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1.
Molecules ; 27(17)2022 Aug 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023948

ABSTRACT

The advancements in nanotechnology and nanomedicine are projected to solve many glitches in medicine, especially in the fields of cancer and infectious diseases, which are ranked in the top five most dangerous deadly diseases worldwide by the WHO. There is great concern to eradicate these problems with accurate diagnosis and therapies. Among many developed therapeutic models, near infra-red mediated phototherapy is a non-invasive technique used to invade many persistent tumors and bacterial infections with less inflammation compared with traditional therapeutic models such as radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and surgeries. Herein, we firstly summarize the up-to-date research on graphene phototheranostics for a better understanding of this field of research. We discuss the preparation and functionalization of graphene nanomaterials with various biocompatible components, such as metals, metal oxides, polymers, photosensitizers, and drugs, through covalent and noncovalent approaches. The multifunctional nanographene is used to diagnose the disease with confocal laser scanning microscopy, magnetic resonance imaging computed tomography, positron emission tomography, photoacoustic imaging, Raman, and ToF-SMIS to visualize inside the biological system for imaging-guided therapy are discussed. Further, treatment of disease by photothermal and photodynamic therapies against different cancers and bacterial infections are carefully conferred herein along with challenges and future perspectives.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , Graphite , Nanocomposites , Neoplasms , Bacterial Infections/diagnostic imaging , Bacterial Infections/therapy , Cell Line, Tumor , Graphite/therapeutic use , Humans , Multimodal Imaging , Nanocomposites/therapeutic use , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/therapy , Phototherapy , Theranostic Nanomedicine/methods
2.
Eur J Pediatr ; 181(9): 3523-3529, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1935770

ABSTRACT

In Italy, where neonatal jaundice treatment is required, it is largely carried out in hospitals. However, it is possible to safely administer home phototherapy (HPT). We report our pilot center's experience of HPT and its potential benefits during the COVID-19-enforced national lockdown. This is an observational study performed at the Policlinic Abano Terme, a suburban hospital that covers a large catchment area near the Euganean Hills in Northeast Italy with around 1000 deliveries per year. HPT was started after regular nursery discharge, and the mothers brought the neonates back to the hospital maternity ward each day to check infants' bilirubin levels, weight, and general state of health, until it was deemed safe to stop. The efficacy of HPT in bilirubin reduction, hospital readmission rates, and parental satisfaction were evaluated. Thirty infants received HPT. In 4 of these infants, HPT was associated with total serum bilirubin (TSB) between 75 and 95th percentile (high-intermediate-risk zone) and in 26 infants HPT was associated with TSB > 95th percentile (high-risk zone) of the Bhutani nomogram. Among these 30 infants, 27 (90%) completed the HPT with a progressive decrease of TSB levels with 4 neonates requiring a second course and 3 infants requiring a third course of 24-h HPT. Three (10%) neonates failed HPT and were readmitted after one 24-h phototherapy course. No abnormalities of breastfeeding, body weight (defined as > 10% decrease), temperature, nor COVID infections were detected following HPT consultation in the neonatal ward. Home treatment efficacy with varying degrees of parental satisfaction occurred in all but 3 cases that involved difficulties with the equipment and inconsistent lamp manipulation practices. CONCLUSION: Our pilot study suggests that HPT for neonatal jaundice can be carried out effectively and with parental satisfaction as supported by daily back bilirubin monitoring in the maternity ward during the enforced COVID-19 national lockdown in Italy. WHAT IS KNOWN: • No high-quality evidence is currently available to support or refute the practice of phototherapy in patients' own homes. WHAT IS NEW: • Phototherapy can be delivered at home in a select group of infants and could be an ideal option if parents are able to return with their infants to the hospital maternity ward for daily follow-up. • It can be as effective as inpatient phototherapy and potentially helps in delivering family-centered care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Jaundice, Neonatal , Bilirubin , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Jaundice, Neonatal/epidemiology , Jaundice, Neonatal/therapy , Neonatal Screening , Phototherapy , Pilot Projects , Pregnancy
3.
Exp Dermatol ; 31(7): 1109-1115, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1868642

