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1.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2022: 7089576, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962495

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can enter the host cells by binding the viral surface spike glycoprotein (SG) to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. Since antiviral photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has been described as a new method for inhibiting viral infections, it is important to evaluate whether it can be used as a photoactivated disinfectant to control COVID-19. In this in silico study, SARS-CoV-2-SG was selected as a novel target for curcumin as a photosensitizer during aPDT to exploit its physicochemical properties, molecular modeling, hierarchical nature of protein structure, and functional analysis using several bioinformatics tools and biological databases. The results of a detailed computational investigation revealed that SARS-CoV-2-SG is most similar to 6VXX_A, with 100% query cover and identity. The predicted structure of SARS-CoV-2-SG displayed that it is a protein with a positive charge and random coil dominates other secondary structures located outside the viral cell. The protein-protein interaction network showed that SARS-CoV-2-SG interacted with ten potential interacting partners. In addition, primary screening of binding modes through molecular docking showed that curcumin desires to bind and interact with residues of SARS-CoV-2-SG as the main site to enhance the yield of aPDT. Overall, the computer simulation reveals that SARS-CoV-2-SG can be a suitable target site for interaction with curcumin during aPDT.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 , Curcumin , Photochemotherapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Computer Simulation , Curcumin/pharmacology , Curcumin/therapeutic use , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6580, 2022 04 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1805652

ABSTRACT

The development of effective pathogen reduction strategies is required due to the rise in antibiotic-resistant bacteria and zoonotic viral pandemics. Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) of bacteria and viruses is a potent reduction strategy that bypasses typical resistance mechanisms. Naturally occurring riboflavin has been widely used in PDI applications due to efficient light-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) release. By rational design of its core structure to alter (photo)physical properties, we obtained derivatives capable of outperforming riboflavin's visible light-induced PDI against E. coli and a SARS-CoV-2 surrogate, revealing functional group dependency for each pathogen. Bacterial PDI was influenced mainly by guanidino substitution, whereas viral PDI increased through bromination of the flavin. These observations were related to enhanced uptake and ROS-specific nucleic acid cleavage mechanisms. Trends in the derivatives' toxicity towards human fibroblast cells were also investigated to assess viable therapeutic derivatives and help guide further design of PDI agents to combat pathogenic organisms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Photochemotherapy , Bacteria , Escherichia coli , Humans , Light , Photosensitizing Agents/chemistry , Reactive Oxygen Species/pharmacology , Riboflavin/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 38: 102762, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683501

ABSTRACT

Emerging variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may have an impact on the virus's transmissibility and pathogenicity and an increased risk of reinfection. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) is a promising technique to decontaminate the oral cavity to minimize and inactivate microorganisms' load. This article reports through a case series, a proposal for efficient oral decontamination for hospitalized patients with COVID 19 using aPDT. Samples of oral tissues were obtained after aPDT and analyzed using two methods of RT-qPCR to elucidate qualitative and quantitative viral profiles of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the oral cavity. There was a reduction of viral load in the oral cavity immediately or one hour after the use of aPDT. This method could be a good option to decontaminate the oral cavity to minimize and inactivate microorganism load.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Photochemotherapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Decontamination , Humans , Photochemotherapy/methods , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 38: 102743, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1661892

ABSTRACT

Several oral lesions related to COVID-19 have been described in the scientific literature. The COVID-19 pandemic highlighs importance of supportive protocols, which can reduce the inflammation and aid in tissue repair in severe cases. Photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) alone or in combination with antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) can be used to manage orofacial lesions in confirmed cases of COVID-19. Here, we sought to describe the clinical presentation and specificities of three cases in which aPDT and PBMT were used to manage orofacial lesions in patients with COVID-19. The laser protocols were effective with improvement of the orofacial lesions within a few days.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 , Low-Level Light Therapy , Photochemotherapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Low-Level Light Therapy/methods , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pandemics , Photochemotherapy/methods , Photosensitizing Agents/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 38: 102742, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1661891

