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1.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263230, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793532

ABSTRACT

Misophonia is a newly described condition characterized by sensory and emotional reactivity (e.g., anxiety, anger, disgust) to repetitive, pattern-based sounds (e.g., throat clearing, chewing, slurping). Individuals with misophonia report significant functional impairment and interpersonal distress. Growing research indicates ineffective coping and emotional functioning broadly (e.g., affective lability, difficulties with emotion regulation) are central to the clinical presentation and severity of misophonia. Preliminary evidence suggests an association between negative emotionality and deficits in emotion regulation in misophonia. Still, little is known about (a) the relationships among specific components of emotional functioning (e.g., emotion regulation, affective lability) with misophonia, and (b) which component(s) of misophonia (e.g., noise frequency, emotional and behavioral responses, impairment) are associated with emotional functioning. Further, despite evidence that mood and anxiety disorders co-occur with misophonia, investigation thus far has not controlled for depression and anxiety symptoms. Examination of these relationships will help inform treatment development for misophonia. The present study begins to disambiguate the relationships among affective lability, difficulties with emotion regulation, and components of misophonia. A sample of 297 participants completed questionnaires assessing misophonia, emotional functioning, depression, anxiety, and COVID-19 impact. Findings indicated that misophonia severity was positively associated with each of these constructs with small to medium effect sizes. When controlling for depression, anxiety, and COVID-19 impact, results from this preliminary study suggest that (a) difficulties with emotion regulation may be correlated with misophonia severity, and (b) misophonic responses, not number of triggers or perceived severity, are associated with difficulties with emotion regulation. Overall, these findings begin to suggest that emotion regulation is important to our understanding the risk factors and treatment targets for misophonia.


Subject(s)
Emotional Regulation/physiology , Phobic Disorders/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Linear Models , Male , Mental Health , Surveys and Questionnaires
2.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0264357, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714779

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 is a respiratory infection that causes not only somatic health issues, but also frequently psychosocial burdens. The aims of this study were to investigate biopsychosocial factors that might further aggravate fear of COVID-19, and to establish a biopsychosocial model of severe fear of COVID-19. METHODS: 368 participants were included in this study. Biopsychosocial factors observed comprised biological factors (somatic risk), psychological factors (state/trait anxiety, physical symptoms of anxiety, severe health anxiety, specific phobias, depression), and psychosocial factors (social support, financial losses, social media consumption, social contacts with COVID-19 infected people). Psychometric questionnaires included State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Beck's Anxiety Inventory, Whiteley-Index / Illness Attitude Scales, Specific Phobia Questionnaire, WHO-5 and Social Support Survey. RESULTS: 162/368 (44.0%) participants had almost no fear, 170/368 (46.2%) participants had moderate fear, and 45/368 (12.2%) participants had severe fear of COVID-19. Female participants showed higher levels of fear of COVID-19 than male participants (gender: χ2 = 18.47, p<0.001). However, the level of fear of COVID-19 increased in male participants when they had contact with people who were infected with COVID-19, while in contrast the level of fear of COVID-19 decreased in female participants when they had such contacts [ANCOVA: fear of COVID-19 (contact x gender): F(1,363) = 5.596, p = .019]. Moreover, participants without relationships showed higher levels of fear of COVID-19 (marital status: χ2 = 14.582, p = 0.024). Furthermore, financial losses due to the COVID-19 were associated with higher levels of fear of COVID-19 [ANCOVA: fear of COVID-19(financial loss x gender): F(1, 363) = 22.853, p< .001]. Multiple regression analysis revealed female gender, severe health anxiety (WI-IAS) and state /trait anxiety (STAI) as significant predictors of severe fear of COVID-19. CONCLUSION: In this study significant predictors of severe fear of COVID-19 were female gender, pre-existing state and trait anxiety, as well as severe health anxiety. The finding of significant predictors of fear of COVID-19 might contribute to detect people who might suffer most from severe, overwhelming fear of COVID-19 at an early stage.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , COVID-19 , Models, Biopsychosocial , Phobic Disorders , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Phobic Disorders/epidemiology , Phobic Disorders/psychology , Psychometrics
3.
Future Oncol ; 18(4): 457-469, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547165

