Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 2.037
Filter
1.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(6): e27917, 2021 06 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197909

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The United States of America has the highest global number of COVID-19 cases and deaths, which may be due in part to delays and inconsistencies in implementing public health and social measures (PHSMs). OBJECTIVE: In this descriptive analysis, we analyzed the epidemiological evidence for the impact of PHSMs on COVID-19 transmission in the United States and compared these data to those for 10 other countries of varying income levels, population sizes, and geographies. METHODS: We compared PHSM implementation timing and stringency against COVID-19 daily case counts in the United States and against those in Canada, China, Ethiopia, Japan, Kazakhstan, New Zealand, Singapore, South Korea, Vietnam, and Zimbabwe from January 1 to November 25, 2020. We descriptively analyzed the impact of border closures, contact tracing, household confinement, mandated face masks, quarantine and isolation, school closures, limited gatherings, and states of emergency on COVID-19 case counts. We also compared the relationship between global socioeconomic indicators and national pandemic trajectories across the 11 countries. PHSMs and case count data were derived from various surveillance systems, including the Health Intervention Tracking for COVID-19 database, the World Health Organization PHSM database, and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. RESULTS: Implementing a specific package of 4 PHSMs (quarantine and isolation, school closures, household confinement, and the limiting of social gatherings) early and stringently was observed to coincide with lower case counts and transmission durations in Vietnam, Zimbabwe, New Zealand, South Korea, Ethiopia, and Kazakhstan. In contrast, the United States implemented few PHSMs stringently or early and did not use this successful package. Across the 11 countries, national income positively correlated (r=0.624) with cumulative COVID-19 incidence. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that early implementation, consistent execution, adequate duration, and high adherence to PHSMs represent key factors of reducing the spread of COVID-19. Although national income may be related to COVID-19 progression, a country's wealth appears to be less important in controlling the pandemic and more important in taking rapid, centralized, and consistent public health action.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Public Health/legislation & jurisprudence , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Databases, Factual , Humans , Physical Distancing , Quarantine , Schools/organization & administration , United States/epidemiology , Workplace/organization & administration
2.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(3): e21606, 2021 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197869

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous studies on the impact of social distancing on COVID-19 mortality in the United States have predominantly examined this relationship at the national level and have not separated COVID-19 deaths in nursing homes from total COVID-19 deaths. This approach may obscure differences in social distancing behaviors by county in addition to the actual effectiveness of social distancing in preventing COVID-19 deaths. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the influence of county-level social distancing behavior on COVID-19 mortality (deaths per 100,000 people) across US counties over the period of the implementation of stay-at-home orders in most US states (March-May 2020). METHODS: Using social distancing data from tracked mobile phones in all US counties, we estimated the relationship between social distancing (average proportion of mobile phone usage outside of home between March and May 2020) and COVID-19 mortality (when the state in which the county is located reported its first confirmed case of COVID-19 and up to May 31, 2020) with a mixed-effects negative binomial model while distinguishing COVID-19 deaths in nursing homes from total COVID-19 deaths and accounting for social distancing- and COVID-19-related factors (including the period between the report of the first confirmed case of COVID-19 and May 31, 2020; population density; social vulnerability; and hospital resource availability). Results from the mixed-effects negative binomial model were then used to generate marginal effects at the mean, which helped separate the influence of social distancing on COVID-19 deaths from other covariates while calculating COVID-19 deaths per 100,000 people. RESULTS: We observed that a 1% increase in average mobile phone usage outside of home between March and May 2020 led to a significant increase in COVID-19 mortality by a factor of 1.18 (P<.001), while every 1% increase in the average proportion of mobile phone usage outside of home in February 2020 was found to significantly decrease COVID-19 mortality by a factor of 0.90 (P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: As stay-at-home orders have been lifted in many US states, continued adherence to other social distancing measures, such as avoiding large gatherings and maintaining physical distance in public, are key to preventing additional COVID-19 deaths in counties across the country.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , Physical Distancing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Models, Statistical , United States/epidemiology
4.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0270022, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154231

