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1.
Front Public Health ; 9: 807474, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715072

ABSTRACT

Severe session jam phobia (SJP), the extent of underprivileged online education, and subsequent mental health disorders among students have emerged as distinguished global problems due to the overwhelming effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The purpose of this research was to evaluate the impact of extended COVID-19 lockdown and its mediating factors on current e-Learning activities, the prevalence of severe SJP and psychological distress among university students in Bangladesh. A web-based cross-sectional study was conducted to assemble responses through Google Form by applying a simple snowball sampling technique among university students aged 18 years or above in Bangladesh. All ethical considerations were maintained, and univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were employed to analyze the acquired data set. Among the total analyzed data (n = 1,122), the male and female ratio was almost 1:1, and a remarkable segment (63.7%) was aged between 21-24 years. Alarmingly, around 50-60% of the students were suffering from severe SJP, prevailing underprivileged education in the e-Learning platform, and severe mental distress. Logistic regression analyses demonstrated that the students from public universities, lower- and mid-income families, lower-aged, and junior years education groups were significantly (p < 0.05) more underprivileged than their counter groups. Besides, the monthly family income and university type significantly influenced the extent of severe SJP. Finally, the students who were female, rustic, come from low-income families (below 25,000 BDT), who had academic uncertainty, job insecurity, online exam phobia, and dissatisfaction with e-Learning education, were significantly suffering from moderate to severe mental distress. The current evidence demonstrates that a substantial number of Bangladeshi university students are struggling with extreme session jam phobia, underprivileged e-Learning education, and subsequent psychological distress, which need to be immediately addressed through concerted efforts by the government, parents, and university authorities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Computer-Assisted Instruction , Phobic Disorders , Adult , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Phobic Disorders/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Students/psychology , Universities , Young Adult
2.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0264357, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714779

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 is a respiratory infection that causes not only somatic health issues, but also frequently psychosocial burdens. The aims of this study were to investigate biopsychosocial factors that might further aggravate fear of COVID-19, and to establish a biopsychosocial model of severe fear of COVID-19. METHODS: 368 participants were included in this study. Biopsychosocial factors observed comprised biological factors (somatic risk), psychological factors (state/trait anxiety, physical symptoms of anxiety, severe health anxiety, specific phobias, depression), and psychosocial factors (social support, financial losses, social media consumption, social contacts with COVID-19 infected people). Psychometric questionnaires included State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Beck's Anxiety Inventory, Whiteley-Index / Illness Attitude Scales, Specific Phobia Questionnaire, WHO-5 and Social Support Survey. RESULTS: 162/368 (44.0%) participants had almost no fear, 170/368 (46.2%) participants had moderate fear, and 45/368 (12.2%) participants had severe fear of COVID-19. Female participants showed higher levels of fear of COVID-19 than male participants (gender: χ2 = 18.47, p<0.001). However, the level of fear of COVID-19 increased in male participants when they had contact with people who were infected with COVID-19, while in contrast the level of fear of COVID-19 decreased in female participants when they had such contacts [ANCOVA: fear of COVID-19 (contact x gender): F(1,363) = 5.596, p = .019]. Moreover, participants without relationships showed higher levels of fear of COVID-19 (marital status: χ2 = 14.582, p = 0.024). Furthermore, financial losses due to the COVID-19 were associated with higher levels of fear of COVID-19 [ANCOVA: fear of COVID-19(financial loss x gender): F(1, 363) = 22.853, p< .001]. Multiple regression analysis revealed female gender, severe health anxiety (WI-IAS) and state /trait anxiety (STAI) as significant predictors of severe fear of COVID-19. CONCLUSION: In this study significant predictors of severe fear of COVID-19 were female gender, pre-existing state and trait anxiety, as well as severe health anxiety. The finding of significant predictors of fear of COVID-19 might contribute to detect people who might suffer most from severe, overwhelming fear of COVID-19 at an early stage.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , COVID-19 , Models, Biopsychosocial , Phobic Disorders , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Phobic Disorders/epidemiology , Phobic Disorders/psychology , Psychometrics
3.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 25(2): 147-153, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692292