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the virus that is responsible for the current coronavirus disease pandemic and the vaccines currently developed are administered to prevent this infection. CoronaVac is a vaccine produced by the inactivated virus method. Ocular side effects such as anterior uveitis, optic neuritis, vision loss, episcleritis, allergic reaction and paracentral acute middle maculopathy have been reported after receiving CoronaVac vaccine. We assume that with this study, we can identify potential changes in posterior segment structures and posterior segment vascular density of people who received CoronaVac vaccine with optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) device. MATERIAL METHOD: Forty healthcare professionals who applied to the Health Sciences University Antalya Training and Research Hospital Ophthalmology Clinic for routine eye control were included in the study. The subjects who do not have any systemic condition and would be administered CoronaVac vaccine were chosen to assess. OCTA images of the patients before and within 1 week after vaccination were captured, then retinal and optic disc vascular values, foveal avascular zone (FAZ), choriocapillary blood flow (CBF), subfoveal choroidal thickness (SCT) and retinal thickness were analyzed and compared. RESULTS: Two of the 40 patients had burning and stinging in the eye (5%), two of the 40 patients had redness (5%) and itching (5%) in the eye. 36 patients did not have any ocular symptoms.No statistically significant difference was found in the retinal and optic disc vascular density values, FAZ, CBF, SCT and retinal thickness values ​​of the patients before and after vaccination. CONCLUSION: This is among the first studies in the literature to evaluate the changes in retinal and optic disc vascular values ​​in people who received CoronaVac vaccine. In this study, we observed that CoronaVac vaccine did not effect retinal and optic disc vascular density significantly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Optic Disk , Photochemotherapy , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Photochemotherapy/methods , Retina , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods
7.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 227: 112378, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654818

ABSTRACT

In a recent study, we showed that pulsed blue light (PBL) inactivates as much as 52.3% of human beta coronavirus HCoV-OC43, a surrogate of SARS-CoV-2, and one of the major strains of viruses responsible for the annual epidemic of the common cold. Since curcumin and saliva are similarly antiviral and curcumin acts as blue light photosensitizer, we used Qubit fluorometry and WarmStart RT-LAMP assays to study the effect of combining 405 nm, 410 nm, 425 nm or 450 nm wavelengths of PBL with curcumin, saliva or a combination of curcumin and saliva against human beta coronavirus HCoV-OC43. The results showed that PBL, curcumin and saliva independently and collectively inactivate HCoV-OC43. Without saliva or curcumin supplementation 21.6 J/cm2 PBL reduced HCoV-OC43 RNA concentration a maximum of 32.8% (log10 = 2.13). Saliva supplementation alone inactivated the virus, reducing its RNA concentration by 61% (log10 = 2.23); with irradiation the reduction was as much as 79.1%. Curcumin supplementation alone decreased viral RNA 71.1%, and a maximum of 87.8% with irradiation. The combination of saliva and curcumin reduced viral RNA to 83.1% and decreased the RNA up to 90.2% with irradiation. The reduced levels could not be detected with qPCR. These findings show that PBL in the range of 405 nm to 450 nm wavelength is antiviral against human coronavirus HCoV-OC43, a surrogate of the COVID-19 virus. Further, it shows that with curcumin as a photosensitizer, it is possible to photodynamically inactivate the virus beyond qPCR detectable level using PBL. Since HCoV-OC43 is of the same beta coronavirus family as SARS-CoV-2, has the same genomic size, and is often used as its surrogate, these findings heighten the prospect of similarly inactivating novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/therapy , Curcumin/pharmacology , Photosensitizing Agents/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Saliva/chemistry , Combined Modality Therapy , Coronavirus OC43, Human , Humans , Light , Photochemical Processes , Photochemotherapy , RNA, Viral
8.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 38: 102726, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1630341

