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Postgrad Med J ; 96(1137): 399-402, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234171


A novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome-CoV-2) that initially originated from Wuhan, China, in December 2019 has already caused a pandemic. While this novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) frequently induces mild diseases, it has also generated severe diseases among certain populations, including older-aged individuals with underlying diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes. As of 31 March 2020, a total of 9786 confirmed cases with COVID-19 have been reported in South Korea. South Korea has the highest diagnostic rate for COVID-19, which has been the major contributor in overcoming this outbreak. We are trying to reduce the reproduction number of COVID-19 to less than one and eventually succeed in controlling this outbreak using methods such as contact tracing, quarantine, testing, isolation, social distancing and school closure. This report aimed to describe the current situation of COVID-19 in South Korea and our response to this outbreak.

Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Quarantine/organization & administration , Basic Reproduction Number , COVID-19/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Epidemiological Monitoring , Evidence-Based Medicine , Human Activities , Humans , Physical Distancing , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Travel
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0286398, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238504


BACKGROUND: People experienced various stress and psychological responses to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This study aimed to examine the changes in emergency medical services (EMSs) utilization by self-harm patients in early pandemic and the impacts of physical distancing measures on the EMSs utilization by self-harm patients. METHODS: Data for all patients presenting to emergency departments (EDs) after self-harm injuries including self-poisoning were collected from the National ED Information System (NEDIS). Characteristics of patients in two study regions (urban versus rural) were compared. Weekly and annual ED visit rates after self-harm (VRSH) per 100,000 population were calculated. Mobile phone mobility index (MPMI) was calculated by dividing a region's aggregated mobile phone mobility by mid-year population. Joinpoint regression analysis was conducted to assess changes in 2020 over pre-pandemic years. Test for presence of joinpoint at the end of 2019 was performed. A cross-correlation function was used to estimate the maximal morphological similarity and lag time between changes in MPMI and VRSH. RESULTS: In 2020, in early phases of the pandemic, there was a moderate decline in self-harm-related ED visits to 30,797 from a continuously increasing trend seen in previous years. However, proportions of young people (50.1%) and females (62.3%) increased over previous years. VRSHs among women and young people aged 15-34 years showed higher levels in 2020 than in previous five years. There was a significant decrease in the proportion of patients transported directly from the scene. In addition, there was a polarization of mental state upon ED arrival from alert and unresponsive. The median correlation coefficient between MPMI values and VRSH values was 0.601 (interquartile range [IQR]: 0.539-0.619) in urban regions and 0.531 (IQR: 0.454-0.595) in rural regions, showing no statistically significant difference between the two. CONCLUSION: Physical distancing measures adopted to prevent the spread of transmittable diseases following the pandemic had the effect of decreasing ED visits due to self-harm. When the pandemic has ended, and daily life has been restored, it will be particularly important to pay attention to the increased numbers of self-harm patients expected to visit EDs compared to during the pandemic.

COVID-19 , Self-Injurious Behavior , Humans , Female , Adolescent , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Self-Injurious Behavior/epidemiology , Self-Injurious Behavior/prevention & control , Self-Injurious Behavior/psychology , Emergency Service, Hospital , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(7): 2833-2842, 2021 Jul.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234736


The present study investigates the association between the self-reported diagnosis of noncommunicable disease (NCD) and the adherence to social distancing and the use of health services during the COVID-19 pandemic. This was a cross-sectional study with Brazilian adults who participated in the ConVid- Behavior Survey, conducted online between April 24 and May 24, 2020(n = 45.161). This studyconsidered the following NCDs: diabetes, hypertension, respiratory disease, heart disease, and cancer, and evaluated the use of health services and the adherence to social distancing, as well as estimated the prevalences and adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR); 33,9% (95% CI: 32,5-35,3) referred to one or more NCD. Individuals with NCDsshowed a greater adherence to intense social distancing (aPR: 1,07;95% CI: 1,03-1,11), sought out health services more often (aPR:1,24; 95% CI:1,11-1,38), and found greater difficultyin scheduling doctor's appointments (aPR:1.52; 95% CI 1,35-1,71), receiving healthcare treatment (APR:1,50;95% CI:1,22-1,84) and medication (APR:2,17;95% CI:1,77-2,67), and performing examinations (APR:1,78;95% CI:1,50-2,10) and scheduled interventions (APR:1,65;95% CI:1,16-2,34). The presence of NCDs was associated with social distancing, seeking out health care, and difficulty in using health services.