ABSTRACT

Aim: This study aimed to assess the impact of COVID-19 phobia and related factors on attitude towards COVID-19 vaccine in cancer patients. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted with 300 adult patients using a validated COVID-19 Phobia Scale (C19P-S) and related survey to determine the factors affecting vaccine acceptance between May-June 2021. Results: Regarding the COVID-19 vaccine willingness, 86.7% accepted vaccination, 6.3% were hesitant and 7% refused vaccination. Patients that accepted vaccination had significantly higher C19P-S scores in general, and in psychological and psychosomatic subdivisions. Univariate analysis revealed that increased age, being retired, and being married were significantly associated with willingness to be vaccinated against COVID-19. Conclusion: The majority of patients had high 'coronophobia' levels which were associated with increased willingness for the COVID-19 vaccines. Minimizing negative attitudes towards vaccines will most likely be achieved by raising awareness in the cancer population about COVID-19 vaccine.


Plain language summary Cancer patients are considered among the privileged group for the COVID-19 vaccination. The investigators conducted a survey assessing the relationship between 'coronaphobia' and related factors and vaccine acceptance among patients with cancer. A total of 300 patients completed a questionnaire assessing the factors affecting vaccine acceptance. Most (86.7%) patients accepted vaccination and have higher levels of fear against COVID-19, while 7% refused vaccination. Patients who have increased age, are retired and married had a higher tendency to accept vaccination against COVID-19. The main reason for acceptance was the willingness to get protection, whereas the main reason for refusal was the fear of adverse effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/psychology , Fear/psychology , Phobic Disorders/psychology , /statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Educational Status , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination/psychology , Young Adult
4.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 670, 2021 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448217

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus currently cause a lot of pressure on the health system. Accordingly, many changes occurred in the way of providing health care, including pregnancy and childbirth care. To our knowledge, no studies on experiences of maternity care Providers during the COVID-19 Pandemic have been published in Iran. We aimed to discover their experiences on pregnancy and childbirth care during the current COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This study was a qualitative research performed with a descriptive phenomenological approach. The used sampling method was purposive sampling by taking the maximum variation possible into account, which continued until data saturation. Accordingly, in-depth and semi-structured interviews were conducted by including 12 participants, as 4 gynecologists, 6 midwives working in the hospitals and private offices, and 2 midwives working in the health centers. Data were analyzed using Colaizzi's seven stage method with MAXQDA10 software. RESULTS: Data analysis led to the extraction of 3 themes, 9 categories, and 25 subcategories. The themes were as follows: "Fear of Disease", "Burnout", and "Lessons Learned from the COVID-19 Pandemic", respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal health care providers experience emotional and psychological stress and work challenges during the current COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, comprehensive support should be provided for the protection of their physical and mental health statuses. By working as a team, utilizing the capacity of telemedicine to care and follow up mothers, and providing maternity care at home, some emerged challenges to maternal care services can be overcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Maternal Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Perinatal Care/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Burnout, Psychological/psychology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Emotions/physiology , Female , Gynecology/statistics & numerical data , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Interviews as Topic , Iran/epidemiology , Maternal Health Services/trends , Middle Aged , Midwifery/statistics & numerical data , Perinatal Care/organization & administration , Phobic Disorders/psychology , Pregnancy , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Telemedicine/methods
5.
Rev Gaucha Enferm ; 42(spe): e20200292, 2021.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243889

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To reflect on the relationship between the nomophobia and the pandemic of COVID-19 and the nursing contributions to deal with this issue and its consequences. METHOD: This reflective and theoretical study was based on the dialogue between the scientific literature on the subject and in dialogue and conceptual perspective of comprehensive care. RESULTS: Nursing strives to harmonize observed problems and can support individuals to reflect and discover a potential harmful habit regarding the use of cell phones, especially when undergoing treatments for other diagnoses. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: Nursing, when accessing the emotional and subjective aspects of those under their care, helps to alleviate the symptoms of nomophobia and, in tune with the patient, promotes harmony in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cell Phone , Pandemics , Phobic Disorders/nursing , Social Isolation/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Humans , Phobic Disorders/psychology
6.
Ann Ig ; 33(4): 360-370, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206443

