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1.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 146: 112592, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588215

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The most grievous complication of the COVID-19 is the acute respiratory distress syndrome. A specific, rescue treatment for rapidly deteriorating patients should emerge to improve respiratory function and help patients to survive the most challenging period. Drugs used in targeted therapy of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) appears to be suitable for this task and this article describes their potential for treatment of severe cases of COVID-19. METHODS: The authors reviewed the following databases for randomized controlled trials, reviews and meta-analyses published up to July 2020: Pubmed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Cochrane Database and ClinicalKey. The authors included every study contributory to the assessment of the potential of drugs used in targeted PAH therapy in treatment of COVID-19. RESULTS: Endothelin receptor antagonists, phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors, riociguat and prostacyclin have proven ani-inflammatory effect and reduce pulmonary artery blood pressure, lung oedema and remodelling. Bosentan shows antiviral properties and sildenafil, as well as epoprostenol, inhibits apoptosis of lung epithelial cells. Among patients with lung lesions the decrease of pulmonary blood pressure can lead to increase of ventilation/perfusion mismatch and decrease of blood oxygenation. CONCLUSIONS: Among all assessed drugs bosentan, sildenafil and epoprostenol appear to be most promising and a combination of these drugs should be considered due to synergism. The targeted PAH therapy in treatment of COVID-19 associated ARDS could be a useful tool saving lives of patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection, however, its introduction should be investigated and monitored very carefully as it can lead to transient deterioration of patient condition.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Pulmonary Artery/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Animals , COVID-19/complications , Endothelin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Humans , Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Prostaglandins/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Artery/drug effects , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Pyrimidines/therapeutic use , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1409704

ABSTRACT

Autotaxin (ATX; ENPP2) is a secreted lysophospholipase D catalyzing the extracellular production of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a pleiotropic signaling phospholipid. Genetic and pharmacologic studies have previously established a pathologic role for ATX and LPA signaling in pulmonary injury, inflammation, and fibrosis. Here, increased ENPP2 mRNA levels were detected in immune cells from nasopharyngeal swab samples of COVID-19 patients, and increased ATX serum levels were found in severe COVID-19 patients. ATX serum levels correlated with the corresponding increased serum levels of IL-6 and endothelial damage biomarkers, suggesting an interplay of the ATX/LPA axis with hyperinflammation and the associated vascular dysfunction in COVID-19. Accordingly, dexamethasone (Dex) treatment of mechanically ventilated patients reduced ATX levels, as shown in two independent cohorts, indicating that the therapeutic benefits of Dex include the suppression of ATX. Moreover, large scale analysis of multiple single cell RNA sequencing datasets revealed the expression landscape of ENPP2 in COVID-19 and further suggested a role for ATX in the homeostasis of dendritic cells, which exhibit both numerical and functional deficits in COVID-19. Therefore, ATX has likely a multifunctional role in COVID-19 pathogenesis, suggesting that its pharmacological targeting might represent an additional therapeutic option, both during and after hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Datasets as Topic , Dendritic Cells/drug effects , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Endothelium, Vascular/immunology , Endothelium, Vascular/pathology , Female , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases/metabolism , RNA-Seq , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Signal Transduction/immunology , Single-Cell Analysis
4.
Med Princ Pract ; 30(1): 98-100, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088325

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, a new coronavirus, named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), emerged from China, causing pneumonia outbreaks first in the Wuhan region and has now spread worldwide. There are no specific drugs for the disease caused by this virus, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Considering that new synthesized drugs cannot be applied immediately to patients, conventional drug in new use is a feasible solution. Chloroquine, remdesivir, favipiravir, lopinavir, ribavirin, and ritonavir have shown efficacy to inhibit coronavirus in vitro. Pentoxifylline, a drug with anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and bronchodilatory effects, has previously been shown to inhibit several viral infections. Immunological studies have shown that most patients with severe COVID-19 exhibit substantially elevated serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Pentoxifylline is a phosphodiesterase inhibitor that increases the levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate, which in turn activates protein kinase, leading to a reduction in the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines and immune cell migration. Here, we propose pentoxifylline, a drug with low cost and toxicity, as a possible treatment for COVID-19 based on its interesting properties.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pentoxifylline/therapeutic use , Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085071