Este estudo investiga a associação entre diagnóstico autorreferido de Doença Crônica Não Transmissível (DCNT) e adesão ao distanciamento social e utilização dos serviços de saúde durante a pandemia de COVID-19. Estudo transversal com adultos brasileiros que participaram da ConVid Pesquisa de Comportamentos, realizada de 24 de abril a 24 de maio de 2020, via web (n = 45.161). Considerou as DCNT: diabetes, hipertensão, doença respiratória, doença do coração e câncer. Avaliou a utilização de serviços de saúde e a adesão ao distanciamento social. Estimou as prevalências e razões de prevalências ajustadas (RPa). 33,9% (IC95%: 32,5-35,3) referiu uma ou mais DCNT. Indivíduos com DCNT tiveram maior adesão ao distanciamento social intenso (RPa:1,07; IC95%:1,03-1,11), procuraram mais o serviço de saúde (RPa:1,24; IC95%:1,11-1,38) e tiveram mais dificuldades para marcar consulta (RPa:1,52; IC95%:1,35-1,71), conseguir atendimento de saúde (RPa:1,50; IC95%:1,22-1,84) e medicamentos (RPa:2,17; IC95%:1,77-2,67), realizar exames (RPa:1,78; IC95%:1,50-2,10) e intervenções programadas (RPa:1,65; IC95%:1,16-2,34). A presença de DCNT associou-se à maior adesão ao distanciamento social, procura por atendimento de saúde e dificuldade na utilização dos serviços de saúde.

COVID-19 , Noncommunicable Diseases , Adult , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Services , Humans , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2
East. Mediterr. health j ; 26(6): 641-645, 2020-06.
Article | WHOIRIS | ID: gwh-368730


Background: The public health burden of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is expected to increase and urgent strict measures by decision-makers is critical for the containment of the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak worldwide. Aims: This study aimed to give a real-time analysis of COVID-19 presence in northern Cyprus. Methods: All official SARS-CoV-2 positive cases were tracked and reported in terms of the origin, nationality, and transmission routes. Preventive measures taken after the first reported case were analyzed for their effectiveness as control strategies. Results: The index case of SARS-CoV-2 in northern Cyprus was identified as a female German tourist. First local case had travel history from the United Kingdom after which local transmission occurred. Rapid and strict containment measures have currently delayed a peak in observed cases. Conclusions: Rapid implementation of social-distancing measures, good hygiene measures and travel/gathering bans in northern Cyprus has been effective in controlling the outbreak.

COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks , Betacoronavirus , Physical Distancing , Hygiene
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(1): 80-87, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-2324592


Abstract Background The COVID-19 pandemic has imposed measures of social distancing and, during this time, there has been an elevation in cardiovascular mortality rates and a decrease in the number of emergency visits. Objectives To assess and compare in-hospital mortality for cardiovascular diseases and emergency department visits during the COVID-19 pandemic and the same period in 2019. Methods Retrospective, single-center study that evaluated emergency visits and in-hospital deaths between March 16, 2020 and June 16, 2020, when the steepest fall in the number of emergency admissions for COVID-19 was registered. These data were compared with the emergency visits and in-hospital deaths between March 16 and June 16, 2019. We analyzed the total number of deaths, and cardiovascular deaths. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Results There was a 35% decrease in the number of emergency visits and an increase in the ratio of the number of deaths to the number of emergency visits in 2020. The increase in the ratio of the number of all-cause deaths to the number of emergency visits was 45.6% and the increase in the ratio of the number of cardiovascular deaths to the number of emergency visits was 62.1%. None of the patients who died in the study period in 2020 tested positive for COVID-19. Conclusion In-hospital mortality for cardiovascular diseases increased proportionally to the number of emergency visits during the COVID-19-imposed social distancing compared with the same period in 2019. (Int J Cardiovasc Sci. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)

Humans , Male , Female , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Emergency Service, Hospital , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Emergency Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Physical Distancing , COVID-19/complications , Hospitalization
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 8185, 2023 05 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2325212