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the ocular disorders in COVID-19 patients, two to three months after infection. METHODS: In this cross-sectional, historically controlled study, fifty-one COVID-19 patients were compared with thirty-seven age, and gender-matched healthy individuals. After complete ophthalmological examination, all participants underwent peripapillary and macular optical coherence tomography, and optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) measurements (OptoVue Inc, Freemont, CA, USA). RESULTS: The time between the initial onset of symptoms, and ophthalmologic examination was 63.31±15.21 (40-95 days). Ophthalmic examination of all the recovered COVID-19 patients was within normal range. None of the peripapillary and macular OCTA parameters were significantly different between the two groups with pairwise comparisons, but after adjusting for age, gender, axial length, and signal strength index (SSI), recovered COVID-19 eyes showed a significant increase in peripapillary retinal nerve fiber (RNFL) thickness, superficial, and deep macular vessel densities in parafoveal and perifoveal regions compared with healthy control eyes (p<= 0.05). Inner retinal thickness overall is higher in recovered COVID-19 eyes compared to healthy eyes after adjustment. CONCLUSION: Patients with moderate-intensity SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia had altered peripapillary and macular vessel density compared to healthy subjects. Further investigation is warranted to analyze the correlation of these changes with disease severity as well as evolution of these changes over time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Optic Disk , Photochemotherapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fluorescein Angiography , Humans , Photochemotherapy/methods , Retinal Vessels/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods
9.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 37: 102656, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1619701
10.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(3): 4456-4468, 2022 Jan 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1619771

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus represents an inspiring model for designing drug delivery systems due to its unique infection machinery mechanism. Herein, we have developed a biomimetic viruslike nanocomplex, termed SDN, for improving cancer theranostics. SDN has a unique core-shell structure consisting of photosensitizer chlorin e6 (Ce6)-loaded nanostructured lipid carrier (CeNLC) (virus core)@poly(allylamine hydrochloride)-functionalized MnO2 nanoparticles (virus spike), generating a virus-mimicking nanocomplex. SDN not only prompted cellular uptake through rough-surface-mediated endocytosis but also achieved mitochondrial accumulation by the interaction of cationic spikes and the anionic mitochondrial surface, leading to mitochondria-specific photodynamic therapy. Meanwhile, SDN could even mediate oxygen generation to relieve tumor hypoxia and, consequently, improve macrophage-associated anticancer immune response. Importantly, SDN served as a robust magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent due to the fast release of Mn2+ in the presence of intracellular redox components. We identified that SDN selectively accumulated in tumors and released Mn2+ to generate a 5.71-fold higher T1-MRI signal, allowing for effectively detecting suspected tumors. Particularly, SDN induced synergistic immunophotodynamic effects to eliminate malignant tumors with minimal adverse effects. Therefore, we present a novel biomimetic strategy for improving targeted theranostics, which has a wide range of potential biomedical applications.


Subject(s)
Drug Delivery Systems , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Neoplasms/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Bionics/methods , Cell Line, Tumor , Chlorophyllides/chemistry , Chlorophyllides/pharmacology , Contrast Media/chemistry , Contrast Media/pharmacology , Humans , Immunotherapy/methods , Manganese Compounds/chemistry , Manganese Compounds/pharmacology , Neoplasms/immunology , Oxides/chemistry , Oxides/pharmacology , Photochemotherapy/methods , Photosensitizing Agents/chemistry , Photosensitizing Agents/pharmacology , Polyamines/chemistry , Polyamines/pharmacology
11.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(1): 49-56, 2022 Jan 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608662

ABSTRACT

The development of low-cost, non-toxic, scalable antimicrobial textiles is needed to address the spread of deadly pathogens. Here, we report a polysiloxane textile coating that possesses two modes of antimicrobial inactivation, passive contact inactivation through amine/imine functionalities and active photodynamic inactivation through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This material can be coated and cross-linked onto natural and synthetic textiles through a simple soak procedure, followed by UV cure to afford materials exhibiting no aqueous leaching and only minimal leaching in organic solvents. This coating minimally impacts the mechanical properties of the fabric while also imparting hydrophobicity. Passive inactivation of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is achieved with >98% inactivation after 24 h, with a 23× and 3× inactivation rate increase against E. coli and MRSA, respectively, when green light is used to generate ROS. Up to 90% decrease in the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 after 2 h of irradiated incubation with the material is demonstrated. These results show that modifying textiles with dual-functional polymers results in robust and highly antimicrobial materials that are expected to find widespread use in combating the spread of deadly pathogens.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria/drug effects , Coated Materials, Biocompatible/chemistry , Polymers/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Textiles/analysis , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Coated Materials, Biocompatible/pharmacology , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Humans , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Photochemotherapy/methods , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Textiles/toxicity , Ultraviolet Rays
13.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 37: 102678, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1562141