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 morbidity and mortality are driven by poor immune regulation. Narrowband ultraviolet B (NB-UVB) phototherapy is standard of care in a number of immune-dysregulated diseases. To assess the efficacy of NB-UVB phototherapy for improving COVID-19 outcomes in high-risk, hospitalized, we developed the Adaptive Photo-Protection Trial. This is a multi-center, prospective, double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. The pilot phase results are reported here. Consecutive patients admitted with a positive COVID-19 PCR were screened for eligibility. Enrolled subjects were computer randomized 1:1 to NB-UVB or placebo phototherapy. Subjects were treated daily with escalating doses on 27% of their body surface area for up to 8 consecutive days. Primary outcomes were safety and efficacy, defined as persistent or painful erythema and 28-day mortality. Comparisons were made via non-parametric exact tests. Patients in treatment (n = 15) and placebo (n = 15) arms had similar demographics. No adverse events occurred. Twenty eight-day mortality was 13.3% in treatment vs. 33.3% in placebo arms (p = 0.39). NB-UVB phototherapy in hospitalized COVID-19 patients was safe. Decreased mortality was observed in treated patients but this was statistically non-significant. Given its low-cost, scalability, and adjunctive nature, NB-UVB has the potential to improve COVID-19 outcomes. Continuation of this trial is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ultraviolet Therapy , COVID-19/radiotherapy , Humans , Phototherapy , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
4.
Pediatrics ; 148(5)2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707239

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to reassess the relationship between phototherapy and cancer in an extended version of a previous cohort and to replicate a report from Quebec of increased cancer risk after phototherapy beginning at age 4 years. METHODS: This cohort study included 139 100 children born at ≥35 weeks' gestation from 1995 to 2017, followed through March 16, 2019, in Kaiser Permanente Northern California hospitals who had a qualifying bilirubin level from -3 mg/dL to +4.9 mg/dL from the American Academy of Pediatrics phototherapy threshold; an additional 40 780 children and 5 years of follow-up from our previous report. The exposure was inpatient phototherapy (yes or no), and the outcomes were various types of childhood cancer. We used Cox proportional hazard models, controlling for propensity-score quintiles, and allowed for time-dependent exposure effects to assess for the risk of cancer after a latent period. RESULTS: Over a mean (SD) follow-up of 8.2 (5.7) years, the crude incidence of cancer per 100 000 person-years was 25.1 among those exposed to phototherapy and 19.2 among those not exposed (233 cases of cancer). After propensity adjustment, phototherapy was not associated with any cancer (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.13, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.83-1.54), hematopoietic cancer (HR: 1.17, 95% CI: 0.74-1.83), or solid tumors (HR: 1.01, 95% CI: 0.65-1.58). We also found no association with cancer diagnoses at age ≥4 years. CONCLUSIONS: We did not confirm previous, concerning associations between phototherapy and adjusted risk of any cancer, nonlymphocytic leukemia, or brain and/or central nervous systems tumors in later childhood.


Subject(s)
Neoplasms/etiology , Phototherapy/adverse effects , Bilirubin/blood , California/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Epidemiologic Methods , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Negative Results , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Time Factors
5.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(4): 4892-4898, 2022 Feb 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633913

ABSTRACT

This paper presents results of a study of a new cationic oligomer that contains end groups and a chromophore affording inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 by visible light irradiation in solution or as a solid coating on paper wipes and glass fiber filtration substrates. A key finding of this study is that the cationic oligomer with a central thiophene ring and imidazolium charged groups gives outstanding performance in both the killing of E. coli bacterial cells and inactivation of the virus at very short times. Our introduction of cationic N-methyl imidazolium groups enhances the light activation process for both E. coli and SARS-CoV-2 but dampens the killing of the bacteria and eliminates the inactivation of the virus in the dark. For the studies with this oligomer in solution at a concentration of 1 µg/mL and E. coli, we obtain 3 log killing of the bacteria with 10 min of irradiation with LuzChem cool white lights (mimicking indoor illumination). With the oligomer in solution at a concentration of 10 µg/mL, we observe 4 log inactivation (99.99%) in 5 min of irradiation and total inactivation after 10 min. The oligomer is quite active against E. coli on oligomer-coated paper wipes and glass fiber filter supports. The SARS-CoV-2 is also inactivated by oligomer-coated glass fiber filter papers. This study indicates that these oligomer-coated materials may be very useful as wipes and filtration materials.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/radiation effects , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Cations/pharmacology , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Escherichia coli/radiation effects , Humans , Light , Phototherapy , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Ultraviolet Rays , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , Virus Inactivation/radiation effects
6.
Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed ; 38(4): 404-405, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583458
7.
Mikrochim Acta ; 188(12): 430, 2021 11 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1530326

