplinary team during the first surge of COVID-19 cases in Philadelphia (March 1 to June 30, 2020). Patients with an index visit for a new phase of care, defined as a new diagnosis, local recurrence, or newly discovered metastatic disease, were included. RESULTS: 240 distinct patients with thoracic malignancies were seen: 132 patients (55.0%) were seen initially in-person vs 108 (45.0%) via telemedicine. The majority of visits were for a diagnosis of a new thoracic cancer (87.5%). Among newly diagnosed patients referred to the thoracic oncology team, the median time from referral to initial visit was significantly shorter amongst the patients seen via telemedicine vs. in-person (median 5.0 vs. 6.5 days, p < 0.001). Patients received surgery (32.5%), radiation (24.2%), or systemic therapy (30.4%). Time from initial visit to treatment initiation by modality did not differ by telemedicine vs in-person: surgery (22 vs 16 days, p = 0.47), radiation (27.5 vs 27.5 days, p = 0.86, systemic therapy (15 vs 13 days, p = 0.45). CONCLUSIONS: Rapid adoption of telemedicine allowed timely delivery of oncologic care during the initial surge of the COVID19 pandemic by a thoracic oncology multi-disciplinary clinic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility , Pandemics , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Thoracic Neoplasms/therapy , Time-to-Treatment , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Patient Care Team , Philadelphia/epidemiology , Quality of Health Care , Referral and Consultation , Retrospective Studies , Telemedicine/standards , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data , Thoracic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Thoracic Neoplasms/pathology , Time Factors
11.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 40(10): 1566-1574, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450738

ABSTRACT

Acute stress during pregnancy can have adverse effects on maternal health and increase the risk for postpartum depression and impaired mother-infant bonding. The COVID-19 pandemic represents an acute environmental stressor during which it is possible to explore risk and resilience factors that contribute to postpartum outcomes. To investigate prenatal risk and resilience factors as predictors of postpartum depression and impaired mother-infant bonding, this study recruited a diverse cohort of 833 pregnant women from an urban medical center in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and assessed them once during pregnancy in the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic (April-July 2020) and again at approximately twelve weeks postpartum. Adverse childhood experiences, prenatal depression and anxiety, and COVID-19-related distress predicted a greater likelihood of postpartum depression. Prenatal depression was the only unique predictor of impaired maternal-infant bonding after postpartum depression was controlled for. Women reporting greater emotion regulation, self-reliance, and nonhostile relationships had healthier postpartum outcomes. Policies to increase the number of nonspecialty providers providing perinatal mental health services as well as reimbursement for integrated care and access to mental health screening and care are needed to improve lifelong outcomes for women and their children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression, Postpartum , Child , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Mothers , Pandemics , Philadelphia/epidemiology , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
12.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258213, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450733

ABSTRACT

Our objective was to describe how residents of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, coped psychologically with the first wave of COVID-19 pandemic. In a cross-sectional design, we aimed to estimate the rates and correlates of anxiety and depression, examine how specific worries correlated with general anxiety and depression, and synthesize themes of "the most difficult experiences" shared by the respondents. We collected data through an on-line survey in a convenience sample of 1,293 adult residents of Philadelphia, PA between April 17 and July 3, 2020, inquiring about symptoms of anxiety and depression (via the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), specific worries, open-ended narratives of "the most difficult experiences" (coded into themes), demographics, perceived sources of support, and general health. Anxiety was evident among 30 to 40% of participants and depression-about 10%. Factor analysis revealed two distinct, yet inter-related clusters of specific worries related to mood disorders: concern about "hardships" and "fear of infection". Regression analyses revealed that anxiety, depression, and fear of infection, but not concern about hardships, worsened over the course of the epidemic. "The most difficult experiences" characterized by loss of income, poor health of self or others, uncertainty, death of a relative or a friend, and struggle accessing food were each associated with some of the measures of worries and mood disorders. Respondents who believed they could rely on support of close personal network fared better psychologically than those who reported relying primarily on government and social services organizations. Thematic analysis revealed complex perceptions of the pandemic by the participants, giving clues to both positive and negative experiences that may have affected how they coped. Despite concerns about external validity, our observations are concordant with emerging evidence of psychological toll of the COVID-19 pandemic and measures employed to mitigate risk of infection.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mood Disorders/diagnosis , Adult , Anxiety/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/pathology , Female , Humans , Internet , Male , Middle Aged , Mood Disorders/psychology , Pandemics , Philadelphia/epidemiology , Regression Analysis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
Acad Med ; 96(9): 1263-1267, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373679

ABSTRACT

The announcement of the closure of Philadelphia's Hahnemann University Hospital in June 2019 sent shock waves through the academic community. The closure had a devastating impact on the residents and fellows who trained there, the patients who had long received their care there, and faculty and staff who had provided care there for decades. Since its beginnings, the hospital, established as part of Hahnemann Medical College in 1885, was a major site for medical student education. The authors share the planning before and actions during the crisis that protected the educational experiences of third- and fourth-year medical students at Drexel University College of Medicine assigned to Hahnemann University Hospital. The lessons they learned can be helpful to leadership in academic health systems in the United States facing a diminishing number of clinical training sites for medical and other health professions students, a situation that is likely to worsen as the COVID-19 pandemic continues to weaken the health care ecosystem.