ABSTRACT

Opportunistic infections are widely described in patients with novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); however, very few studies have addressed those affecting the oral cavity. Given the lack of information on the clinical presentations and the available treatment options, the present study aimed to show a case in which a combination of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) and photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) was used for the management of two concomitant COVID-19-associated opportunistic oral infections (oral pseudomembranous candidiasis and recurrent herpes labialis). Within 7 days and without any systemic drug administration, all the lesions resolved completely, and the patient no longer reported oral pain or discomfort. According to the current case report and taking into consideration the significant gaps in the knowledge and understanding of COVID-19, this combination of phototherapy modalities seems to be a promising tool for managing viral and fungal opportunistic oral infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Opportunistic Infections , Photochemotherapy , Humans , Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Photochemotherapy/methods , Photosensitizing Agents/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 37: 102682, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1562137

ABSTRACT

Biophotonics is defined as the combination of biology and photonics (the physical science of the light). It is a general term for all techniques that deal with the interaction between biological tissues/cells and photons (light). Biophotonics offers a great variety of techniques that can facilitate the early detection of diseases and promote innovative theragnostic approaches. As the COVID-19 infection can be transmitted due to the face-to-face communication, droplets and aerosol inhalation and the exposure to saliva, blood, and other body fluids, as well as the handling of sharp instruments, dental practices are at increased risk of infection. In this paper, a literature review was performed to explore the application of Biophotonics approaches in Dentistry focusing on the COVID-19 pandemic and how they can contribute to avoid or minimize the risks of infection in a dental setting. For this, search-related papers were retrieved from PubMED, Scielo, Google Schoolar, and American Dental Association and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention databases. The body of evidence currently available showed that Biophotonics approaches can reduce microorganism load, decontaminate surfaces, air, tissues, and minimize the generation of aerosol and virus spreading by minimally invasive, time-saving, and alternative techniques in general. However, each clinical situation must be individually evaluated regarding the benefits and drawbacks of these approaches, but always pursuing less-invasive and less aerosol-generating procedures, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Photochemotherapy , Dentistry , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Photochemotherapy/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
15.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 37: 102674, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550024

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To compare the differences in retinal vascular structure and choroidal thickness between the active disease and post-recovery periods in COVID-19 patients and healthy controls. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This prospective, cross-sectional study included 30 eyes from 30 patients with severe COVID-19 and 30 eyes of 30 sex-matched healthy controls. Central macular thickness (CMT), subfoveal choroidal thickness (CT) and retinal vascular changes of patients were measured after positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (where the patient had COVID-19-related symptoms) and then three months after two negative PCRs. Laboratory parameters, including C-reactive protein and d-dimer levels, were also recorded. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 47.90 ± 9.06 years in patients group, 49.07 ± 8.41 years in control goups (p = 0.467). In terms of choroidal thicknesses subfoveal, nasal and temporal region were significantly higher in the active disease period than control group (p = 0.019, p = 0.036, p = 0.003, respectively). When the after recovery period was compared with the control group in terms of choroidal thickness, although the choroidal thickness was higher in all regions, this difference was not found statistically significant. There was no statistically significant difference in CMT between groups (p = 0.506).The mean venous and arterial wall thicknesses were significantly higher in the active period than after recovery (p = 0.023, p = 0.013, respectively) but there were no differences between after recovery and control groups in the pairwise comparison (p = 0.851, p = 0.715, respectively). CONCLUSION: In patients with severe COVID-19, there are changes in thickness of the choroid and retinal vessel walls. While vascular wall thickness increases due to inflammation, the absence of lumen changes may be associated with hemodynamic variables.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Photochemotherapy , Adult , Choroid , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Middle Aged , Photochemotherapy/methods , Prospective Studies , Retinal Vessels , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, Optical Coherence
16.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 37: 102642, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550023