ABSTRACT

Nomophobia (no-mobile-phone phobia) is a relatively new term that describes the growing fear and anxiety associated with being without a mobile phone. Our study aims to determine the prevalence of nomophobia among the undergraduate students of Pakistan, and to determine its correlation with age and gender. It also aims to determine the contributory factors of nomophobia. A cross-sectional study was conducted through an online survey from March 25 to April 25, 2021. The snowball sampling technique was used for data collection. The Nomophobia Questionnaire (NMP-Q) developed by Yildirim and Correia was circulated among the target population. It was a 7-point Likert Scale that was analyzed on the basis of age and gender using IBM SPSS version 22 and MS Excel 2007. The contributing factors were also analyzed. Of the 483 responses we received, 28 were discarded due to incompleteness and respondents being out of age under study that is, 15-25 years. Most of the respondents were women (n = 314, 69.01 percent). Men were less in number than women (n = 141, 31 percent). The ages of most of the respondents lied between 15 and 25 years. Twenty was the mode age. One hundred eighty-six (40.88 percent) had severe, 221 (48.57 percent) had moderate, and 48 (10.55 percent) had mild nomophobia. Average factor-wise scores and individual item scores were also added. Our findings reached a conclusion that the majority of the undergraduate students in Pakistan suffer from nomophobia ranging from its mild to severe form. Nomophobia can possibly be included as a recognized phobia in the DSM. Wider research on the subject to investigate it further and evaluate the clinical significance should be done.


Subject(s)
Phobic Disorders , Adolescent , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pakistan/epidemiology , Phobic Disorders/epidemiology , Prevalence , Students , Young Adult
5.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 18: E66, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323410

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Severe COVID-19 illness in adults has been linked to underlying medical conditions. This study identified frequent underlying conditions and their attributable risk of severe COVID-19 illness. METHODS: We used data from more than 800 US hospitals in the Premier Healthcare Database Special COVID-19 Release (PHD-SR) to describe hospitalized patients aged 18 years or older with COVID-19 from March 2020 through March 2021. We used multivariable generalized linear models to estimate adjusted risk of intensive care unit admission, invasive mechanical ventilation, and death associated with frequent conditions and total number of conditions. RESULTS: Among 4,899,447 hospitalized adults in PHD-SR, 540,667 (11.0%) were patients with COVID-19, of whom 94.9% had at least 1 underlying medical condition. Essential hypertension (50.4%), disorders of lipid metabolism (49.4%), and obesity (33.0%) were the most common. The strongest risk factors for death were obesity (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] = 1.30; 95% CI, 1.27-1.33), anxiety and fear-related disorders (aRR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.25-1.31), and diabetes with complication (aRR = 1.26; 95% CI, 1.24-1.28), as well as the total number of conditions, with aRRs of death ranging from 1.53 (95% CI, 1.41-1.67) for patients with 1 condition to 3.82 (95% CI, 3.45-4.23) for patients with more than 10 conditions (compared with patients with no conditions). CONCLUSION: Certain underlying conditions and the number of conditions were associated with severe COVID-19 illness. Hypertension and disorders of lipid metabolism were the most frequent, whereas obesity, diabetes with complication, and anxiety disorders were the strongest risk factors for severe COVID-19 illness. Careful evaluation and management of underlying conditions among patients with COVID-19 can help stratify risk for severe illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Complications , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Multimorbidity , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Obesity , Phobic Disorders , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Diabetes Complications/diagnosis , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Mortality , Obesity/diagnosis , Obesity/epidemiology , Phobic Disorders/diagnosis , Phobic Disorders/epidemiology , Risk Assessment/methods , Risk Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , United States/epidemiology
6.
Tuberk Toraks ; 69(2): 207-216, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1310191