Subject(s)
Education, Medical, Undergraduate/organization & administration , Health Facility Closure/methods , Hospitals, University/organization & administration , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Faculty, Medical/organization & administration , Faculty, Medical/psychology , Humans , Interprofessional Relations , Philadelphia , Students, Medical/psychology
17.
Health Promot Pract ; 23(1): 32-34, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367661

ABSTRACT

Research has documented the need for mental health services among refugee and immigrant youth. A joint collaboration on a community-based participatory research (CBPR) research project between a university, a local art and health collective, and an immigrant and refugee organization sought to identify and understand the mental health needs and strategies for immigrant youth in Philadelphia through youth discussion and engagement in a variety of art workshops. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, this CBPR research project was forced to make several programmatic changes, such as shifting to a virtual setting, that impacted project implementation and intended outcomes. These changes highlight valuable lessons and practical implications in pivoting a program during COVID-19 to continue working with marginalized communities with limited resources, including barriers to technology access, at a time when effectively addressing mental health for immigrant youth has become both more challenging and pressing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emigrants and Immigrants , Adolescent , Community-Based Participatory Research , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , Philadelphia , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Harm Reduct J ; 18(1): 75, 2021 07 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322939

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The incidence of opioid-related overdose deaths has been rising for 30 years and has been further exacerbated amidst the COVID-19 pandemic. Naloxone can reverse opioid overdose, lower death rates, and enable a transition to medication for opioid use disorder. Though current formulations for community use of naloxone have been shown to be safe and effective public health interventions, they rely on bystander presence. We sought to understand the preferences and minimum necessary conditions for wearing a device capable of sensing and reversing opioid overdose among people who regularly use opioids. METHODS: We conducted a combined cross-sectional survey and semi-structured interview at a respite center, shelter, and syringe exchange drop-in program in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, during the COVID-19 pandemic in August and September 2020. The primary aim was to explore the proportion of participants who would use a wearable device to detect and reverse overdose. Preferences regarding designs and functionalities were collected via a questionnaire with items having Likert-based response options and a semi-structured interview intended to elicit feedback on prototype designs. Independent variables included demographics, opioid use habits, and previous experience with overdose. RESULTS: A total of 97 adults with an opioid use history of at least 3 months were interviewed. A majority of survey participants (76%) reported a willingness to use a device capable of detecting an overdose and automatically administering a reversal agent upon initial survey. When reflecting on the prototype, most respondents (75.5%) reported that they would wear the device always or most of the time. Respondents indicated discreetness and comfort as important factors that increased their chance of uptake. Respondents suggested that people experiencing homelessness and those with low tolerance for opioids would be in greatest need of the device. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of people sampled with a history of opioid use in an urban setting were interested in having access to a device capable of detecting and reversing an opioid overdose. Participants emphasized privacy and comfort as the most important factors influencing their willingness to use such a device. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04530591.


Subject(s)
Naloxone/administration & dosage , Narcotic Antagonists/administration & dosage , Opiate Overdose/diagnosis , Opiate Overdose/drug therapy , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Wearable Electronic Devices/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Male , Naloxone/therapeutic use , Narcotic Antagonists/therapeutic use , Opiate Overdose/psychology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Philadelphia , Wearable Electronic Devices/psychology , Young Adult
19.
J Occup Environ Med ; 63(5): e283-e293, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301401

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether patterns of work during COVID-19 pandemic altered by effort to contain the outbreak affected anxiety and depression. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional online survey of 911 residents of Philadelphia, inquiring about their working lives during early months of the epidemic, symptoms of anxiety and depression, plus demographics, perceived sources of support, and general health. RESULTS: Occupational contact with suspected COVID-19 cases was associated with anxiety. Concerns about return to work, childcare, lack of sick leave, and loss/reduction in work correlated with anxiety and depression, even when there was no evidence of occupational contact with infected persons; patterns differed by sex. CONCLUSIONS: Heightened anxiety and depression during COVID-19 pandemic can be due to widespread disruption of working lives, especially in "non-essential" low-income industries, on par with experience in healthcare.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Employment/classification , Employment/psychology , Adult , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Philadelphia/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Teleworking , Unemployment/psychology
20.
Coron Artery Dis ; 32(5): 367-371, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291432

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Recent studies have reported evidence that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has disproportionately affected patients with underlying comorbidities. Our study aims to evaluate the impact of both cardiac and noncardiac comorbidities on a high-risk population with COVID-19 infection and coronary artery disease (CAD) compared to those without CAD. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of patients who tested COVID-19 positive via reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) assay. We compared the characteristics and outcomes of patients with and without CAD. Population demographics, comorbidities and clinical outcomes were collected and analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with inpatient mortality. RESULTS: A final sample population of 355 patients was identified, 77 of which had a known diagnosis of coronary artery disease. Our study population had a higher proportion of females, and those with CAD were significantly older. The rates of cardiovascular risk factors including hypertension, diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease, as well as heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were significantly higher in the CAD population. Lactate dehydrogenase was the only inflammatory marker significantly lower in the CAD group, while troponin and brain natriuretic peptide were significantly higher in this population. Patients with CAD also had significantly higher inpatient mortality (31% vs 20%, P = 0.046) and need for renal replacement therapy (33% vs 11%, P < 0.0001) compared to the non-CAD group. However, only age [odds ratio 1.041 (1.017-1.066), P = 0.001] was significantly associated with mortality in the overall population after adjusting for demographics and comorbidities, while the presence of CAD was not independently associated with mortality. CONCLUSION: Patients with CAD and COVID-19 have higher rates of comorbidities, inpatient mortality and need for renal replacement therapy compared to their non-CAD counterparts. However, CAD in itself was not associated with mortality after adjusting for other covariates, suggesting that other factors may play a larger role in the increased mortality and poor outcomes in these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Coronary Artery Disease/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Comorbidity , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Artery Disease/therapy , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Philadelphia , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors
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