ABSTRACT

The local antiviral photodynamic inactivation (PDI) may prove to be a helpful tool reducing the viral load in the nose and throat area in the early phase of a Covid19 infection. Both the infectivity and the prognosis of SARS-CoV-2 infections in the early phase can depend on the viral load in this area. The aim of our study was to find a simplified PDI therapy option against corona viruses in this region with low dose methylene blue (MB) as photosensitizer and use of LED light instead of laser. As a substitute for SARS-CoV2 viruses we started with BCoV infected U373 cells first. We used an 810nm diode laser with 300mW/cm2 and 100J/cm2 light dose as well as a 590 nm LED and a broadband LED with irradiation intensity of 10,000 lx each (irradiation time 2.5 and 10 min) and concentrations of the sensitizer of 0.001% and 0.0001%. The 0.001% MB sensitizer experiments showed similar results with all exposures. The logarithmic reduction factor varied between ≥ 5.29 and ≥ 5.31, (0.001% MB sensitizer) and ≥ 4.6 and ≥ 5.31 (0.0001% MB) respectively. Extending the LED irradiation time from 2 to 5 and 10 minutes did not change these results. In contrast approaches of BCoV-infected cells in the dark, treated with 0.001% and 0.0001% MB sensitizer alone, a lot of residual viruses could be detected after 10 minutes of incubation (RF 0.9 and RF 1.23 for 0.001% MB and 0.0001% MB respectively) In our SARS-CoV-2 experiments with VERO E6 infected cells the irradiation time was reduced to 1, 2 and 3 minutes for both concentrations with increasing broadband LED radiation intensity from 20 to 50 and 100.000 lx. (RF 4.67 for 0.001% and 0.0001% respectively). This showed a minimum concentration of 0.0001%MB and a minimum radiation intensity of 20,000 lx leads to a 99.99% reduction of intracellular and extracellular viruses after one minute exposure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Photochemotherapy , Humans , Methylene Blue/pharmacology , Methylene Blue/therapeutic use , Photochemotherapy/methods , Photosensitizing Agents/pharmacology , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 37: 102643, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1531705

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Among the most common symptoms of COVID-19 is taste dysfunction, which has a ranging clinical presentation. As well as its pathophysiology remains to be unclear, there is not enough information about the efficacy and safety of the available treatments. This study aims to report a series of cases using PBMT for the management of COVID-19-related taste impairment. CASE SERIES: 8 female and 2 male patients sought medical help for taste impairment (either partially or completely) after COVID-19 infection. Photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) on the tongue mucosa was then proposed but with 3 different protocols. Taste perception at baseline and before every laser session was evaluated using a visual analog scale. Irrespective of the PBMT protocol, taste recovery was noted in all cases but with varying degrees of improvement. CONCLUSION: given the high prevalence rates of taste dysfunction in COVID-19 patients and the lack of information about the available treatments, PBMT seems to be a promising therapeutic modality but not dependent on the total number of laser sessions and the interval between them. The choice of the most suitable laser protocol as well as the knowledge of the exact photonic mechanisms, however, need to be better studied.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Low-Level Light Therapy , Photochemotherapy , Female , Humans , Low-Level Light Therapy/methods , Male , Photochemotherapy/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste Disorders/etiology
18.
Theranostics ; 11(18): 9054-9088, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524532