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at the forefront of the fight against coronavirus. The purpose of this study was to evaluate COVID-19 phobia levels of HCWs of a pandemic hospital and explore associated factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted on HCWs employed in a pandemic hospital. A total of 365 HCWs (95 physicians, 187 nurses and 83 assistant healthcare staffs) were included in the study. In order to evaluate COVID-19 phobia, coronavirus-19 phobia scale (C19P-S) was administrated. Chronophobia levels of frontline and nonfrontline HCWs were compared. Additionally, the effect of working in different departments, profession and associated factors on COVID-19 phobia was evaluated. RESULT: Overall, 172 HCWs completed the C19P-S and agreed to participate in the study. Mean total CP19P-S score of the HCWs included in the study was 50.1 ± 17.3. Of the study population, 59.3% participants were frontline HCWs and 40.7% were non-frontline HCWs. When frontline HCWs and nonfrontline HCWs were compared in terms of total C19P-S and subscales scores (psychological, psycho-somatic, economic, social), no statistically significant differences were found (p= 0.914, p= 0.687, p= 0.766, p= 0.347, p= 0.794, respectively).When the HCWs were divided into three groups according to departments (clinics, intensive care unit (ICU), emergency department) where they worked regardless of whether they cared for patients with COVID-19, HCWs employed in the ICUs had the highest scores regarding total C19P-S and subscales scores (p= 0.002, p= 0.001, p= 0.001, p= 0.012, p= 0.002,respectively) . Profession based comparison revealed no significant difference between the groups regarding total C19P-S score (p= 0.117). CONCLUSIONS: It is essential to make a comprehensive evaluation regarding the effects of pandemics on HCWs, not only for controlling the COVID-19 pandemic but also to protect the mental health of HCWs. Critical care professions appear to need particular attention among HCWs. The C19P-S, which assesses coronaphobia levels with psychological, psycho-somatic, economic, and social aspects could be a convenient screening tool for evaluating COVID-19 phobia levels in HWCs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Phobic Disorders/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Mental Health , Phobic Disorders/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Turkey/epidemiology
7.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 18: E66, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1290851

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Severe COVID-19 illness in adults has been linked to underlying medical conditions. This study identified frequent underlying conditions and their attributable risk of severe COVID-19 illness. METHODS: We used data from more than 800 US hospitals in the Premier Healthcare Database Special COVID-19 Release (PHD-SR) to describe hospitalized patients aged 18 years or older with COVID-19 from March 2020 through March 2021. We used multivariable generalized linear models to estimate adjusted risk of intensive care unit admission, invasive mechanical ventilation, and death associated with frequent conditions and total number of conditions. RESULTS: Among 4,899,447 hospitalized adults in PHD-SR, 540,667 (11.0%) were patients with COVID-19, of whom 94.9% had at least 1 underlying medical condition. Essential hypertension (50.4%), disorders of lipid metabolism (49.4%), and obesity (33.0%) were the most common. The strongest risk factors for death were obesity (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] = 1.30; 95% CI, 1.27-1.33), anxiety and fear-related disorders (aRR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.25-1.31), and diabetes with complication (aRR = 1.26; 95% CI, 1.24-1.28), as well as the total number of conditions, with aRRs of death ranging from 1.53 (95% CI, 1.41-1.67) for patients with 1 condition to 3.82 (95% CI, 3.45-4.23) for patients with more than 10 conditions (compared with patients with no conditions). CONCLUSION: Certain underlying conditions and the number of conditions were associated with severe COVID-19 illness. Hypertension and disorders of lipid metabolism were the most frequent, whereas obesity, diabetes with complication, and anxiety disorders were the strongest risk factors for severe COVID-19 illness. Careful evaluation and management of underlying conditions among patients with COVID-19 can help stratify risk for severe illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Complications , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Multimorbidity , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Obesity , Phobic Disorders , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Diabetes Complications/diagnosis , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Mortality , Obesity/diagnosis , Obesity/epidemiology , Phobic Disorders/diagnosis , Phobic Disorders/epidemiology , Risk Assessment/methods , Risk Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , United States/epidemiology
8.
Death Stud ; 46(3): 590-594, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230967

