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1.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 38: 102762, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683501

ABSTRACT

Emerging variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may have an impact on the virus's transmissibility and pathogenicity and an increased risk of reinfection. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) is a promising technique to decontaminate the oral cavity to minimize and inactivate microorganisms' load. This article reports through a case series, a proposal for efficient oral decontamination for hospitalized patients with COVID 19 using aPDT. Samples of oral tissues were obtained after aPDT and analyzed using two methods of RT-qPCR to elucidate qualitative and quantitative viral profiles of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the oral cavity. There was a reduction of viral load in the oral cavity immediately or one hour after the use of aPDT. This method could be a good option to decontaminate the oral cavity to minimize and inactivate microorganism load.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Photochemotherapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Decontamination , Humans , Photochemotherapy/methods , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 38: 102743, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1661892

ABSTRACT

Several oral lesions related to COVID-19 have been described in the scientific literature. The COVID-19 pandemic highlighs importance of supportive protocols, which can reduce the inflammation and aid in tissue repair in severe cases. Photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) alone or in combination with antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) can be used to manage orofacial lesions in confirmed cases of COVID-19. Here, we sought to describe the clinical presentation and specificities of three cases in which aPDT and PBMT were used to manage orofacial lesions in patients with COVID-19. The laser protocols were effective with improvement of the orofacial lesions within a few days.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 , Low-Level Light Therapy , Photochemotherapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Low-Level Light Therapy/methods , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pandemics , Photochemotherapy/methods , Photosensitizing Agents/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 38: 102742, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1661891

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the virus that is responsible for the current coronavirus disease pandemic and the vaccines currently developed are administered to prevent this infection. CoronaVac is a vaccine produced by the inactivated virus method. Ocular side effects such as anterior uveitis, optic neuritis, vision loss, episcleritis, allergic reaction and paracentral acute middle maculopathy have been reported after receiving CoronaVac vaccine. We assume that with this study, we can identify potential changes in posterior segment structures and posterior segment vascular density of people who received CoronaVac vaccine with optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) device. MATERIAL METHOD: Forty healthcare professionals who applied to the Health Sciences University Antalya Training and Research Hospital Ophthalmology Clinic for routine eye control were included in the study. The subjects who do not have any systemic condition and would be administered CoronaVac vaccine were chosen to assess. OCTA images of the patients before and within 1 week after vaccination were captured, then retinal and optic disc vascular values, foveal avascular zone (FAZ), choriocapillary blood flow (CBF), subfoveal choroidal thickness (SCT) and retinal thickness were analyzed and compared. RESULTS: Two of the 40 patients had burning and stinging in the eye (5%), two of the 40 patients had redness (5%) and itching (5%) in the eye. 36 patients did not have any ocular symptoms.No statistically significant difference was found in the retinal and optic disc vascular density values, FAZ, CBF, SCT and retinal thickness values ​​of the patients before and after vaccination. CONCLUSION: This is among the first studies in the literature to evaluate the changes in retinal and optic disc vascular values ​​in people who received CoronaVac vaccine. In this study, we observed that CoronaVac vaccine did not effect retinal and optic disc vascular density significantly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Optic Disk , Photochemotherapy , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Photochemotherapy/methods , Retina , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods
4.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 38: 102726, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1630341

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the ocular disorders in COVID-19 patients, two to three months after infection. METHODS: In this cross-sectional, historically controlled study, fifty-one COVID-19 patients were compared with thirty-seven age, and gender-matched healthy individuals. After complete ophthalmological examination, all participants underwent peripapillary and macular optical coherence tomography, and optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) measurements (OptoVue Inc, Freemont, CA, USA). RESULTS: The time between the initial onset of symptoms, and ophthalmologic examination was 63.31±15.21 (40-95 days). Ophthalmic examination of all the recovered COVID-19 patients was within normal range. None of the peripapillary and macular OCTA parameters were significantly different between the two groups with pairwise comparisons, but after adjusting for age, gender, axial length, and signal strength index (SSI), recovered COVID-19 eyes showed a significant increase in peripapillary retinal nerve fiber (RNFL) thickness, superficial, and deep macular vessel densities in parafoveal and perifoveal regions compared with healthy control eyes (p<= 0.05). Inner retinal thickness overall is higher in recovered COVID-19 eyes compared to healthy eyes after adjustment. CONCLUSION: Patients with moderate-intensity SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia had altered peripapillary and macular vessel density compared to healthy subjects. Further investigation is warranted to analyze the correlation of these changes with disease severity as well as evolution of these changes over time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Optic Disk , Photochemotherapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fluorescein Angiography , Humans , Photochemotherapy/methods , Retinal Vessels/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods
5.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 37: 102656, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1619701
6.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(3): 4456-4468, 2022 Jan 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1619771