ABSTRACT

Recent experience with the COVID-19 pandemic should be a lesson learnt with respect to the effort we have to invest in the development of new strategies for the treatment of viral diseases, along with their cheap, easy, sensitive, and selective detection. Since we live in a globalized world where just hours can play a crucial role in the spread of a virus, its detection must be as quick as possible. Thanks to their chemical stability, photostability, and superior biocompatibility, carbon dots are a kind of nanomaterial showing great potential in both the detection of various virus strains and a broad-spectrum antiviral therapy. The biosensing and antiviral properties of carbon dots can be tuned by the selection of synthesis precursors as well as by easy post-synthetic functionalization. In this review, we will first summarize current options of virus detection utilizing carbon dots by either electrochemical or optical biosensing approaches. Secondly, we will cover and share the up-to-date knowledge of carbon dots' antiviral properties, which showed promising activity against various types of viruses including SARS-CoV-2. The mechanisms of their antiviral actions will be further adressed as well. Finally, we will discuss the advantages and distadvantages of the use of carbon dots in the tangled battle against viral infections in order to provide valuable informations for further research and development of new virus biosensors and antiviral therapeutics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Carbon/chemistry , Quantum Dots , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biocompatible Materials , Biosensing Techniques , Electrochemistry , Humans , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Nanostructures , Phototherapy , Polymers , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Diseases
8.
BMJ Paediatr Open ; 5(1): e001027, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504476

ABSTRACT

Background: In the UK setting, where neonatal jaundice treatment is required, it is largely carried out in hospitals. However, it is possible to safely administer home phototherapy (HPT). Objective: To report on our centre's experience of HPT and its potential benefits. Design: Retrospective observational study performed as a service evaluation. Patients: Infants ≥35 weeks corrected gestational age with a weight of 2 kg and serum bilirubin ≤50 µmol/L above treatment thresholds. Controls were a matched group of infants who received inpatient phototherapy (IPT). Setting: The catchment area of two neonatal intensive care units, one special care unit and a birth centre at four different hospitals that is covered by a single neonatal community outreach nursing team in Birmingham, UK. Intervention: HPT was started either in the community or as a continuation of IPT. Controls received IPT. Main outcome measures: The rate of bilirubin reduction, hospital readmission rates and parental satisfaction. Results: 100 infants received HPT while 50 received IPT. No infant showed a progressive rise of serum bilirubin level while receiving HPT. The rate of bilirubin reduction was similar in both HPT and IPT groups (2.4±1.9 and 2.5±1.6 µmol/L/hour, respectively, MD=-0.1, 95% CI -0.74 to 0.53, p=0.74). Readmission rate was 3% in the HPT group. 97% of parents stated that the overall experience was good and 98% would choose HPT if they had their time all over again. Conclusion: Our programme suggests that HPT for neonatal jaundice can be carried out in a select group of infants. It helps in providing holistic family-centred care and is viewed positively by families.


Subject(s)
Jaundice, Neonatal , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Jaundice, Neonatal/therapy , Parents , Phototherapy , Retrospective Studies , United Kingdom
9.
Clin Dermatol ; 39(3): 446-450, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1491856

ABSTRACT

Ultraviolet (UV) therapy is an effective and well-tolerated therapeutic method for various dermatologic conditions due to its antiproliferative and immunosuppressive effects. Contemporary phototherapy includes broadband UVB, narrowband UVB, UVA1, PUVA, and excimer laser therapy. The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has resulted in the closure of many patient care facilities, including phototherapy units worldwide. Home phototherapy, thalassotherapy, and other UV therapy modalities are an alternative for many patients with chronic dermatoses. We highlighted possible interactions of UV therapy effects and the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, and focused on organization and measures against transmission of infections in phototherapy units. Dermatology departments have reopened their units, assessing the risks and benefits for patients, optimizing safety regulations, and adhering to the rules for disinfection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ultraviolet Therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Phototherapy , SARS-CoV-2
10.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(43): 17891-17909, 2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483091