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 Phobia Scale (C19P-S) was developed as a screening tool for coronaphobia related to the current COVID-19 pandemic but to date has not been adapted to and validated in Asia. The current study aimed to adapt and validate the C19P-S with a sample of 321 Korean individuals. Analyses showed that the Korean C19P-S (C19P-SK) has excellent reliability (α = .95) and confirmed its structural validity, and convergent and discriminant validity. Therefore, we conclude that the C19P-SK can be used to assess COVID-19 phobia in this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Phobic Disorders , Humans , Pandemics , Phobic Disorders/diagnosis , Phobic Disorders/epidemiology , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , Republic of Korea , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
Future Oncol ; 17(20): 2621-2629, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1195990

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to assess the impact of coronaphobia on treatment and follow-up compliance in cancer patients. The records of 230 cancer patients were reviewed. Coronaphobia was assessed via the validated COVID-19 Phobia Scale (C19P-S). A total of 64% of the patients had a high coronaphobia score. Among them, 59% were noncompliant. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, low educational status, treatment type, following COVID-19 news, having knowledge about COVID-19 transmission and higher C19P-S score were associated with noncompliance (p = 0.006, p < 0.001, p = 0.002, p = 0.002 and p = 0.001, respectively). Multivariate analysis revealed that having knowledge about COVID-19 transmission was related to a higher C19P-S score (p = 0.001). The cancer patients studied had significant coronaphobia. Moreover, greater coronaphobia was significantly associated with noncompliance with follow-up and treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Neoplasms/psychology , Patient Compliance/psychology , Phobic Disorders/psychology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/therapy , Patient Compliance/statistics & numerical data , Phobic Disorders/epidemiology , Psychometrics , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
10.
J Addict Dis ; 39(4): 441-449, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1114779

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Smartphone misuse, also known as Nomophobia is the fear of not being able to consult your own mobile phone, of not being connected or traceable. During the Italian lockdown caused by COVID-19, while the use of technology was the fundamental basis of adaptation for smart working, school and professional training, leading to a change in the population's lifestyle, smartphone dependency caused impaired social relationships. To date, the impact of smartphone dependency in men and women is unclear. We conducted this study with the hypothesis that a period of lockdown fosters the growth of a pathological use of the cell phone different in women and men. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this work is to investigate gender differences in the level of smartphone dependency in teens and adults during the COVID-19 lockdown period. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The NoMobilePhobia-Questionnaire (NMP-Q) was presented online to 1264 participants between the ages of 15 and 67. RESULTS: The results show no significant main effects for the two factors taken into account (Gender and Age of participants). However, the significant interaction shows that female participants reported on average higher scores on NMP-Q than males, [F(4,1253) =7.06 and p<.001, observed power close to 1 (0.99) and effect size = 0.03 (ETA partial squared)] for the younger age group (15-44), while for those over the age of 44, the average highest scores were for male participants. CONCLUSIONS: One of the "positive" aspects of the COVID-19 pandemic is the use of the Internet and smartphones, and our analysis aimed to document the frequency of use in the Italian context with the NMP-Q. However, we can also conclude that this research is relevant because it can give us a glimpse of the relationship between dependency and mental issues. The results reveal the risk in some of the Italian population of developing forms of smartphone dependency, especially in circumstances that prohibit direct social interactions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cell Phone Use/statistics & numerical data , Smartphone/statistics & numerical data , Social Isolation/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/psychology , Female , Humans , Internet Addiction Disorder/epidemiology , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Phobic Disorders/epidemiology , Self Report , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
11.
J Cosmet Dermatol ; 19(9): 2169-2173, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-671663