Two distinct strategies for controlling an emerging epidemic are physical distancing and regular testing with self-isolation. These strategies are especially important before effective vaccines or treatments become widely available. The testing strategy has been promoted frequently but used less often than physical distancing to mitigate COVID-19. We compared the performance of these strategies in an integrated epidemiological and economic model that includes a simple representation of transmission by "superspreading," wherein a relatively small fraction of infected individuals cause a large share of infections. We examined the economic benefits of distancing and testing over a wide range of conditions, including variations in the transmissibility and lethality of the disease meant to encompass the most prominent variants of COVID-19 encountered so far. In a head-to-head comparison using our primary parameter values, both with and without superspreading and a declining marginal value of mortality risk reductions, an optimized testing strategy outperformed an optimized distancing strategy. In a Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis, an optimized policy that combined the two strategies performed better than either one alone in more than 25% of random parameter draws. Insofar as diagnostic tests are sensitive to viral loads, and individuals with high viral loads are more likely to contribute to superspreading events, superspreading enhances the relative performance of testing over distancing in our model. Both strategies performed best at moderate levels of transmissibility, somewhat lower than the transmissibility of the ancestral strain of SARS-CoV-2.

COVID-19 , Epidemics , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Physical Distancing , Epidemics/prevention & control , Uncertainty
Psico USF ; 28(1): 79-90, Jan.-Mar. 2023. tab
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-2317008


This cross-sectional study aimed to analyze the association of religiosity with behaviors and perceptions in the context of social distancing measures during the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as mental health outcomes, in a university community in Central-West Brazil. A sample of 1,796 subjects responded to an online form with socio-demographic questions and the DASS-21 and PWBS scales. Religion was associated with the frequency of interactions, perceptions of the duration of the social distancing measures, changes in emotional state and history of psychological illness. The prevalence of symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress was lower among people with religion and their scores in psychological well-being were higher. (AU)

Trata-se de um estudo transversal com o objetivo de analisar a associação entre religiosidade e comportamentos e percepções frente ao distanciamento social decorrente da pandemia de Covid-19 e estado de saúde mental em uma comunidade universitária do Centro-Oeste brasileiro. Participaram do estudo 1796 sujeitos, os quais responderam a um formulário online com questões sociodemográficas e às escalas DASS-21 e EBEP. Observou-se associação entre religião e frequência de interações, percepção sobre a duração do distanciamento social e mudanças no estado emocional e histórico de alterações psicológicas. Constatou-se menor prevalência de sintomas relacionados à depressão, à ansiedade e ao estresse e maiores escores de bem-estar psicológico entre aqueles com religião. (AU)

Se trata de un estudio transversal con el objetivo de analizar la asociación entre religiosidad, comportamientos y percepciones frente al distanciamiento social resultante de la pandemia Covid-19 y el estado de salud mental en una comunidad universitaria de la región Centro-Oeste de Brasil. Participaron en el estudio 1796 sujetos, que respondieron un formulario en línea con preguntas sociodemográficas y las escalas DASS-21 y EBEP. Se observó asociación entre religión y frecuencia de interacciones, la percepción de la duración del aislamiento social y los cambios en el estado emocional y el historial de cambios psicológicos. Se observó una menor prevalencia de síntomas relacionados con la depresión, la ansiedad y el estrés, y puntuaciones más altas de bienestar psicológico entre quienes profesaban una religión. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Religion , Mental Health , Physical Distancing , COVID-19 , Chi-Square Distribution , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Reproducibility of Results , Statistics as Topic , Analysis of Variance , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Faculty , Sociodemographic Factors , Psychological Well-Being
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 17: e392, 2023 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316372


A mix of guidance and mandated regulations during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic served to reduce the number of social contacts, to ensure distancing in public spaces, and to maintain the isolation of infected individuals. Individual variation in compliance to social distancing in Germany, relating to age, gender, or the presence of pre-existing health conditions, was examined using results from a total of 39 375 respondents to a web-based behavioral survey.Older people and females were more willing to engage in social distancing. Those with chronic conditions showed overall higher levels of compliance, but those with cystic fibrosis, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), and epilepsy showed less adherence to general social distancing measures but were significantly more likely to isolate in their homes. Behavioral differences partly lie in the nature of each condition, especially with those conditions likely to be exacerbated by COVID-19. Compliance differences for age and gender are largely in line with previous studies.

COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2 , Germany/epidemiology
BMC Infect Dis ; 23(1): 324, 2023 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314188


SARS-CoV-2 is primarily transmitted through person-to-person contacts. It is important to collect information on age-specific contact patterns because SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility, transmission, and morbidity vary by age. To reduce the risk of infection, social distancing measures have been implemented. Social contact data, which identify who has contact with whom especially by age and place are needed to identify high-risk groups and serve to inform the design of non-pharmaceutical interventions. We estimated and used negative binomial regression to compare the number of daily contacts during the first round (April-May 2020) of the Minnesota Social Contact Study, based on respondent's age, gender, race/ethnicity, region, and other demographic characteristics. We used information on the age and location of contacts to generate age-structured contact matrices. Finally, we compared the age-structured contact matrices during the stay-at-home order to pre-pandemic matrices. During the state-wide stay-home order, the mean daily number of contacts was 5.7. We found significant variation in contacts by age, gender, race, and region. Adults between 40 and 50 years had the highest number of contacts. The way race/ethnicity was coded influenced patterns between groups. Respondents living in Black households (which includes many White respondents living in inter-racial households with black family members) had 2.7 more contacts than respondents in White households; we did not find this same pattern when we focused on individual's reported race/ethnicity. Asian or Pacific Islander respondents or in API households had approximately the same number of contacts as respondents in White households. Respondents in Hispanic households had approximately two fewer contacts compared to White households, likewise Hispanic respondents had three fewer contacts than White respondents. Most contacts were with other individuals in the same age group. Compared to the pre-pandemic period, the biggest declines occurred in contacts between children, and contacts between those over 60 with those below 60.

COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Child , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Minnesota/epidemiology , Physical Distancing , Ethnicity
Front Public Health ; 11: 1142299, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320912


Background: The estimated lifetime risk of stroke was the highest in East Asia worldwide, especially in China. Antihypertensive therapy can significantly reduce stroke mortality. However, blood pressure control is poor. Medication adherence is a barrier as patients' out-of-pocket costs have risen. We aimed to take advantage of a free hypertension pharmacy intervention and quantified the impact on stroke mortality. Methods: A free pharmaceutical intervention program was implemented in Deqing, Zhejiang province in April 2018. Another non-pharmaceutical intervention, social distancing due to the pandemic of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), was also key to affecting stroke mortality. We retrospectively collected the routine surveillance data of stroke deaths from Huzhou Municipal Center for Disease Prevention and Control in 2013-2020 and obtained within-city mobility data from Baidu Migration in 2019-2020, then we quantified the effects of both pharmaceutical intervention and social distancing using Serfling regression model. Results: Compared to the predicted number, the actual number of stroke deaths was significantly lower by 10% (95% CI, 6-15%; p < 0.001) from April 2018 to December 2020 in Deqing. Specifically, there was a reduction of 19% (95% CI, 10-28%; p < 0.001) in 2018. Moreover, we observed a 5% (95% CI, -4 - 14%; p = 0.28) increase in stroke mortality due to the adverse effect of COVID-19 but it wasn't statistically significant. Conclusion: Free hypertension pharmacy program has great potential to prevent considerable stroke deaths. In the future, the free supply of low-cost, essential medications that target patients with hypertension at increased risk of stroke could be taken into account in formulating public health policies and guiding allocations of health care resources.

COVID-19 , Hypertension , Pharmacy , Stroke , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Physical Distancing , Retrospective Studies , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Stroke/prevention & control , Policy
BMC Psychol ; 11(1): 150, 2023 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320767