ABSTRACT

Capacity limitations are indispensable measures of social distancing in fighting COVID-19 and other pandemics. The paper at hand analyzes these restrictions from the viewpoint of fairness, understood as the possibility of equal access to the scarce resource. To this end, it employs the so-called El Farol Bar problem in conjunction with an adaptive learning approach. Particular emphasis is given to the distribution of information. Our results show that information is, indeed, central to the situation. Policy recommendations are derived.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Physical Distancing
5.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(9): e31278, 2021 Sep 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141349

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has arguably facilitated a shift toward increased sedentariness and reduced physical activity. Moreover, there is mounting evidence that mental health has also declined during the pandemic. However, it remains unknown to what extent social distancing (SD) behaviors and mental health have affected the physical activity levels of the general population. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of SD behaviors and prevailing mental health on the odds of being physically active during the early COVID-19 pandemic response. METHODS: A total of 4819 adults (2474/4819, 51.3%, female) from the US population with a median age of 46 (IQR 35-59) completed an online survey during the early pandemic response (April-June 2020). The survey included questions on adherence to 11 SD behaviors, and validated questionnaires which assessed self-reported physical activity, depression, anxiety, and mental well-being. Respondents were categorized into 2 physical activity groups: inactive (0-599 metabolic equivalent of task [MET]-minutes/week) and active (≥600 MET-minutes/week). A logistic generalized additive model (GAM) was used to determine which SD factors and mental health outcomes were associated with physical activity level. RESULTS: The GAM analysis revealed that wearing a facemask in public (odds ratio [OR] 1.46, 95% CI 1.14-1.79; P=.003), limiting the use of public transport (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.19-1.83; P=.001), and restricting travel outside the house (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.19-2.05; P=.002) were SD behaviors associated with higher odds of being more physically active. Conversely, avoiding physical activity outside the house was associated with higher odds of being inactive (OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.46-0.63; P<.001). Leaving the house more frequently, and a higher mental well-being were associated with increasing odds of being physically active (P<.001). Engaging with a moderate number of SD behaviors (3-7 total) was positively associated with physical activity, whereas a very high SD vigilance (ie, engaging with ≥10 total behaviors) decreased the odds of being active during the early pandemic response. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the findings of our study, we suggest that future public health messaging of SD guidelines should include (1) a clear portrayal of the benefits of regular exercise on mental health; and (2) a specific focus on how to be physically active outdoors in a COVID-safe manner.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Exercise/psychology , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology
6.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(8): e29205, 2021 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141332

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that various social determinants of health (SDOH) may have contributed to the disparities in COVID-19 incidence and mortality among minorities and underserved populations at the county or zip code level. OBJECTIVE: This analysis was carried out at a granular spatial resolution of census tracts to explore the spatial patterns and contextual SDOH associated with COVID-19 incidence from a Hispanic population mostly consisting of a Mexican American population living in Cameron County, Texas on the border of the United States and Mexico. We performed age-stratified analysis to identify different contributing SDOH and quantify their effects by age groups. METHODS: We included all reported COVID-19-positive cases confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction testing between March 18 (first case reported) and December 16, 2020, in Cameron County, Texas. Confirmed COVID-19 cases were aggregated to weekly counts by census tracts. We adopted a Bayesian spatiotemporal negative binomial model to investigate the COVID-19 incidence rate in relation to census tract demographics and SDOH obtained from the American Community Survey. Moreover, we investigated the impact of local mitigation policy on COVID-19 by creating the binary variable "shelter-in-place." The analysis was performed on all COVID-19-confirmed cases and age-stratified subgroups. RESULTS: Our analysis revealed that the relative incidence risk (RR) of COVID-19 was higher among census tracts with a higher percentage of single-parent households (RR=1.016, 95% posterior credible intervals [CIs] 1.005, 1.027) and a higher percentage of the population with limited English proficiency (RR=1.015, 95% CI 1.003, 1.028). Lower RR was associated with lower income (RR=0.972, 95% CI 0.953, 0.993) and the percentage of the population younger than 18 years (RR=0.976, 95% CI 0.959, 0.993). The most significant association was related to the "shelter-in-place" variable, where the incidence risk of COVID-19 was reduced by over 50%, comparing the time periods when the policy was present versus absent (RR=0.506, 95% CI 0.454, 0.563). Moreover, age-stratified analyses identified different significant contributing factors and a varying magnitude of the "shelter-in-place" effect. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, SDOH including social environment and local emergency measures were identified in relation to COVID-19 incidence risk at the census tract level in a highly disadvantaged population with limited health care access and a high prevalence of chronic conditions. Results from our analysis provide key knowledge to design efficient testing strategies and assist local public health departments in COVID-19 control, mitigation, and implementation of vaccine strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Social Determinants of Health , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Censuses , Female , Health Equity , Humans , Incidence , Male , Mexico/ethnology , Middle Aged , Minority Groups , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , Spatial Analysis , Texas/epidemiology , United States , Vulnerable Populations , Young Adult
7.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(10): e26840, 2021 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141319