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) have changed into a global crisis. Psychologically, this process of alteration can lead to feelings of fear, insecurity, and anxiety. This fear and anxiety can be caused by a variety of factors. However, due to the lack of extensive studies at this time, there are little data on these conditions related to COVID-19. Therefore, in this narrative review, we have tried to identify the most important possible causes of anxiety and fear due to this disease, based on logical shreds of evidence. Then we tried to discuss the consequences and ways to manage and prevent them. Methods: The current focus was on three major axes of corona-phobia, fear and anxiety. PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Google Scholar and authoritative news and information sources were considered as the data sources. Results: Findings from the analysis of the results revealed that, in addition to the real and the logical reasons which belong to the intrinsic properties of SARS-CoV-2, some misleadings and misconceptions induced by media, governmental policies, public awareness level, and non-scientific speculations and contradictory data expressed by experts, researchers and scientific societies, could provide the way for the development of corona-phobia, and fear. Conclusions: Each of these causal components, in its place, leads to some degrees of psychological disorders and subsequent consequences and complications. Finally, here we reviewed, summarized the previous research findings on how to prevent and manage this type of psychological disorder, and made comparisons.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/psychology , Fear/psychology , Pandemics , Phobic Disorders/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Anxiety/prevention & control , Anxiety/psychology , Communication , Consumer Health Information , Culture , Dissent and Disputes , Expert Testimony , Health Policy , Humans , Information Dissemination , Mass Media , Phobic Disorders/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Trust
7.
Future Oncol ; 17(20): 2621-2629, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1195990

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to assess the impact of coronaphobia on treatment and follow-up compliance in cancer patients. The records of 230 cancer patients were reviewed. Coronaphobia was assessed via the validated COVID-19 Phobia Scale (C19P-S). A total of 64% of the patients had a high coronaphobia score. Among them, 59% were noncompliant. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, low educational status, treatment type, following COVID-19 news, having knowledge about COVID-19 transmission and higher C19P-S score were associated with noncompliance (p = 0.006, p < 0.001, p = 0.002, p = 0.002 and p = 0.001, respectively). Multivariate analysis revealed that having knowledge about COVID-19 transmission was related to a higher C19P-S score (p = 0.001). The cancer patients studied had significant coronaphobia. Moreover, greater coronaphobia was significantly associated with noncompliance with follow-up and treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Neoplasms/psychology , Patient Compliance/psychology , Phobic Disorders/psychology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/therapy , Patient Compliance/statistics & numerical data , Phobic Disorders/epidemiology , Psychometrics , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(6): e24141, 2021 Feb 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101918

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The global neo-coronary pneumonia epidemic has increased the workload of healthcare institutions in various countries and directly affected the physical and psychological recovery of the vast majority of patients requiring hospitalization in China. We anticipate that post-total knee arthroplasty kinesiophobia may have an impact on patients' postoperative pain scores, knee function, and ability to care for themselves in daily life. The purpose of this study is to conduct a micro-video intervention via WeChat to verify the impact of this method on the rapid recovery of patients with kinesiophobia after total knee arthroplasty during neo-coronary pneumonia. METHODS: Using convenience sampling method, 78 patients with kinesiophobia after artificial total knee arthroplasty who met the exclusion criteria were selected and randomly grouped, with the control group receiving routine off-line instruction and the intervention group receiving micro-video intervention, and the changes in the relevant indexes of the two groups of patients at different time points on postoperative day 1, 3 and 7 were recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: There were no statistical differences in the scores of kinesiophobia, pain, knee flexion mobility (ROM) and ability to take care of daily life between the two groups on the first postoperative day (P > .05). On postoperative day 3 and 7, there were statistical differences in Tampa Scale for kinesiophobia, pain, activities of daily living scale score and ROM between the two groups (P < .01), and the first time of getting out of bed between the two groups (P < .05), and by repeated-measures ANOVA, there were statistically significant time points, groups and interaction effects of the outcome indicators between the 2 groups (P < .01), indicating that the intervention group reconstructed the patients' postoperative kinesiophobiaand hyperactivity. The level of pain awareness facilitates the patient's acquisition of the correct functional exercises to make them change their misbehavior. CONCLUSIONS: WeChat micro-video can reduce the fear of movement score and pain score in patients with kinesiophobia after unilateral total knee arthroplasty, shorten the first time out of bed, and improve their joint mobility and daily living ability. ETHICS: This study has passed the ethical review of the hospital where it was conducted and has been filed, Ethics Approval Number: 20181203-01.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Phobic Disorders/psychology , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Activities of Daily Living , Aged , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Knee Joint/physiopathology , Knee Joint/surgery , Male , Middle Aged , Pain, Postoperative/diagnosis , Pain, Postoperative/psychology , Pneumonia/virology , Postoperative Period , Prospective Studies , Range of Motion, Articular , Recovery of Function , Rehabilitation/methods , Rehabilitation/psychology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Videoconferencing/instrumentation , Videoconferencing/statistics & numerical data
9.
Midwifery ; 96: 102940, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1071784