BACKGROUND: Covid-19 related studies report psychological impacts during home isolation and social distancing. Despite that, children and adolescents were able to adopt coping strategies that assisted in lowering severe levels of psychological disorders. This study aims to report on the psychosocial implications of social distancing and isolation on children of different nationalities who reside in Qatar, and to reveal their coping ways. METHODS: This is a cross sectional study with qualitative component at its end. The study is a part of a larger study that reported the results of a national screening for psychological disorders experienced by children and adolescents in Qatar. A bilingual online questionnaire included close-ended and one open-ended question to screen for psychological changes and identify coping strategies practiced by children and adolescents (7-18 years) during home-isolation and social distancing. The quantitative questionnaire had five main sections as follows: the sociodemographic characteristics, Spence Children's Anxiety Scale, Kutcher Adolescent Depression Scale, and Clinical Anger Scale). The last section screened for eight different coping strategies. The summative content analysis was used to analyze the open-ended question "What practices do you do at home that make you happy?". First, open coding was used (for identification), followed by the axial coding (for comparison), and lasted by sorting of coping strategies inductively. RESULTS: Six thousand six hundred and eight (6608) subjects participated between June 23 and July 18, 2020. The clinical outcomes of the study had varying prevalence and levels of severity, which ranged from mild to severe. Higher prevalence was noted for adjustment disorder 66.5% (n = 4396), and generalized anxiety 60% (n = 3858), in comparison to depression 40% (n = 2588). Additionally, participants reported using cognitive, spiritual, social, and physical coping strategies. Eight higher order themes were identified to reflect the coping strategies: playing with siblings or pets, gardening, cooking, practicing arts and crafts, and doing chores. Furthermore, Sociodemographic factors such as ethnicity, religion and family status played a considerable role in choosing the type of coping strategy. CONCLUSION: The uniqueness of the study is bringing the psychosocial implications of social distancing through the voices of children and adolescents, and coping strategies from their perspective. These results are of importance for educational and healthcare systems that are recommended to collaborate even in "normal" times to prepare these age categories for any future crises. The importance of daily lifestyle and family is highlighted as protectors, and crucial factors in emotional management.

COVID-19 , Humans , Adolescent , Child , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Physical Distancing , Patient Isolation , Qatar , Adaptation, Psychological
Int J Prison Health ; ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317223


PURPOSE: Prisons in Africa face unprecedented challenges during Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In July 2020, the first prison system case of COVID-19 was notified in Zimbabwe. Subsequently, the Zimbabwe Prisons and Correctional Services released their COVID-19 operational plan. The purpose of the study was to assess preparedness, prevention and control of COVID-19 in selected prisons in Zimbabwe. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: A multi-method situation assessment of COVID-19 preparedness was conducted across three Zimbabwean prisons. The World Health Organization checklist to evaluate preparedness, prevention and control of COVID-19 in prisons was administered to frontline health managers. Information garnered was further explored during site observation and in multi-stakeholder key informant interviews with policymakers, prison health directorate, frontline health-care professionals, officers in charge and non-governmental organizations (n = 26); focus group discussions with correctional officers (n = 18); and male/female prisoners (n = 36). Data was triangulated and analyzed using content thematic analysis. FINDINGS: Outdated infrastructure, severe congestion, interrupted water supply and inadequate hygiene and sanitation were conducive to ill-health and spread of disease. Health professionals had been well-trained regarding COVID-19 disease control measures. COVID-19 awareness among prisoners was generally adequate. There was no routine COVID-19 testing in place, beyond thermo scanning. Access to health care was good, but standards were hindered by inadequate medicines and personnel protective equipment supply. Isolation measures were compromised by accommodation capacity issues. Flow of prison entries constituted a transmission risk. Social distancing was impossible during meals and at night. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: This unique situation assessment of Zimbabwean prisons' preparedness and approach to tackling COVID-19 acknowledges state and prison efforts to protect prisoners and staff, despite infrastructural constraints and inadequate resourcing from government.

COVID-19 , Prisoners , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Humans , Male , Physical Distancing , Prisons , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 30(12): 33206-33228, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2289596


This paper presents the numerical results of particle propagation in open space, taking into account the temperature of the human body and the surface of the ground. And also, the settling of particles or droplets under the action of gravitational force and transport in the open air is taken into account, taking into account the temperature during the process of breathing and sneezing or coughing. The temperature of the body and the surface of the ground, different rates of particle emission from the mouth, such as breathing and coughing or sneezing, are numerically investigated. The effect of temperature, cross-inlet wind, and the velocity of particle ejection from a person's mouth on social distancing is being investigated using a numerical calculation. The variable temperature of the human body forms a thermal plume, which affects the increase in the trajectory of the particle propagation, taking into account the lateral air flow. The thermal plume affects the particles in the breathing zone and spreads the particles over long distances in the direction of the airflow. The result of this work shows that in open space, taking into account the temperature of the body and the surface of the ground, a 2-m social distance may be insufficient for the process of sneezing and social distance must be observed depending on the breathing mode.