ABSTRACT

The emergence of multi-drug-resistant pathogens threatens the healthcare systems world-wide. Recent advances in phototherapy (PT) approaches mediated by photo-antimicrobials (PAMs) provide new opportunities for the current serious antibiotic resistance. During the PT treatment, reactive oxygen species or heat produced by PAMs would react with the cell membrane, consequently leaking cytoplasm components and effectively eradicating different pathogens like bacteria, fungi, viruses, and even parasites. This Perspective will concentrate on the development of different organic photo-antimicrobials (OPAMs) and their application as practical therapeutic agents into therapy for local infections, wound dressings, and removal of biofilms from medical devices. We also discuss how to design highly efficient OPAMs by modifying the chemical structure or conjugating with a targeting component. Moreover, this Perspective provides a discussion of the general challenges and direction for OPAMs and what further needs to be done. It is hoped that through this overview, OPAMs can prosper and will be more widely used for microbial infections in the future, especially at a time when the global COVID-19 epidemic is getting more serious.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Drug Design , Phototherapy/methods , Animals , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteria/drug effects , Biofilms/drug effects , Biofilms/radiation effects , Coloring Agents/chemistry , Coloring Agents/pharmacology , Equipment and Supplies/microbiology , Equipment and Supplies/virology , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Escherichia coli/physiology , Eye Diseases/drug therapy , Eye Diseases/pathology , Fungi/drug effects , Graphite/chemistry , Light , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Nanoparticles/toxicity , Photosensitizing Agents/chemistry , Photosensitizing Agents/pharmacology , Photosensitizing Agents/therapeutic use , Quantum Theory , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Viruses/drug effects
11.
Br J Dermatol ; 185(4): 871-872, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476138

Subject(s)
Phototherapy , France , Humans
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(20)2021 10 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470882

ABSTRACT

Most humans depend on sunlight exposure to satisfy their requirements for vitamin D3. However, the destruction of the ozone layer in the past few decades has increased the risk of skin aging and wrinkling caused by excessive exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, which may also promote the risk of skin cancer development. The promotion of public health recommendations to avoid sunlight exposure would reduce the risk of skin cancer, but it would also enhance the risk of vitamin D3 insufficiency/deficiency, which may cause disease development and progression. In addition, the ongoing global COVID-19 pandemic may further reduce sunlight exposure due to stay-at-home policies, resulting in difficulty in active and healthy aging. In this review article, we performed a literature search in PubMed and provided an overview of basic and clinical data regarding the impact of sunlight exposure and vitamin D3 on public health. We also discuss the potential mechanisms and clinical value of phototherapy with a full-spectrum light (notably blue, red, and near-infrared light) as an alternative to sunlight exposure, which may contribute to combating COVID-19 and promoting active and healthy aging in current aged/superaged societies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Healthy Aging , Skin Neoplasms , Aged , Humans , Infrared Rays , Pandemics , Phototherapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Sunlight , Ultraviolet Rays , Vitamin D
15.
Photochem Photobiol Sci ; 20(9): 1239-1242, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1375868

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In March 2020, social isolation measures were imposed in Brazil to contain the spread of the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), requiring health services to implement contingency plans. The main objective of the study was to verify the status of the disease, self-reported by patients who discontinued phototherapy, during a period of social isolation. METHODS: All patients receiving phototherapy at the Santa Casa de Porto Alegre, Brazil, prior to the implementation of social distancing measures were eligible for inclusion in the study. 86 patients answered a questionnaire during a medical evaluation. RESULTS: 95% of patients who stopped phototherapy reported a worsening of disease status. Only 19% of patients continued to attend phototherapy sessions during the social isolation period. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic led most patients to stop phototherapy, resulting in the perception of increased disease severity in an outpatient sample in southern Brazil.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Phototherapy , Treatment Refusal , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Lymphoma, T-Cell, Cutaneous/epidemiology , Lymphoma, T-Cell, Cutaneous/therapy , Male , Psoriasis/epidemiology , Psoriasis/therapy , Severity of Illness Index , Social Isolation , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vitiligo/epidemiology , Vitiligo/therapy
16.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 85(5): e319-e320, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356274
17.
Photobiomodul Photomed Laser Surg ; 39(7): 437-438, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1310886