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to create and to validate the Polish version of the original English version of the Pandemic-Related Pregnancy Stress Scale (PREPS) developed by Preis and colleagues (2020a; 2020b) We additionally investigated the association of maternal obstetrical and pandemic related factors with the PREPS in order to test its sensitivity. METHODS: A cross-sectional study design with nonrandom sampling was used. The sample consisted of a total of 1148 pregnant women in various trimesters. They were recruited via social media and completed an online study questionnaire in April-May 2020. RESULTS: The results of the present research indicate satisfactory psychometric properties of the Polish version of the PREPS. Our findings confirm the factor structure found by the authors of the original English version of the PREPS. The scale consists of two stress subscales: perinatal infection stress and preparedness stress and one additional positive appraisal scale. Pandemic-related pregnancy stress is significantly associated with fear of childbirth and with non-pandemic pregnancy-specific stress, which bolsters its convergent validity. Higher levels of pandemic-related pregnancy stress are experienced by primiparas, those in their second or third trimester, women who received infertility treatment, and those with a high-risk pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: The Polish version of the PREPS has sound psychometric properties and replicates the structure of the original English PREPS. This stress scale can be used to investigate additional impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and to identify women at risk of high stress and those who need intervention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Parturition , Phobic Disorders/psychology , Pregnancy Complications/psychology , Psychometrics , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Poland , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Trimesters , Prenatal Care , Surveys and Questionnaires , Translations , Young Adult
10.
J Cosmet Dermatol ; 19(9): 2169-2173, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-671663

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic has affected the world from every aspect. Individuals are drained from social, financial, and emotional percussion of this pandemic. Psychosocial consequences are far greater than are being perceived. It is anticipated that once the pandemic is over the psycho-emotional turbulence would shake the whole populations of affected countries. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To review the psychological consequences of COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A literature search was conducted on major databases from January 2020 to April 2020 with the search terms of Covid-19, Corona virus, psychological, depression, anxiety, phobias, obsessive behaviors, paranoia, parental relationship, marital life and maternal and fetal bond. CONCLUSION: Patients with COVID-19 infection are more likely to suffer from a myriad of psychological consequences, and this infection may have profound effect on parenting, relationships, marital life, elderly, and maternal-fetal bond.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Pandemics , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Age Factors , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/transmission , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Global Burden of Disease , Global Health , Health Personnel/psychology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Male , Maternal Behavior/psychology , Maternal-Fetal Relations/psychology , Obsessive Behavior/epidemiology , Obsessive Behavior/etiology , Obsessive Behavior/psychology , Paranoid Disorders/epidemiology , Paranoid Disorders/etiology , Paranoid Disorders/psychology , Parenting/psychology , Phobic Disorders/epidemiology , Phobic Disorders/etiology , Phobic Disorders/psychology , Pregnancy , Risk Factors , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology
11.
Eur J Pediatr ; 180(1): 201-206, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-641137