Human Body , Wind , Humans , Temperature , Particle Size , Physical Distancing , Respiratory Aerosols and Droplets , Sneezing
Pensar Prát. (Online) ; 25Fev. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-2294060


Esta pesquisa tem por objetivo analisar o distanciamento social, o nível de atividade física e a alimentação de pessoas com síndrome de Down durante a pandemia de COVID-19. Participaram do estudo 24 pessoas por meio de um formulário eletrônico com 45 questões fechadas. Entre os resultados encontrados verificou-se que após uma média de 69,87 dias do início das medidas de afastamento e redução de convívio para controle da pandemia houve diminuição do nível de atividade física e da qualidade da alimentação, bem como o aumento do índice de massa corporal. Verificou-se que as pessoas com síndrome de Down desenvolveram, em distanciamento social, características que po-dem agravar um possível quadro de COVID-19 e a maioria tem contato com pessoas que não estão reduzindo a interação com outras pessoas. Concluiu-se que ações voltadas para as pessoas com síndrome de Down são urgentes para que essas não fiquem ainda mais expostas às consequências da pandemia (AU0.

This research aims to analyze the social distancing, the level of physical activity and the diet of people with Down syndrome, during the COVID-19 pandemic. 24 people participated in this study by means of an electronic form with 45 closed questions. Among the results found, it was found that after an average of 69.87 days of distancing, there was a decrease in the level of physical activity and quality of food, as well as an increase in the body mass index. It was found that people with Down syndrome have characteristics that can aggravate a possible COVID-19 condition and most have contact with people who are not in distancing. It was concluded that actions are urgently needed so that people with Down syndrome are not even more exposed in this pandemic moment (AU).

Esta investigación tiene como objetivo analizar el distancia-miento social, el nivel de actividad física y la dieta de las personas con síndrome de Down durante la pandemia de COVID-19. 24 personas par-ticiparon en este estudio a través de un formulario electrónico con 45 preguntas cerradas. Entre los resultados encontrados, se encontró que luego de un promedio de 69,87 días de distanciamiento social se presen-tó una disminución en el nivel de actividad física y la calidad de la alimen-tación, así como un aumento en el índice de masa corporal. Se encon-tró que las personas con síndrome de Down tienen características que pueden agravar una posible condición de COVID-19 y la mayoría tiene contacto con personas que no están distanciamiento social. Se concluyó que se necesitan acciones urgentes para que las personas con Síndrome de Down no estén aún más expuestos en este momento de pandemia (AU).

Humans , Exercise , Down Syndrome , Physical Distancing , COVID-19 , Body Mass Index , Food
South Med J ; 116(5): 383-389, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305656


OBJECTIVES: As coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) spread, many states implemented nonpharmaceutical interventions in the absence of effective therapies with varying degrees of success. Our aim was to evaluate restrictions comparing two regions of Georgia and their impact on outcomes as measured by confirmed illness and deaths. METHODS: Using The New York Times COVID-19 incidence data and mandate information from various web sites, we examined trends in cases and deaths using joinpoint analysis at the region and county level before and after the implementation of a mandate. RESULTS: We found that rates of cases and deaths showed the greatest decrease in acceleration after the simultaneous implementation of a statewide shelter-in-place for vulnerable populations combined with social distancing for businesses and limiting gatherings to <10 people. County-level shelters-in-place, business closures, limits on gatherings to <10, and mask mandates showed significant case rate decreases after a county implemented them. School closures had no consistent effect on either outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that protecting vulnerable populations, implementing social distancing, and mandating masks may be effective countermeasures to containment while mitigating the economic and psychosocial effects of strict shelters-in-place and business closures. In addition, states should consider allowing local municipalities the flexibility to enact nonpharmaceutical interventions that are more or less restrictive than the state-level mandates under some conditions in which the data indicate it is necessary to protect communities from disease or undue economic burden.

COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Public Health , Georgia/epidemiology , Physical Distancing , Incidence
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 6914, 2023 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2298576


As the COVID-19 situation changes because of emerging variants and updated vaccines, an elaborate mathematical model is essential in crafting proactive and effective control strategies. We propose a COVID-19 mathematical model considering variants, booster shots, waning, and antiviral drugs. We quantify the effects of social distancing in the Republic of Korea by estimating the reduction in transmission induced by government policies from February 26, 2021 to February 3, 2022. Simulations show that the next epidemic peak can be estimated by investigating the effects of waning immunity. This research emphasizes that booster vaccination should be administered right before the next epidemic wave, which follows the increasing waned population. Policymakers are recommended to monitor the waning population immunity using mathematical models or other predictive methods. Moreover, our simulations considering a new variant's transmissibility, severity, and vaccine evasion suggest intervention measures that can reduce the severity of COVID-19.

COVID-19 , Epidemics , Humans , Physical Distancing , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunization, Secondary , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Vaccination
BMC Womens Health ; 23(1): 189, 2023 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2296224


BACKGROUND: The effect of social distancing due to the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of pregnant women is of particular concern, given potential effects on physical health, family functioning, and child development. METHODS: Pregnant women were recruited for the "Implications of and Experiences Surrounding being Pregnant during the COVID-19 Pandemic" study at Woman's Hospital in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Participants enrolled at any point during their pregnancy and surveys were delivered weekly until the participant indicated that she had delivered her baby; a postpartum survey followed four weeks after delivery. This analysis includes 1037 participants with baseline, 596 with follow-up, and 302 with postpartum surveys. Questions on social distancing behaviors were asked at baseline and grouped based on whether they involved social distancing from work, friends and family, or public places. Symptoms of anxiety, stress, depression, and pregnancy-related anxiety were measured. Each type of social distancing was examined as a predictor of mental health using linear model with control for confounders. RESULTS: The study population was largely white (84.1%), married (81.8%), and educated (76.2% with a bachelor's or higher degree). Women who were younger, Black, unmarried, or had less education or income reported fewer social distancing behaviors. Mean anxiety score in the highest quartile of overall social distancing was 8.3 (SD 5.6), while in the lowest quartile it was 6.0 (SD 5.0) (p < 0.01), while perceived stress postpartum and pregnancy-related stress were not associated with social distancing. Associations were substantially diminished when controlled for baseline levels of anxiety symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Greater social distancing was associated with more anxiety symptoms, but worse mental health, particularly anxiety, may also have contributed to greater social distancing behaviors.

COVID-19 , Mental Health , Physical Distancing , Pregnant Women , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/psychology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pregnant Women/psychology , SARS-CoV-2
Prev Med ; 172: 107499, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2303780


Behavioural non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) (e.g., mask wearing, quarantine, restriction on gatherings, physical distancing) have been used to interrupt transmission of COVID-19 and to reduce the impacts of the pandemic. The aim of this scoping review was to document the efficacy of behavioural NPIs to positively influence COVID-19 outcomes. Following PRISMA guidelines, a systematic search was conducted of PubMed, ScienceDirect, Psych INFO, Medline, CINAHL and Scopus for studies published between January 2020 and February 2023. Seventy -seven studies were eligible to be included in the review. Majority of the studies were conducted in high-income countries, with fewer studies in low- or middle-income countries. School closure, mask wearing, and non-essential business closure and shelter-in-place orders were the most prevalent NPIs investigated. School closure and mask wearing reported high effectiveness while shelter-in-place orders reported less effectiveness. Shelter-in-place orders when used in conjunction with other measures, did not enhance effectiveness. Public event bans, physical distancing, handwashing, and travel restrictions were largely effective, while the effectiveness of gathering restrictions depended on the limitation on numbers. Early implementation was associated with a higher effectiveness in reducing COVID-19 cases and deaths, the use of behavioural NPIs in combinations was reported to yield more effective results. Moreover, behavioural NPIs were reported to be dependent on their consistent use and were difficult behaviours to maintain, highlighting the need for behavioural change. This review highlighted the effectiveness of behavioural NPIs to positively influence COVID-19 reduction outcomes. Further research to promote country- and context-specific documents that will enhance the effectiveness of behavioural NPIs.

COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Physical Distancing , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2