ABSTRACT

In recent years tremendous effort has been invested in the field of cancer diagnosis and treatment with an overall goal of improving cancer management, therapeutic outcome, patient survival, and quality of life. Photodynamic Therapy (PDT), which works on the principle of light-induced activation of photosensitizers (PS) leading to Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) mediated cancer cell killing has received increased attention as a promising alternative to overcome several limitations of conventional cancer therapies. Compared to conventional therapies, PDT offers the advantages of selectivity, minimal invasiveness, localized treatment, and spatio-temporal control which minimizes the overall therapeutic side effects and can be repeated as needed without interfering with other treatments and inducing treatment resistance. Overall PDT efficacy requires proper planning of various parameters like localization and concentration of PS at the tumor site, light dose, oxygen concentration and heterogeneity of the tumor microenvironment, which can be achieved with advanced imaging techniques. Consequently, there has been tremendous interest in the rationale design of PS formulations to exploit their theranostic potential to unleash the imperative contribution of medical imaging in the context of successful PDT outcomes. Further, recent advances in PS formulations as activatable phototheranostic agents have shown promising potential for finely controlled imaging-guided PDT due to their propensity to specifically turning on diagnostic signals simultaneously with photodynamic effects in response to the tumor-specific stimuli. In this review, we have summarized the recent progress in the development of PS-based multifunctional theranostic agents for biomedical applications in multimodal imaging combined with PDT. We also present the role of different imaging modalities; magnetic resonance, optical, nuclear, acoustic, and photoacoustic in improving the pre-and post-PDT effects. We anticipate that the information presented in this review will encourage future development and design of PSs for improved image-guided PDT for cancer treatment.


Subject(s)
Photochemotherapy/methods , Photosensitizing Agents/therapeutic use , Precision Medicine/methods , Humans , Neoplasms/therapy , Photosensitizing Agents/administration & dosage , Photosensitizing Agents/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species , Theranostic Nanomedicine/methods , Tumor Microenvironment/drug effects
19.
Photochem Photobiol Sci ; 20(11): 1497-1545, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1491552

ABSTRACT

Photodynamic therapy is witnessing a revival of its origins as a response to the rise of multi-drug resistant infections and the shortage of new classes of antibiotics. Photodynamic disinfection (PDDI) of microorganisms is making progresses in preclinical models and in clinical cases, and the perception of its role in the clinical armamentarium for the management of infectious diseases is changing. We review the positioning of PDDI from the perspective of its ability to respond to clinical needs. Emphasis is placed on the pipeline of photosensitizers that proved effective to inactivate biofilms, showed efficacy in animal models of infectious diseases or reached clinical trials. Novel opportunities resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic are briefly discussed. The molecular features of promising photosensitizers are emphasized and contrasted with those of photosensitizers used in the treatment of solid tumors. The development of photosensitizers has been accompanied by the fabrication of a variety of affordable and customizable light sources. We critically discuss the combination between photosensitizer and light source properties that may leverage PDDI and expand its applications to wider markets. The success of PDDI in the management of infectious diseases will ultimately depend on the efficacy of photosensitizers, affordability of the light sources, simplicity of the procedures, and availability of fast and efficient treatments.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control/methods , Drug Resistance, Microbial/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Multiple/drug effects , Photochemotherapy , Photosensitizing Agents/therapeutic use , Animals , Bacteria/drug effects , Biofilms/drug effects , Fungi/drug effects , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Photosensitizing Agents/pharmacology
20.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 36: 102577, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458876

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the short-term effect of coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) on the retinal capillary network and choroid in children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective, cross-sectional, case-control study included 19 recovered COVID-19 pediatric patients and 20 healthy children. Macular thickness, choroidal thickness, vessel density (VD), perfusion density (PD), and foveal avascular zone (FAZ) values were obtained. Central vessel and perfusion densities were measured at the central 6-mm area, and the values were compared among three subgroups according to location. RESULTS: The mean ages of patients and controls were 12. 42 ± 3.3 years and 13.35 ± 1.2 years, respectively. Significant differences were observed between the two groups in terms of inner, outer, and full VD, as well as inner and full PD. No significant differences in center VD and PD were observed between groups. Although it was not evident in analysis of choroidal values, inflammatory sites were thickened. FAZ area significantly differed between groups (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Retinal microvascularity was impaired in the acute phase of disease in recovered COVID-19 patients aged 10-15 years. However, the microvascularity impairment was subclinical. The choroid was thickened because of inflammation during the acute phase of disease. pediatric COVID-19 patients should undergo follow up via optical coherence tomography angiography to detect subclinical and asymptomatic retinal changes. Long-term follow-up studies are needed to validate these findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Photochemotherapy , Case-Control Studies , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fluorescein Angiography , Humans , Perfusion , Photochemotherapy/methods , Photosensitizing Agents , Prospective Studies , Retinal Vessels/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, Optical Coherence
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