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of COVID-19 in China occurred around the Chinese New Year (January 25, 2020), and infections decreased continuously afterward. General adoption of preventive measures during the Chinese New Year period was crucial in driving the decline. It is imperative to investigate preventive behaviors among Chinese university students, who could have spread COVID-19 when travelling home during the Chinese New Year break. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we investigated levels of COVID-19-related personal measures undertaken during the 7-day Chinese New Year holidays by university students in China, and associated COVID-19-related cognitive factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional anonymous web-based survey was conducted during the period from February 1 to 10, 2020. Data from 23,863 students (from 26 universities, 16 cities, 13 provincial-level regions) about personal measures (frequent face-mask wearing, frequent handwashing, frequent home staying, and an indicator that combined the 3 behaviors) were analyzed (overall response rate 70%). Multilevel multiple logistic regression analysis was performed. RESULTS: Only 28.0% of respondents (6684/23,863) had left home for >4 hours, and 49.3% (11,757/23,863) had never left home during the 7-day Chinese New Year period; 79.7% (19,026/23,863) always used face-masks in public areas. The frequency of handwashing with soap was relatively low (6424/23,863, 26.9% for >5 times/day); 72.4% (17,282/23,863) had frequently undertaken ≥2 of these 3 measures. COVID-19-related cognitive factors (perceptions on modes of transmission, permanent bodily damage, efficacy of personal or governmental preventive measures, nonavailability of vaccines and treatments) were significantly associated with preventive measures. Associations with frequent face-mask wearing were stronger than those with frequent home staying. CONCLUSIONS: University students had strong behavioral responses during the very early phase of the COVID-19 outbreak. Levels of personal prevention, especially frequent home staying and face-mask wearing, were high. Health promotion may modify cognitive factors. Some structural factors (eg, social distancing policy) might explain why the frequency of home staying was higher than that of handwashing. Other populations might have behaved similarly; however, such data were not available to us.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hand Disinfection , Humans , Male , Masks , Physical Distancing , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities
8.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(4): e20699, 2021 04 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141282

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Daily new COVID-19 cases from January to April 2020 demonstrate varying patterns of SARS-CoV-2 transmission across different geographical regions. Constant infection rates were observed in some countries, whereas China and South Korea had a very low number of daily new cases. In fact, China and South Korea successfully and quickly flattened their COVID-19 curve. To understand why this was the case, this paper investigated possible aerosol-forming patterns in the atmosphere and their relationship to the policy measures adopted by select countries. OBJECTIVE: The main research objective was to compare the outcomes of policies adopted by countries between January and April 2020. Policies included physical distancing measures that in some cases were associated with mask use and city disinfection. We investigated whether the type of social distancing framework adopted by some countries (ie, without mask use and city disinfection) led to the continual dissemination of SARS-CoV-2 (daily new cases) in the community during the study period. METHODS: We examined the policies used as a preventive framework for virus community transmission in some countries and compared them to the policies adopted by China and South Korea. Countries that used a policy of social distancing by 1-2 m were divided into two groups. The first group consisted of countries that implemented social distancing (1-2 m) only, and the second comprised China and South Korea, which implemented distancing with additional transmission/isolation measures using masks and city disinfection. Global daily case maps from Johns Hopkins University were used to provide time-series data for the analysis. RESULTS: The results showed that virus transmission was reduced due to policies affecting SARS-CoV-2 propagation over time. Remarkably, China and South Korea obtained substantially better results than other countries at the beginning of the epidemic due to their adoption of social distancing (1-2 m) with the additional use of masks and sanitization (city disinfection). These measures proved to be effective due to the atmosphere carrier potential of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirm that social distancing by 1-2 m with mask use and city disinfection yields positive outcomes. These strategies should be incorporated into prevention and control policies and be adopted both globally and by individuals as a method to fight the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Air Microbiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Policy , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Disinfection , Global Health , Humans , Masks , Physical Distancing , Policy Making , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Front Public Health ; 10: 958189, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142322