ABSTRACT

The current outbreak of COVID-19 raging globally is taking a heavy toll on the adult population, with a rapidly growing number of newly infected and critically ill patients. However, to date, mortality rate among children is low as they mostly suffer from a mild disease. Yet, other more routinely encountered childhood diseases do not stand still and continue to be the main share of pediatricians' everyday challenges. Here we describe a case series of routinely seen pediatric diseases with delayed diagnosis due to different aspects of what we call "Corona-phobia". These cases were easily collected within a 1-week period which implies that this is a more widespread phenomenon.In conclusion, this raises the possibility that measures taken to mitigate this pandemic may be more damaging to children overall than the virus itself. We believe that pediatricians as well as policy makers should take this important aspect into consideration. What is Known: • COVID-19 manifests as a mild disease in most children; however, children are an important reservoir and may become spreaders of the disease. • Social distancing and isolation are important tools in mitigating COVID-19 transmission. What is New: • This case series describes 7 cases with delayed diagnosis of every-day pediatric diseases that were not caused by COVID-19 but were highly influenced by different aspects of "Corona-phobia". • Our objective is to highlight the possibility that measures taken to mitigate this pandemic may lead to a substantial delay in the diagnosis of other non-COVID-19 related diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Pandemics , Pediatricians/psychology , Phobic Disorders/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant, Newborn , Male , Phobic Disorders/epidemiology , Phobic Disorders/psychology
12.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 58, 2020 May 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-427304

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A cluster of pneumonia cases were reported by Wuhan Municipal Health Commission, China in December 2019. A novel coronavirus was eventually identified, and became the COVID-19 epidemic that affected public health and life. We investigated the psychological status and behavior changes of the general public in China from January 30 to February 3, 2020. METHODS: Respondents were recruited via social media (WeChat) and completed an online questionnaire. We used the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Self-rating Depression Scale, and Symptom Checklist-90 to evaluate psychological status. We also investigated respondents' behavior changes. Quantitative data were analyzed by t-tests or analysis of variance, and classified data were analyzed with chi-square tests. RESULTS: In total, 608 valid questionnaires were obtained. More respondents had state anxiety than trait anxiety (15.8% vs 4.0%). Depression was found among 27.1% of respondents and 7.7% had psychological abnormalities. About 10.1% of respondents suffered from phobia. Our analysis of the relationship between subgroup characteristics and psychological status showed that age, gender, knowledge about COVID-19, degree of worry about epidemiological infection, and confidence about overcoming the outbreak significantly influenced psychological status. Around 93.3% of respondents avoided going to public places and almost all respondents reduced Spring Festival-related activities. At least 70.9% of respondents chose to take three or more preventive measures to avoid infection. The three most commonly used prevention measures were making fewer trips outside and avoiding contact (98.0%), wearing a mask (83.7%), and hand hygiene (82.4%). CONCLUSIONS: We need to pay more attention to public psychological stress, especially among young people, as they are likely to experience anxiety, depression, and psychological abnormalities. Different psychological interventions could be formulated according to the psychological characteristics of different gender and age groups. The majority of respondents followed specific behaviors required by the authorities, but it will take time to observe the effects of these behaviors on the epidemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Phobic Disorders/epidemiology , Phobic Disorders/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
13.
Med Leg J ; 88(4): 182-184, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-273988

ABSTRACT

The epidemiology of suicide has identified numerous psychiatric and occupational risk factors. The circumstances surrounding a suicide are fundamental to determining whether its characteristics will play a crucial role in the decision-making process. The state of emergency arising from the Covid-19 pandemic has introduced a new element, given the general concern and feelings of alarm which are global. The most suitable forensic method to analyse these cases is the psychological autopsy. This study's purpose is to analyse the application of the psychological autopsy method to evaluate the impact of the pandemic where government lockdowns impose restrictions on personal freedom. We set out to consider how far this together with other factors may induce suicide. The literature does not as yet offer us a retrospective analysis of the influence of the global pandemic state on rates of suicide. Accordingly, we report a forensic case and examine the critical issues and problems in the management of these cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Suicide, Completed , Humans , Hypochondriasis/psychology , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/complications , Pandemics , Phobic Disorders/psychology , Psychotropic Drugs/adverse effects , Substance-Related Disorders/complications
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