ABSTRACT

Despite progress in understanding the pathophysiology of acute lung damage, currently approved treatment possibilities are limited to lung-protective ventilation, prone positioning, and supportive interventions. Various pharmacological approaches have also been tested, with neuromuscular blockers and corticosteroids considered as the most promising. However, inhibitors of phosphodiesterases (PDEs) also exert a broad spectrum of favorable effects potentially beneficial in acute lung damage. This article reviews pharmacological action and therapeutical potential of nonselective and selective PDE inhibitors and summarizes the results from available studies focused on the use of PDE inhibitors in animal models and clinical studies, including their adverse effects. The data suggest that xanthines as representatives of nonselective PDE inhibitors may reduce acute lung damage, and decrease mortality and length of hospital stay. Various (selective) PDE3, PDE4, and PDE5 inhibitors have also demonstrated stabilization of the pulmonary epithelial-endothelial barrier and reduction the sepsis- and inflammation-increased microvascular permeability, and suppression of the production of inflammatory mediators, which finally resulted in improved oxygenation and ventilatory parameters. However, the current lack of sufficient clinical evidence limits their recommendation for a broader use. A separate chapter focuses on involvement of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and PDE-related changes in its metabolism in association with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The chapter illuminates perspectives of the use of PDE inhibitors as an add-on treatment based on actual experimental and clinical trials with preliminary data suggesting their potential benefit.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/physiopathology , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cyclic AMP/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Sepsis/drug therapy , Sepsis/metabolism , Sepsis/physiopathology
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(15)2020 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-680190

ABSTRACT

In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared the severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV2) infection to be a pandemic disease. SARS-CoV2 was first identified in China and, despite the restrictive measures adopted, the epidemic has spread globally, becoming a pandemic in a very short time. Though there is growing knowledge of the SARS-CoV2 infection and its clinical manifestations, an effective cure to limit its acute symptoms and its severe complications has not yet been found. Given the worldwide health and economic emergency issues accompanying this pandemic, there is an absolute urgency to identify effective treatments and reduce the post infection outcomes. In this context, phosphodiesterases (PDEs), evolutionarily conserved cyclic nucleotide (cAMP/cGMP) hydrolyzing enzymes, could emerge as new potential targets. Given their extended distribution and modulating role in nearly all organs and cellular environments, a large number of drugs (PDE inhibitors) have been developed to control the specific functions of each PDE family. These PDE inhibitors have already been used in the treatment of pathologies that show clinical signs and symptoms completely or partially overlapping with post-COVID-19 conditions (e.g., thrombosis, inflammation, fibrosis), while new PDE-selective or pan-selective inhibitors are currently under study. This review discusses the state of the art of the different pathologies currently treated with phosphodiesterase inhibitors, highlighting the numerous similarities with the disorders linked to SARS-CoV2 infection, to support the hypothesis that PDE inhibitors, alone or in combination with other drugs, could be beneficial for the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pulmonary Fibrosis/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , COVID-19 , Clinical Trials as Topic , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Disease Progression , Humans , Pandemics , Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Pulmonary Fibrosis/etiology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Treatment Outcome
8.
Pharmacol Res Perspect ; 8(4): e00631, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-676220

ABSTRACT

We propose a new hypothesis that the established drug pentoxifylline deserves attention as a potential repurposed therapeutic for COVID-19. Pentoxifylline is an immunomodulator with anti-inflammatory properties. It is a nonselective phosphodiesterase inhibitor and through Adenosine A2A Receptor-mediated pathways reduces tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 1, interleukin 6, and interferon gamma and may act to reduce tissue damage during the cytokine storm host response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. This agent has been used clinically for many years and has a favorable profile of safety and tolerability. Pre-clinical data support pentoxifylline as effective in cytokine-driven lung damage. Clinical studies of pentoxifylline in radiation and cytokine-induced lung damage in humans are positive and consistent with anti-inflammatory efficacy. Pentoxifylline is a readily available, off-patent and inexpensive drug, suitable for large-scale use including in resource-limited countries. Current trials of therapeutics are largely focused on the inhibition of viral processes. We advocate urgent randomized trials of pentoxifylline for COVID-19 as a complementary approach to target the host responses.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pentoxifylline/therapeutic use , Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , Pentoxifylline/pharmacology , Research Design , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/physiology
9.
Dermatol Ther ; 33(4): e13733, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-434558

ABSTRACT

The world is facing a viral pandemic of a new coronavirus called COVID-19. Pentoxifylline is a methyl-xanthine derivative and it inhibits the phosphodiesterase IV (PDE IV). This drug is known for its unique features as an immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory agent, also it could have antiviral affects. This is a scoping review, in which all related articles on COVID-19 and the probable benefits of Pentoxifylline against COVID-19 pathogenesis, in Medline, Scopus, Web of Sciences, and Google Scholar up to 20 March 2020 with proper keywords including: pentoxifylline, Pentoxil, COVID-19, coronavirus, treatment, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antifibrosis, oxygenation, circulation, bronchodilator, ARDS, and organ failure. We found many confirmatory data on proper efficacy of pentoxifylline on controlling COVID-19 and its consequences. The antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, immune-modulatory, bronchodilator and respiratory supportive effects and protective roles in organ failures of PTX, along with its main functions means better circulation-oxygenation properties, low price and safety, make it a promising drug to be considered for COVID-19 treatment, especially as an adjuvant therapy in combination with other drugs.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pentoxifylline/therapeutic use , Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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