ABSTRACT

Background: Group-based physical activity is an important positive factor assisting the middle-aged to older population to be regularly physically active, especially inside a society with a large population and highly sociable environment. However, when group-based physical activity is restricted during a public health crisis such as the infectious disease pandemic, the influence of social distancing on physical activity among this vulnerable group needs to be recognized. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the influence of social distancing on physical activity among the middle-aged to older Chinese population at the national level. Methods: Data from a nationally representative social follow-up survey (China Family Panel Studies, CFPS) for 2018 and 2020 were used. Physical activity level in year 2018 was set as the baseline to be compared with that for each individual in 2020, when China implemented social distancing during the COVID-19. Chinese population with an age greater than 45 years were included, and three levels of physical activity were established. Logistic models were developed to identify sociodemographic characteristic that may be associated with a higher probability of worse PA behaviors during the social distancing. Results: Over 46% respondents could be described as being Physically Inactivity during 2018 and this proportion increased to 67.2% in 2020. Respondents who live in the Northeast or rural regions, having a spouse, being employed, having a low level of education, and being of low-income level showed a higher decrease in physical activity compared to other groups. However, individuals living with chronic diseases emerge as being more likely to maintain positive habits with respect to physical activity in this context. Conclusion: Social distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic has significantly influenced the extent of physical activity among middle-aged to older Chinese residents. This is especially true in respect to middle-aged and elderly people who are at increased risk of chronic diseases. Given this, there is a clear need to consider effective modalities for physical activity in the context of social distancing based on home quarantine and city lockdown. Furthermore, specific health-related strategies need to be considered in relation to different regions and populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Physical Distancing , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , China/epidemiology , Exercise , Surveys and Questionnaires , Chronic Disease
10.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277562, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140653

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although research shows that the Covid-19 pandemic has led to declines in mental health, the existing research has not identified the pathways through which this decline happens. AIMS: The current study identifies the distinct pathways through which COVID-induced stressors (i.e., social distancing, disease risk, and financial stressors) trigger mental distress and examines the causal impact of these stressors on mental distress. METHODS: We combined evidence of objective pandemic-related stressors collected at the county level (e.g., lack of social contact, infection rates, and unemployment rates) with self-reported survey data from over 11.5 million adult respondents in the United States collected daily for eight months. We used mediation analysis to examine the extent to which the objective stressors influenced mental health by influencing individual respondents' behavior and fears. RESULTS: County-level, day-to-day social distancing predicted significantly greater mental distress, both directly and indirectly through its effects on individual social contacts, worries about getting ill, and concerns about finances. Economic hardships were indirectly linked to increased mental distress by elevating people's concerns about their household's finances. Disease threats were both directly linked to mental distress and indirectly through its effects on individual worries about getting ill. Although one might expect that social distancing from people outside the home would have a greater influence on people who live alone, sub-analyses based on household composition do not support this expectation. CONCLUSION: This research provides evidence consistent with the thesis that the COVID-19 pandemic harmed the mental well-being of adults in the United States and identifies specific stressors associated with the pandemic that are responsible for increasing mental distress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Social Isolation , Physical Distancing
11.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0276970, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140622

ABSTRACT

Voluntary isolation is one of the most effective methods for individuals to help prevent the transmission of diseases such as COVID-19. Understanding why people leave their homes when advised not to do so and identifying what contextual factors predict this non-compliant behavior is essential for policymakers and public health officials. To provide insight on these factors, we collected data from 42,169 individuals across 16 countries. Participants responded to items inquiring about their socio-cultural environment, such as the adherence of fellow citizens, as well as their mental states, such as their level of loneliness and boredom. We trained random forest models to predict whether someone had left their home during a one week period during which they were asked to voluntarily isolate themselves. The analyses indicated that overall, an increase in the feeling of being caged leads to an increased probability of leaving home. In addition, an increased feeling of responsibility and an increased fear of getting infected decreased the probability of leaving home. The models predicted compliance behavior with between 54% and 91% accuracy within each country's sample. In addition, we modeled factors leading to risky behavior in the pandemic context. We observed an increased probability of visiting risky places as both the anticipated number of people and the importance of the activity increased. Conversely, the probability of visiting risky places increased as the perceived putative effectiveness of social distancing decreased. The variance explained in our models predicting risk ranged from < .01 to .54 by country. Together, our findings can inform behavioral interventions to increase adherence to lockdown recommendations in pandemic conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control , Machine Learning , Physical Distancing
12.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0275680, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140579