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus represents an inspiring model for designing drug delivery systems due to its unique infection machinery mechanism. Herein, we have developed a biomimetic viruslike nanocomplex, termed SDN, for improving cancer theranostics. SDN has a unique core-shell structure consisting of photosensitizer chlorin e6 (Ce6)-loaded nanostructured lipid carrier (CeNLC) (virus core)@poly(allylamine hydrochloride)-functionalized MnO2 nanoparticles (virus spike), generating a virus-mimicking nanocomplex. SDN not only prompted cellular uptake through rough-surface-mediated endocytosis but also achieved mitochondrial accumulation by the interaction of cationic spikes and the anionic mitochondrial surface, leading to mitochondria-specific photodynamic therapy. Meanwhile, SDN could even mediate oxygen generation to relieve tumor hypoxia and, consequently, improve macrophage-associated anticancer immune response. Importantly, SDN served as a robust magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent due to the fast release of Mn2+ in the presence of intracellular redox components. We identified that SDN selectively accumulated in tumors and released Mn2+ to generate a 5.71-fold higher T1-MRI signal, allowing for effectively detecting suspected tumors. Particularly, SDN induced synergistic immunophotodynamic effects to eliminate malignant tumors with minimal adverse effects. Therefore, we present a novel biomimetic strategy for improving targeted theranostics, which has a wide range of potential biomedical applications.


Subject(s)
Drug Delivery Systems , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Neoplasms/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Bionics/methods , Cell Line, Tumor , Chlorophyllides/chemistry , Chlorophyllides/pharmacology , Contrast Media/chemistry , Contrast Media/pharmacology , Humans , Immunotherapy/methods , Manganese Compounds/chemistry , Manganese Compounds/pharmacology , Neoplasms/immunology , Oxides/chemistry , Oxides/pharmacology , Photochemotherapy/methods , Photosensitizing Agents/chemistry , Photosensitizing Agents/pharmacology , Polyamines/chemistry , Polyamines/pharmacology
7.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(1): 49-56, 2022 Jan 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608662

ABSTRACT

The development of low-cost, non-toxic, scalable antimicrobial textiles is needed to address the spread of deadly pathogens. Here, we report a polysiloxane textile coating that possesses two modes of antimicrobial inactivation, passive contact inactivation through amine/imine functionalities and active photodynamic inactivation through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This material can be coated and cross-linked onto natural and synthetic textiles through a simple soak procedure, followed by UV cure to afford materials exhibiting no aqueous leaching and only minimal leaching in organic solvents. This coating minimally impacts the mechanical properties of the fabric while also imparting hydrophobicity. Passive inactivation of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is achieved with >98% inactivation after 24 h, with a 23× and 3× inactivation rate increase against E. coli and MRSA, respectively, when green light is used to generate ROS. Up to 90% decrease in the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 after 2 h of irradiated incubation with the material is demonstrated. These results show that modifying textiles with dual-functional polymers results in robust and highly antimicrobial materials that are expected to find widespread use in combating the spread of deadly pathogens.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria/drug effects , Coated Materials, Biocompatible/chemistry , Polymers/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Textiles/analysis , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Coated Materials, Biocompatible/pharmacology , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Humans , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Photochemotherapy/methods , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Textiles/toxicity , Ultraviolet Rays
9.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 37: 102678, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1562141