ABSTRACT

The numerous dermatology clinics have decreased or stopped phototherapy sessions due to the increased risk of getting COVID-19 during the current pandemic. In this context, poorly ventilated phototherapy units (PUs) should be redesigned in order to continue UV-based therapies and to protect our patients from getting COVID-19. Recently, it has been reported that ultraviolet C (UVC)-related dose and virus concentration may play a decisive role in the virucidal activity. Considering air changes per hour and viral inactivation time, 30 min of 30-W UVC radiation is able to inactivate poorly ventilated PUs of 3-4 m length, 5.5-7 m width, and 2.7-3 m height. Upper-air UVC radiation for 30 min between sessions would allow us to have more treatment options for numerous dermatological diseases in novel PUs during the COVID-19 pandemic and possible future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Infection Control/methods , Phototherapy/instrumentation , SARS-CoV-2/radiation effects , Virus Inactivation/radiation effects , Equipment Design , Humans , Pandemics , Ultraviolet Rays , Ventilation
18.
Clin Dermatol ; 39(1): 23-32, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300688

ABSTRACT

The first cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Iran were detected on February 19, 2020. Soon the entire country was hit with the virus. Although dermatologists were not immediately the frontline health care workers, all aspects of their practice were drastically affected. Adapting to this unprecedented crisis required urgent appropriate responses. With preventive measures and conserving health care resources being the most essential priorities, dermatologists, as an integral part of the health system, needed to adapt their practices according to the latest guidelines. The spectrum of the challenges encompassed education, teledermatology, lasers, and other dermatologic procedures, as well as management of patients who were immunosuppressed or developed drug reactions and, most importantly, the newly revealed cutaneous signs of COVID-19. These challenges have paved the way for new horizons in dermatology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Dermatology/standards , Hospitals, University , Skin Diseases/etiology , Skin Diseases/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cosmetic Techniques , Dermatitis/etiology , Dermatologic Surgical Procedures , Dermatology/education , Dermatology/methods , Dermoscopy , Drug Eruptions/etiology , Hand Dermatoses/etiology , Hand Disinfection , Humans , Internship and Residency , Iran/epidemiology , Laser Therapy , Personal Protective Equipment/adverse effects , Phototherapy , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Private Practice , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin Diseases/drug therapy , Telemedicine
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224026

ABSTRACT

In recent decades, researchers around the world have been studying intensively how micro-organisms that are present inside living organisms could affect the main processes of life, namely health and pathological conditions of mind or body. They discovered a relationship between the whole microbial colonization and the initiation and development of different medical disorders. Besides already known probiotics, novel products such as postbiotics and paraprobiotics have been developed in recent years to create new non-viable micro-organisms or bacterial-free extracts, which can provide benefits to the host with additional bioactivity to probiotics, but without the risk of side effects. The best alternatives in the use of probiotics and postbiotics to maintain the health of the intestinal microbiota and to prevent the attachment of pathogens to children and adults are highlighted and discussed as controversies and challenges. Updated knowledge of the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the balance between microbiota and immune system for the introspection on the gut-lung-brain axis could reveal the latest benefits and perspectives of applied photobiomics for health. Multiple interconditioning between photobiomodulation (PBM), probiotics, and the human microbiota, their effects on the human body, and their implications for the management of viral infectious diseases is essential. Coupled complex PBM and probiotic interventions can control the microbiome, improve the activity of the immune system, and save the lives of people with immune imbalances. There is an urgent need to seek and develop innovative treatments to successfully interact with the microbiota and the human immune system in the coronavirus crisis. In the near future, photobiomics and metabolomics should be applied innovatively in the SARS-CoV-2 crisis (to study and design new therapies for COVID-19 immediately), to discover how bacteria can help us through adequate energy biostimulation to combat this pandemic, so that we can find the key to the hidden code of communication between RNA viruses, bacteria, and our body.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/immunology , Low-Level Light Therapy/methods , Probiotics/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Brain/immunology , Brain/radiation effects , COVID-19/radiotherapy , COVID-19/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/microbiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/radiotherapy , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/radiation effects , Humans , Lung/immunology , Lung/radiation effects , Metabolomics , Phototherapy/methods , SARS-CoV-2/radiation effects
20.
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