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding of the role social factors play in chronic pain is growing, with more adaptive and satisfying social relationships helping pain management. During the COVID-19 pandemic, social distancing measures facilitated a naturalistic study of how changes to social interaction affected chronic pain intensity. METHODS: In a cross-sectional correlational design, questionnaire data was collected over a 38-day period during the March 2020 COVID-19 lockdown, individuals with chronic pain were asked about their current pain experience as well as notable social factors which might relate to pain. RESULTS: Multiple regression analysis revealed social satisfaction significantly predicted pain experience, with a reduction in social participation during COVID-19 lockdowns increasing pain disability, and increased social satisfaction associated with decreasing pain intensity. CONCLUSIONS: While pain management often focuses on the functional aspects of pain alleviation, these findings suggest psychological aspects of socialising satisfaction also impact pain experience. Pain management strategies should consider ways to increase social satisfaction in individuals with chronic pain, perhaps by facilitating socialisation in the home using remote communication methods similar to those which became popular during the COVID-19 lockdown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chronic Pain , Humans , Physical Distancing , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control
13.
Eur Respir J ; 60(5)2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139117

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) social distancing measures led to a dramatic decline in non-COVID-19 respiratory virus infections, providing a unique opportunity to study their impact on annual forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) decline, episodes of temporary drop in lung function (TDLF) suggestive of infection and chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) in lung transplant recipients (LTRs). METHODS: All FEV1 values of LTRs transplanted between 2009 and April 2020 at the University Medical Center Groningen (Groningen, The Netherlands) were included. Annual FEV1 change was estimated with separate estimates for pre-social distancing (2009-2020) and the year with social distancing measures (2020-2021). Patients were grouped by individual TDLF frequency (frequent/infrequent). Respiratory virus circulation was derived from weekly hospital-wide respiratory virus infection rates. Effect modification by TDLF frequency and respiratory virus circulation was assessed. CLAD and TDLF rates were analysed over time. RESULTS: 479 LTRs (12 775 FEV1 values) were included. Pre-social distancing annual change in FEV1 was -114 (95% CI -133- -94) mL, while during social distancing FEV1 did not decline: 5 (95% CI -38-48) mL (difference pre-social distancing versus during social distancing: p<0.001). The frequent TDLF subgroup showed faster annual FEV1 decline compared with the infrequent TDLF subgroup (-150 (95% CI -181- -120) versus -90 (95% CI -115- -65) mL; p=0.003). During social distancing, we found significantly lower odds for any TDLF (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.33-0.85; p=0.008) and severe TDLF (OR 0.34, 0.16-0.71; p=0.005) as well as lower CLAD incidence (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.27-1.02; p=0.060). Effect modification by respiratory virus circulation indicated a significant association between TDLF/CLAD and respiratory viruses. CONCLUSIONS: During COVID-19 social distancing the strong reduction in respiratory virus circulation coincided with markedly less FEV1 decline, fewer episodes of TDLF and possibly less CLAD. Effect modification by respiratory virus circulation suggests an important role for respiratory viruses in lung function decline in LTRs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Transplantation , Viruses , Humans , Transplant Recipients , Physical Distancing , Follow-Up Studies , Lung
14.
Sci Data ; 9(1): 711, 2022 11 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133501

ABSTRACT

Social distancing has been widely-implemented as a public health measure during the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite widespread application of social distancing guidance, the feasibility of people adhering to such guidance varies in different settings, influenced by population density, the built environment and a range of socio-economic factors. Social distancing constraints however have only been identified and mapped for limited areas. Here, we present an ease of social distancing index, integrating metrics on urban form and population density derived from new multi-country building footprint datasets and gridded population estimates. The index dataset provides estimates of social distancing feasibility, mapped at high-resolution for urban areas across 50 countries in sub-Saharan Africa.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Physical Distancing , Humans , Feasibility Studies , Pandemics , Public Health
15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(30): 40424-40430, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115927