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic has affected the world from every aspect. Individuals are drained from social, financial, and emotional percussion of this pandemic. Psychosocial consequences are far greater than are being perceived. It is anticipated that once the pandemic is over the psycho-emotional turbulence would shake the whole populations of affected countries. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To review the psychological consequences of COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A literature search was conducted on major databases from January 2020 to April 2020 with the search terms of Covid-19, Corona virus, psychological, depression, anxiety, phobias, obsessive behaviors, paranoia, parental relationship, marital life and maternal and fetal bond. CONCLUSION: Patients with COVID-19 infection are more likely to suffer from a myriad of psychological consequences, and this infection may have profound effect on parenting, relationships, marital life, elderly, and maternal-fetal bond.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Pandemics , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Age Factors , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/transmission , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Global Burden of Disease , Global Health , Health Personnel/psychology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Male , Maternal Behavior/psychology , Maternal-Fetal Relations/psychology , Obsessive Behavior/epidemiology , Obsessive Behavior/etiology , Obsessive Behavior/psychology , Paranoid Disorders/epidemiology , Paranoid Disorders/etiology , Paranoid Disorders/psychology , Parenting/psychology , Phobic Disorders/epidemiology , Phobic Disorders/etiology , Phobic Disorders/psychology , Pregnancy , Risk Factors , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology
12.
Eur J Pediatr ; 180(1): 201-206, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-641137

ABSTRACT

The current outbreak of COVID-19 raging globally is taking a heavy toll on the adult population, with a rapidly growing number of newly infected and critically ill patients. However, to date, mortality rate among children is low as they mostly suffer from a mild disease. Yet, other more routinely encountered childhood diseases do not stand still and continue to be the main share of pediatricians' everyday challenges. Here we describe a case series of routinely seen pediatric diseases with delayed diagnosis due to different aspects of what we call "Corona-phobia". These cases were easily collected within a 1-week period which implies that this is a more widespread phenomenon.In conclusion, this raises the possibility that measures taken to mitigate this pandemic may be more damaging to children overall than the virus itself. We believe that pediatricians as well as policy makers should take this important aspect into consideration. What is Known: • COVID-19 manifests as a mild disease in most children; however, children are an important reservoir and may become spreaders of the disease. • Social distancing and isolation are important tools in mitigating COVID-19 transmission. What is New: • This case series describes 7 cases with delayed diagnosis of every-day pediatric diseases that were not caused by COVID-19 but were highly influenced by different aspects of "Corona-phobia". • Our objective is to highlight the possibility that measures taken to mitigate this pandemic may lead to a substantial delay in the diagnosis of other non-COVID-19 related diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Pandemics , Pediatricians/psychology , Phobic Disorders/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant, Newborn , Male , Phobic Disorders/epidemiology , Phobic Disorders/psychology
13.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 58, 2020 May 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-427304

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A cluster of pneumonia cases were reported by Wuhan Municipal Health Commission, China in December 2019. A novel coronavirus was eventually identified, and became the COVID-19 epidemic that affected public health and life. We investigated the psychological status and behavior changes of the general public in China from January 30 to February 3, 2020. METHODS: Respondents were recruited via social media (WeChat) and completed an online questionnaire. We used the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Self-rating Depression Scale, and Symptom Checklist-90 to evaluate psychological status. We also investigated respondents' behavior changes. Quantitative data were analyzed by t-tests or analysis of variance, and classified data were analyzed with chi-square tests. RESULTS: In total, 608 valid questionnaires were obtained. More respondents had state anxiety than trait anxiety (15.8% vs 4.0%). Depression was found among 27.1% of respondents and 7.7% had psychological abnormalities. About 10.1% of respondents suffered from phobia. Our analysis of the relationship between subgroup characteristics and psychological status showed that age, gender, knowledge about COVID-19, degree of worry about epidemiological infection, and confidence about overcoming the outbreak significantly influenced psychological status. Around 93.3% of respondents avoided going to public places and almost all respondents reduced Spring Festival-related activities. At least 70.9% of respondents chose to take three or more preventive measures to avoid infection. The three most commonly used prevention measures were making fewer trips outside and avoiding contact (98.0%), wearing a mask (83.7%), and hand hygiene (82.4%). CONCLUSIONS: We need to pay more attention to public psychological stress, especially among young people, as they are likely to experience anxiety, depression, and psychological abnormalities. Different psychological interventions could be formulated according to the psychological characteristics of different gender and age groups. The majority of respondents followed specific behaviors required by the authorities, but it will take time to observe the effects of these behaviors on the epidemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Phobic Disorders/epidemiology , Phobic Disorders/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
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