ABSTRACT

Opportunistic infections are widely described in patients with novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); however, very few studies have addressed those affecting the oral cavity. Given the lack of information on the clinical presentations and the available treatment options, the present study aimed to show a case in which a combination of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) and photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) was used for the management of two concomitant COVID-19-associated opportunistic oral infections (oral pseudomembranous candidiasis and recurrent herpes labialis). Within 7 days and without any systemic drug administration, all the lesions resolved completely, and the patient no longer reported oral pain or discomfort. According to the current case report and taking into consideration the significant gaps in the knowledge and understanding of COVID-19, this combination of phototherapy modalities seems to be a promising tool for managing viral and fungal opportunistic oral infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Opportunistic Infections , Photochemotherapy , Humans , Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Photochemotherapy/methods , Photosensitizing Agents/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 37: 102682, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1562137

ABSTRACT

Biophotonics is defined as the combination of biology and photonics (the physical science of the light). It is a general term for all techniques that deal with the interaction between biological tissues/cells and photons (light). Biophotonics offers a great variety of techniques that can facilitate the early detection of diseases and promote innovative theragnostic approaches. As the COVID-19 infection can be transmitted due to the face-to-face communication, droplets and aerosol inhalation and the exposure to saliva, blood, and other body fluids, as well as the handling of sharp instruments, dental practices are at increased risk of infection. In this paper, a literature review was performed to explore the application of Biophotonics approaches in Dentistry focusing on the COVID-19 pandemic and how they can contribute to avoid or minimize the risks of infection in a dental setting. For this, search-related papers were retrieved from PubMED, Scielo, Google Schoolar, and American Dental Association and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention databases. The body of evidence currently available showed that Biophotonics approaches can reduce microorganism load, decontaminate surfaces, air, tissues, and minimize the generation of aerosol and virus spreading by minimally invasive, time-saving, and alternative techniques in general. However, each clinical situation must be individually evaluated regarding the benefits and drawbacks of these approaches, but always pursuing less-invasive and less aerosol-generating procedures, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Photochemotherapy , Dentistry , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Photochemotherapy/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
11.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 37: 102674, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550024

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To compare the differences in retinal vascular structure and choroidal thickness between the active disease and post-recovery periods in COVID-19 patients and healthy controls. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This prospective, cross-sectional study included 30 eyes from 30 patients with severe COVID-19 and 30 eyes of 30 sex-matched healthy controls. Central macular thickness (CMT), subfoveal choroidal thickness (CT) and retinal vascular changes of patients were measured after positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (where the patient had COVID-19-related symptoms) and then three months after two negative PCRs. Laboratory parameters, including C-reactive protein and d-dimer levels, were also recorded. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 47.90 ± 9.06 years in patients group, 49.07 ± 8.41 years in control goups (p = 0.467). In terms of choroidal thicknesses subfoveal, nasal and temporal region were significantly higher in the active disease period than control group (p = 0.019, p = 0.036, p = 0.003, respectively). When the after recovery period was compared with the control group in terms of choroidal thickness, although the choroidal thickness was higher in all regions, this difference was not found statistically significant. There was no statistically significant difference in CMT between groups (p = 0.506).The mean venous and arterial wall thicknesses were significantly higher in the active period than after recovery (p = 0.023, p = 0.013, respectively) but there were no differences between after recovery and control groups in the pairwise comparison (p = 0.851, p = 0.715, respectively). CONCLUSION: In patients with severe COVID-19, there are changes in thickness of the choroid and retinal vessel walls. While vascular wall thickness increases due to inflammation, the absence of lumen changes may be associated with hemodynamic variables.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Photochemotherapy , Adult , Choroid , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Middle Aged , Photochemotherapy/methods , Prospective Studies , Retinal Vessels , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, Optical Coherence
12.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 37: 102642, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550023

ABSTRACT

The local antiviral photodynamic inactivation (PDI) may prove to be a helpful tool reducing the viral load in the nose and throat area in the early phase of a Covid19 infection. Both the infectivity and the prognosis of SARS-CoV-2 infections in the early phase can depend on the viral load in this area. The aim of our study was to find a simplified PDI therapy option against corona viruses in this region with low dose methylene blue (MB) as photosensitizer and use of LED light instead of laser. As a substitute for SARS-CoV2 viruses we started with BCoV infected U373 cells first. We used an 810nm diode laser with 300mW/cm2 and 100J/cm2 light dose as well as a 590 nm LED and a broadband LED with irradiation intensity of 10,000 lx each (irradiation time 2.5 and 10 min) and concentrations of the sensitizer of 0.001% and 0.0001%. The 0.001% MB sensitizer experiments showed similar results with all exposures. The logarithmic reduction factor varied between ≥ 5.29 and ≥ 5.31, (0.001% MB sensitizer) and ≥ 4.6 and ≥ 5.31 (0.0001% MB) respectively. Extending the LED irradiation time from 2 to 5 and 10 minutes did not change these results. In contrast approaches of BCoV-infected cells in the dark, treated with 0.001% and 0.0001% MB sensitizer alone, a lot of residual viruses could be detected after 10 minutes of incubation (RF 0.9 and RF 1.23 for 0.001% MB and 0.0001% MB respectively) In our SARS-CoV-2 experiments with VERO E6 infected cells the irradiation time was reduced to 1, 2 and 3 minutes for both concentrations with increasing broadband LED radiation intensity from 20 to 50 and 100.000 lx. (RF 4.67 for 0.001% and 0.0001% respectively). This showed a minimum concentration of 0.0001%MB and a minimum radiation intensity of 20,000 lx leads to a 99.99% reduction of intracellular and extracellular viruses after one minute exposure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Photochemotherapy , Humans , Methylene Blue/pharmacology , Methylene Blue/therapeutic use , Photochemotherapy/methods , Photosensitizing Agents/pharmacology , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 37: 102643, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1531705

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Among the most common symptoms of COVID-19 is taste dysfunction, which has a ranging clinical presentation. As well as its pathophysiology remains to be unclear, there is not enough information about the efficacy and safety of the available treatments. This study aims to report a series of cases using PBMT for the management of COVID-19-related taste impairment. CASE SERIES: 8 female and 2 male patients sought medical help for taste impairment (either partially or completely) after COVID-19 infection. Photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) on the tongue mucosa was then proposed but with 3 different protocols. Taste perception at baseline and before every laser session was evaluated using a visual analog scale. Irrespective of the PBMT protocol, taste recovery was noted in all cases but with varying degrees of improvement. CONCLUSION: given the high prevalence rates of taste dysfunction in COVID-19 patients and the lack of information about the available treatments, PBMT seems to be a promising therapeutic modality but not dependent on the total number of laser sessions and the interval between them. The choice of the most suitable laser protocol as well as the knowledge of the exact photonic mechanisms, however, need to be better studied.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Low-Level Light Therapy , Photochemotherapy , Female , Humans , Low-Level Light Therapy/methods , Male , Photochemotherapy/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste Disorders/etiology
14.
Theranostics ; 11(18): 9054-9088, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524532

ABSTRACT

In recent years tremendous effort has been invested in the field of cancer diagnosis and treatment with an overall goal of improving cancer management, therapeutic outcome, patient survival, and quality of life. Photodynamic Therapy (PDT), which works on the principle of light-induced activation of photosensitizers (PS) leading to Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) mediated cancer cell killing has received increased attention as a promising alternative to overcome several limitations of conventional cancer therapies. Compared to conventional therapies, PDT offers the advantages of selectivity, minimal invasiveness, localized treatment, and spatio-temporal control which minimizes the overall therapeutic side effects and can be repeated as needed without interfering with other treatments and inducing treatment resistance. Overall PDT efficacy requires proper planning of various parameters like localization and concentration of PS at the tumor site, light dose, oxygen concentration and heterogeneity of the tumor microenvironment, which can be achieved with advanced imaging techniques. Consequently, there has been tremendous interest in the rationale design of PS formulations to exploit their theranostic potential to unleash the imperative contribution of medical imaging in the context of successful PDT outcomes. Further, recent advances in PS formulations as activatable phototheranostic agents have shown promising potential for finely controlled imaging-guided PDT due to their propensity to specifically turning on diagnostic signals simultaneously with photodynamic effects in response to the tumor-specific stimuli. In this review, we have summarized the recent progress in the development of PS-based multifunctional theranostic agents for biomedical applications in multimodal imaging combined with PDT. We also present the role of different imaging modalities; magnetic resonance, optical, nuclear, acoustic, and photoacoustic in improving the pre-and post-PDT effects. We anticipate that the information presented in this review will encourage future development and design of PSs for improved image-guided PDT for cancer treatment.


Subject(s)
Photochemotherapy/methods , Photosensitizing Agents/therapeutic use , Precision Medicine/methods , Humans , Neoplasms/therapy , Photosensitizing Agents/administration & dosage , Photosensitizing Agents/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species , Theranostic Nanomedicine/methods , Tumor Microenvironment/drug effects
15.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 36: 102577, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458876

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the short-term effect of coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) on the retinal capillary network and choroid in children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective, cross-sectional, case-control study included 19 recovered COVID-19 pediatric patients and 20 healthy children. Macular thickness, choroidal thickness, vessel density (VD), perfusion density (PD), and foveal avascular zone (FAZ) values were obtained. Central vessel and perfusion densities were measured at the central 6-mm area, and the values were compared among three subgroups according to location. RESULTS: The mean ages of patients and controls were 12. 42 ± 3.3 years and 13.35 ± 1.2 years, respectively. Significant differences were observed between the two groups in terms of inner, outer, and full VD, as well as inner and full PD. No significant differences in center VD and PD were observed between groups. Although it was not evident in analysis of choroidal values, inflammatory sites were thickened. FAZ area significantly differed between groups (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Retinal microvascularity was impaired in the acute phase of disease in recovered COVID-19 patients aged 10-15 years. However, the microvascularity impairment was subclinical. The choroid was thickened because of inflammation during the acute phase of disease. pediatric COVID-19 patients should undergo follow up via optical coherence tomography angiography to detect subclinical and asymptomatic retinal changes. Long-term follow-up studies are needed to validate these findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Photochemotherapy , Case-Control Studies , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fluorescein Angiography , Humans , Perfusion , Photochemotherapy/methods , Photosensitizing Agents , Prospective Studies , Retinal Vessels/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, Optical Coherence
16.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 36: 102574, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458817

ABSTRACT

Olfactory dysfunction is commonly seen in COVID-19 patients; however, little is known about the pathophysiology and management. The present study aimed to report a series of cases in which three protocols of intranasal photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) were used for COVID-19-related olfactory dysfunction. Irrespective of the PBMT protocol, olfaction recovery was noted in all cases but with varying degrees of improvement. Although intranasal PBMT seems to be a promising therapeutic modality, more research is needed to better define effectiveness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Low-Level Light Therapy , Olfaction Disorders , Photochemotherapy , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/drug therapy , Olfaction Disorders/therapy , Photochemotherapy/methods , Photosensitizing Agents/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell
18.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 35: 102447, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405835

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We aimed to examine the changes in choroidal stroma and vascular system due to long-term use of N95 mask in healthcare workers. METHOD: The healthcare workers included in the study were between the ages of 18-50, with best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) 10/10, spherical and cylindrical refractive errors less than 3 diopters, intraocular pressures (IOP) within normal limits, and axial lengths (AL) less than 25 mm. The choroid was imaged with enhanced depth imaging (EDI) techniques using SD-OCT. The choroidal vascularity index (CVI), total choroidal area (TA), luminal area (LA), and stromal area (SA) were measured in the subfoveal 2 mm area. Measurements were first made after wearing the N95 mask for at least 2 hours without removing it and repeated 1hour after removing, while doing office working. RESULTS: The study included 62 eyes from 62 participants (32 women [%51.61]; 30 men [%48.39]). The mean age of patients was 33.81± 8.88 years (20-50 years). The differences in subfoveal TA, LA, SA between 2 hours of N95 mask use and 1 hour after removal of the mask were statistically significant (p<0.05 for each). However, the difference in CVI between the mask use and removal of the mask was not statically significant (p=0.537) CONCLUSION: Due to CO2 retention and hemodynamic changes, choroidal vascular flow, the choroidal vascular area, and the choroidal stromal area may be affected by prolonged use of masks.


Subject(s)
N95 Respirators , Photochemotherapy , Adolescent , Adult , Choroid/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Photochemotherapy/methods , Photosensitizing Agents , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Visual Acuity , Young Adult
19.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 35: 102473, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331143

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The recent emergence of a highly infectious and contagious respiratory viral disease known as COVID-19 has vastly impacted human lives and overloaded the health care system. Therefore, it is crucial to develop a fast and accurate diagnostic system for the timely identification of COVID-19 infected patients and thus to help control its spread. METHODS: This work proposes a new deep CNN based technique for COVID-19 classification in X-ray images. In this regard, two novel custom CNN architectures, namely COVID-RENet-1 and COVID-RENet-2, are developed for COVID-19 specific pneumonia analysis. The proposed technique systematically employs Region and Edge-based operations along with convolution operations. The advantage of the proposed idea is validated by performing series of experimentation and comparing results with two baseline CNNs that exploited either a single type of pooling operation or strided convolution down the architecture. Additionally, the discrimination capacity of the proposed technique is assessed by benchmarking it against the state-of-the-art CNNs on radiologist's authenticated chest X-ray dataset. Implementation is available at https://github.com/PRLAB21/Coronavirus-Disease-Analysis-using-Chest-X-Ray-Images. RESULTS: The proposed classification technique shows good generalization as compared to existing CNNs by achieving promising MCC (0.96), F-score (0.98) and Accuracy (98%). This suggests that the idea of synergistically using Region and Edge-based operations aid in better exploiting the region homogeneity, textural variations, and region boundary-related information in an image, which helps to capture the pneumonia specific pattern. CONCLUSIONS: The encouraging results of the proposed classification technique on the test set with high sensitivity (0.98) and precision (0.98) suggest the effectiveness of the proposed technique. Thus, it suggests the potential use of the proposed technique in other X-ray imagery-based infectious disease analysis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deep Learning , Photochemotherapy , Algorithms , Humans , Neural Networks, Computer , Photochemotherapy/methods , Photosensitizing Agents , Radiography, Thoracic , SARS-CoV-2 , X-Rays
20.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 35: 102457, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322306

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An important clinical feature of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is hypercytokinemia (cytokine storm). We previously showed that narrow band ultraviolet-A (NB-UVA) treatment salvages coronavirus (CoV)-229E-infected human tracheal cells, and that daily endotracheal NB-UVA therapy reduced severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) levels in human subjects, with improved clinical outcomes. Here, we examined NB-UVA effects on cytokine release during CoV-229E infection. METHODS: Primary human tracheal epithelial cells were transfected with CoV-229E, then exposed to 2 mW/cm2 NB-UVA for 20 minutes every 24h, either 3 or 4 times. Secreted cytokine/chemokine levels were analyzed in supernatants collected from CoV-229E-infected/UVA-exposed cells 24h after the last UVA treatment, and from matched non-infected/UVA-exposed controls, CoV-229E-infected/non-exposed controls, and non-infected/non-exposed (naïve) controls. Metabolic pathway/downstream prediction analyses were also performed. RESULTS: Pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and chemokines IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP1), and interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10), were significantly increased in CoV-229E-infected cells, and significantly decreased following NB-UVA treatment. Interferon (IFN)-α2, IFN-γ, and IL-10 were not upregulated in response to CoV-229E. Metabolic pathway predictions indicated hypercytokinemia as the top inflammatory response in CoV-229E-infected cells, whereas the top predicted pathway in CoV-229E-infected/UVA-exposed cells was the recovery stage of severe acute respiratory syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Human tracheal epithelial cells infected with CoV-229E showed reduced cytokine secretions including IL-6, TNF, IL-8, and MCP-1, following NB-UVA exposure. This reduction of cytokine levels in vitro, coupled with previously identified reduced cell death in CoV-229E-infected/UVA-exposed cells, suggests that determining UVA effects on cytokine storm in human SARS-Co-V2 patients is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Photochemotherapy , Cytokines , Humans , Photochemotherapy/methods , Photosensitizing Agents , SARS-CoV-2
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