ABSTRACT

Currently, 2019-nCoV has spread to most countries of the world. Understanding the environmental factors that affect the spread of the disease COVID-19 infection is critical to stop the spread of the disease. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether population density is associated with the infection rate of the COVID-19. We collected data from official webpages of cities in China and in the USA. The data were organized on Excel spreadsheets for statistical analyses. We calculated the morbidity and population density of cities and regions in these two countries. We then examined the relationship between morbidity and other factors. Our analysis indicated that the population density in cities in Hubei province where the COVID-19 was severe was associated with a higher percentage of morbidity, with an r value of 0.62. Similarly, in the USA, the density of 51 states and territories is also associated with morbidity from COVID-19 with an r value of 0.55. In contrast, as a control group, there is no association between the morbidity and population density in 33 other regions of China, where the COVID-19 epidemic is well under control. Interestingly, our study also indicated that these associations were not influenced by the first case of COVID-19. The rate of morbidity and the number of days from the first case in the USA have no association, with an r value of - 0.1288. Population density is positively associated with the percentage of patients with COVID-19 infection in the population. Our data support the importance of such as social distancing and travel restriction in the prevention of COVID-19 spread.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , China/epidemiology , Humans , Physical Distancing , Population Density , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Work ; 73(3): 761-768, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2118690

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Social distancing was implemented worldwide due to the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. This impacted physical activity levels and increased the time spent in sedentary behaviors which may contributed to the emergence of increased musculoskeletal complaints. OBJECTIVE: To assess the consequences of social distancing for the increase in perceived pain of students and professors from higher education institutions. METHODS: One thousand two hundred and fifty-four participants responded to an online survey containing sociodemographic information and questions related to daily habits, physical activity profile, and musculoskeletal pain before and during the pandemic. Levels of concentration, nervousness, productivity, and visual fatigue were also assessed. The primary outcome was presence of perceived pain before and during the pandemic, dichotomized between those with and without increased pain during the pandemic. RESULTS: Perceived pain increased during the pandemic (p < 0.001) and was associated with females (p = 0.023; PR = 1.16; 95% CI = 1.02-1.32), income up to one minimum wage (p = 0.039; PR = 1.20; 95% CI = 1.01-1.42), no physical activity practice (p = 0.006; PR = 1.22; 95% CI = 1.06-1.40), long time in sedentary behavior (p = 0.013; PR = 3.07; 95% CI = 1.27-7.43), and electronic device usage for > 6 hours (p = 0.041; PR = 1.44; 95% CI = 1.02-2.06). Nervousness (p = 0.001) and visual fatigue (p = 0.001) increased, whereas concentration (p = 0.001) and productivity (p = 0.001) reduced during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced physical activity practice and increased time in sedentary behavior and electronic device usage during the pandemic were associated with increased musculoskeletal pain in students and professors from higher education institutions. Decreased concentration and productivity and increased nervousness and visual fatigue were also observed during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Asthenopia , COVID-19 , Musculoskeletal Pain , Female , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Physical Distancing , Musculoskeletal Pain/epidemiology , Students , Pain Perception
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116114

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes coronavirus disease (COVID-19), was first identified in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. As of 20 October 2020, the virus had infected 8,202,552 people, with 220,061 deaths in US, and in countries around the world, over 38 million people have become infected and over one million have died. The virus usually spreads via respiratory droplets from an infected person. At the time of compiling this paper, while countries around the world are still striving to find a "pharmaceutical intervention (PI)", including treatments and vaccines, they are left with only "non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs)", such as physical distancing, wearing masks, and maintaining personal hygiene. In the US, all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and five US territories issued mandatory stay-at-home orders between March 1 and 31 May 2020 to lower the risk of virus transmission. This study empirically examined how social connectedness and anxiety interact with shelter-in-place compliance and advisories during the pandemic. The study collected information from 494 adults using an online survey during April and July 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , Adult , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Physical Distancing , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Emergency Shelter , SARS-CoV-2 , Anxiety/epidemiology
18.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0276936, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098768

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Adherence to behavioral measures such as physical distancing are key to mitigating the effects of viral pandemics such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Adherence depends in part on people's perception of what others do (descriptive norms) or approve of (injunctive norms). This study examines the effects that exposure to images depicting people following or breaking physical distancing rules have on perceptions of descriptive and injunctive norms and subsequent adherence behavior. METHODS: An online between-subjects experiment (n = 315) was conducted, in which participants were exposed to a set of five photographs of different public spaces in which people either did or did not adhere to physical distancing rules (pre-registration: https://www.osf.io/uek2p). Participants' adherence behavior was measured using a triangulation of measures (incentivized online behavioral task, vignettes, intention measure). Perceptions of relevant social norms were also measured. RESULTS: Mann-Whitney tests showed no effects of condition on perceptions of descriptive and injunctive norms or on adherence behavior. Linear regressions showed that both component paths of the indirect effect (condition on norm perceptions, and norm perceptions on adherence behavior) were non-significant, hence mediation analyses were not conducted. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to images of people following (compared to breaking) physical distancing rules did not affect adherence to such rules or perceived norms. We surmise that a single exposure to such images, especially in the context of COVID-19, is insufficient to affect behavior. We therefore recommend performing a comparable experiment in which participants are exposed repeatedly to images showing people (non)adhering to a specific behavior in a particular context for a longer period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Norms , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Physical Distancing , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Intention
20.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 80(7): 712-717, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096893

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus 2 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2), generically called COVID-2019, classified as a pandemic by the World Health Organization, has made health practices around the world face unique challenges. Since then, physical distancing and measures such as confinement have been adopted by different governments to control human-to-human transmission. This distance affected the treatment of individuals with progressive diseases such as neuromuscular diseases (NMDs). OBJECTIVE: To identify how patients with NMDs performed the therapeutic routine during social distancing and confinement resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Application of a questionnaire prepared in the Google forms application, whose link for access and participation was sent by email or WhatssApp for family members and/or individuals with DNMs to respond. The questionnaire consisted of multiple-choice questions, divided into the following sections: personal data, treatments performed before and during the pandemic, activities performed during confinement, and characterization of motor function in activities of daily living comprising the period between September and October 2020. RESULTS: We observed a significant reduction in medical appointments for patients with NMDs. On the other hand, the results showed that most patients underwent motor and/or respiratory physiotherapy in person or by telemonitoring. The study participants reported spending more time playing indoors, and all pointed out motor changes during social distancing. CONCLUSION: There were changes in the therapeutic routine of patients with NMDs during the period of social distancing due to COVID-19.


ANTECEDENTES: A síndrome respiratória aguda grave por coronavírus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), genericamente chamada de COVID-2019, classificada como pandemia pela Organização Mundial da Saúde, tem feito as práticas de saúde em todo o mundo enfrentar desafios únicos. Desde então, o distanciamento físico e medidas como o confinamento foram adotadas por diferentes governos para controlar a transmissão inter-humana. Este distanciamento afetou o tratamento de indivíduos com doenças progressivas, como no caso das doenças neuromusculares (DNMs). OBJETIVO: Identificar como os pacientes com DNMs realizaram a rotina terapêutica durante o distanciamento social e confinamento decorrentes da pandemia de COVID-19. MéTODOS: Aplicação de um questionário elaborado no aplicativo Google forms, cujo link para acesso e participação foi enviado por e-mail ou WhatssApp para familiares e/ou indivíduos com DNMs responderem. O questionário consistiu em questões de múltipla escolha, dividido nas seguintes sessões: dados pessoais, tratamentos realizados antes e durante a pandemia, atividades realizadas durante o confinamento e caracterização das funções motoras nas atividades de vida diária, referente ao período de setembro a outubro de 2020. RESULTADOS: Observamos uma redução significativa nas consultas médicas dos pacientes com DNMs. Por outro lado, os resultados demonstraram que a maior parte dos pacientes realizou fisioterapia motora e/ou respiratória de modo presencial ou por telemonitoramento. Os participantes do estudo relataram gastar mais tempo com atividades dentro de casa, além de todos terem apontado mudanças motoras durante o distanciamento social. CONCLUSãO: Houve mudanças na rotina terapêutica de pacientes com DNM durante o período de distanciamento social da COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neuromuscular Diseases , Activities of Daily Living , Humans , Neuromuscular Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL