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2.
World J Pediatr ; 18(3): 149-159, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729410

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The majority of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptom presentations in adults and children appear to run their course within a couple of weeks. However, a subgroup of adults has started to emerge with effects lasting several months or more after initial infection, which raises questions about the long-term physical, mental and social health effects of COVID-19 in the pediatric population. The purpose of this review was to determine these impacts well into the second year of the pandemic. METHODS: A search was conducted using PubMed, Web of Science, Science Direct, and Cochrane between 11/1/2019 and 9/1/2021. Search inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) COVID-19 illness and symptoms in children; (2) severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in children; (3) English language; and (4) human studies only. RESULTS: The few studies that have documented long-term physical symptoms in children show that fatigue, difficulty in concentrating (brain fog), sleep disturbances, and sensory problems are the most reported outcomes. Most studies examining the impact of COVID-19 in pediatric populations have focused on initial clinical presentation, and symptoms, which are similar to those in adult populations. In addition, COVID-19 has had a moderate impact on children and adolescents' social environment, which may exacerbate current and future physiological, psychological, behavioral, and academic outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: There are limited studies reporting long physical symptoms of COVID-19 in the pediatric population. However, pediatric COVID-19 cases are underreported due to low rates of testing and symptomatic infection, which calls for more longitudinal studies. Children who have experienced COVID-19 illness should be monitored for long physiological, psychological, behavioral, and academic outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Fatigue/diagnosis , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/etiology , Humans , Pandemics , Physical Examination , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Nurs Educ ; 61(2): 107-110, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674922

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), in-person educational activities were suspended across the globe throughout 2020. In health care education, this required a swift, creative response to maintain the flow of trained clinicians into the workforce without compromising the integrity of core learning outcomes. Early during the pandemic, remote synchronous simulation emerged as a compelling focus of the overall strategy. METHOD: At one large health sciences university in the northwestern United States, family nurse practitioner faculty worked closely with the Simulation Operations team to plan, deliver, and assess a pilot tele-OSCE (objective structured clinical examination). RESULTS: In postevent debriefs and surveys, both standardized patients and students affirmed that the activity was generally safe, accessible, and high value. CONCLUSION: With appropriate planning, consensus building, and technology readiness assessment, tele-OSCEs can play a critical role in sustaining the flow of health care students into the workforce during a pandemic. [J Nurs Educ. 2022;61(2):107-110.].


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Clinical Competence , Educational Measurement , Humans , Physical Examination , SARS-CoV-2 , Universities
4.
JBI Evid Synth ; 19(11): 2929-2957, 2021 06 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662868

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This scoping review sought to establish the current state of knowledge regarding physical assessment skills taught globally in undergraduate nursing curricula. Explicitly, the review aimed to determine which skills are being taught via curricula and which skills are performed by students in clinical placements, as well as what physical assessment skills are being used by registered nurses in practice. INTRODUCTION: Nursing programs are expected to teach the physical assessment skills required for entry-level registered nurses to practice competently. The discrepancy lies in determining which skills are essential to teach entry-level nurses and which are unessential. INCLUSION CRITERIA: Studies that examined physical assessment skills taught to students in any undergraduate registered nursing program or used by registered nurses in practice were considered. Physical assessments included all techniques or skills taught in any year of a university or college teaching global registered nursing curricula. METHODS: Databases searched included MEDLINE (Ovid), CINAHL Complete (EBSCO), Scopus, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Ovid). Sources of unpublished studies included ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global, OpenGrey, Open Access Theses and Dissertations, and Google Scholar. Studies published in English between January 2008 and November 2019 were included. Two independent reviewers screened titles and abstracts. Studies meeting the inclusion criteria were imported into the Covidence systematic review manager. Extracted data were presented in a descriptive format, including characteristics of included studies and relevant key findings. RESULTS: Thirteen records were extracted for synthesis: one integrated review, one author reflection, one mixed methods study, and 10 quantitative studies. The sources represented a global context: the United States, New Zealand, Turkey, Australia, Norway, Korea, Italy, and one of unknown origin. Three studies examined physical assessment skills routinely taught in global nursing curricula. Three studies explored physical assessment skills routinely used by students during nursing programs. Seven studies examined which physical assessment skills were routinely performed by registered nurses in practice. In the studies, there were 98 to 122 physical assessment skills taught in global nursing programs. However, only 33 skills were routinely taught in curricula, and of those, only 20 were the same across all studies (core skills). Students in nursing programs routinely performed 30 physical assessment skills, and six of the 30 skills were the same across all studies (core skills). Of the six core skills routinely performed by students, five were also routinely taught in nursing curricula in the included studies. Registered nurses routinely performed 39 physical assessment skills, and 11 skills were the same across all studies (core skills). Ten of the physical assessment skills taught in curricula were routinely performed by registered nurses in practice. CONCLUSION: This scoping review provides insight into physical assessment skills taught in nursing curricula and used by registered nurses in practice. This knowledge is essential for curriculum revisions and planning as it provides insight on how to best meet the needs of future nursing students.


Subject(s)
Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate , Students, Nursing , Curriculum , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Physical Examination , United States
5.
Dermatol Online J ; 27(10)2021 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643785

ABSTRACT

Teledermatology has been widely adopted during the COVID-19 pandemic as virtual patient care promotes social distancing and decreases viral exposure risk. As teledermatology has become more prominent during this period, it is essential to assess whether virtual visits allow for adequate patient care. To assess perceptions of advantages and disadvantages of teledermatology, a survey was sent to academic dermatologists through the Association of Professors of Dermatology (APD) listserv. Of the physicians surveyed, 94% reported their departments had implemented teledermatology during the COVID-19 pandemic. The majority (64%) described teledermatology as an effective tool for patient care because of improved access to care, decreased risk of COVID-19 exposure, and convenience. Frequently cited limitations of teledermatology were image quality, technical difficulties, and inability to perform a comprehensive skin examination. Thirty-seven percent of respondents reported teledermatology as a contributor to their professional burnout. Although teledermatology has become more prevalent as a result of the pandemic, its role moving forward is uncertain given its limitations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Dermatologists , Dermatology/methods , Pandemics , Telemedicine , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Burnout, Professional/etiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Computer Terminals/standards , Dermatologists/psychology , Dermatologists/statistics & numerical data , Dermatology/trends , Female , Health Care Surveys , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Physical Examination , Sex Distribution , Telemedicine/trends , Uncertainty
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(1): e2142354, 2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604496

ABSTRACT

Importance: Deferred diabetic foot screening and delays in timely care of acute foot complications during the COVID-19 pandemic may have contributed to an increase in limb loss. Objective: To evaluate the association of the COVID-19 pandemic with diabetes-related care measures, foot complications, and amputation. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cohort study included all adult residents of Ontario, Canada, with diabetes and compared the rates of selected outcomes from January 1, 2020, to February 23, 2021, vs January 1, 2019, to February 23, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Comprehensive in-person diabetes care assessment, including foot examination; hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) measurement; emergency department visit or hospitalization for diabetic foot ulceration, osteomyelitis, or gangrene; lower extremity open or endovascular revascularization; minor (toe or partial-foot) amputation; and major (above-ankle) leg amputation. Rates and rate ratios (RRs) comparing 2020-2021 vs 2019-2020 for each measure were calculated for 10-week periods, anchored relative to onset of the pandemic on March 11, 2020 (11th week of 2020). Results: On March 11, 2020, the study included 1 488 605 adults with diabetes (median [IQR] age, 65 [55-74] years; 776 665 [52.2%] men), and on March 11, 2019, the study included 1 441 029 adults with diabetes (median [IQR] age, 65 [55-74] years; 751 459 [52.1%] men). After the onset of the pandemic, rates of major amputation in 2020-2021 decreased compared with 2019-2020 levels. The RR for the prepandemic period from January 1 to March 10 was 1.05 (95% CI, 0.88-1.25), with RRs in the pandemic periods ranging from 0.86 (95% CI, 0.72-1.03) in May 20 to July 28 to 0.95 (95% CI, 0.80-1.13) in October 7 to December 15. There were no consistent differences in demographic characteristics or comorbidities of patients undergoing amputation in the 2020-2021 vs 2019-2020 periods. Rates of comprehensive in-person diabetes care assessment and HbA1c measurement declined sharply and remained below 2019-2020 levels (eg, in-person assessment, March 11 to May 19: RR, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.28-0.28). The rates of emergency department visits (eg, March 11 to May 19: RR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.61-0.75), hospitalization (eg, March 11 to May 19: RR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.68-0.87), open revascularization (eg, March 11 to May 19: RR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.56-0.79), endovascular revascularization (March 11 to May 19: RR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.61-0.81), and minor amputation (March 11 to May 19: RR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.60-0.83) initially dropped but recovered to 2019-2020 levels over the study period. Conclusions and Relevance: In this population-based cohort study, disruptions in care related to the COVID-19 pandemic were not associated with excess leg amputations among people living with diabetes. As the pandemic ends, improved prevention and treatment of diabetic foot complications will be necessary to maintain these positive results.


Subject(s)
Amputation , COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Foot/surgery , Pandemics , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Diabetic Foot/epidemiology , Diabetic Foot/therapy , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Foot/pathology , Foot/surgery , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ontario/epidemiology , Physical Examination , SARS-CoV-2 , Vascular Surgical Procedures
7.
Dermatol Surg ; 48(2): 187-190, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595787

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Covid-19 Pandemic prompted the widespread implementation of telemedicine across healthcare. OBJECTIVE: To analyze telemedicine adoption by Mohs Micrographic surgeons (MMS) during the COVID-19 pandemic; to analyze the attitudes and perceived barriers to its long-term continuation by MMS practices. METHODS AND MATERIALS: An online multiple-choice survey was distributed to members of the American College of Mohs Surgeons. RESULTS: 86.1% of surveyed Mohs surgeons initiated telemedicine during the pandemic surge. The most common uses for telemedicine amongst respondents were post-surgery management (77.4%), "spot checks" (60.9%), and surgical consultations (59.1%). 73.1% report patients were receptive to telemedicine. 68.6% believe that telemedicine has a place in dermatologic surgery; 49.5% plan to incorporate telemedicine into their surgical practices long-term. Physical exam limitations, fitting telemedicine into practice workflow, and patient reception/patient training were viewed as the most significant barriers to long-term implementation. CONCLUSIONS: While valuable use cases for telemedicine were identified with most Mohs surgeon respondents feeling that telemedicine has a place in their practices, there is uncertainty in how to implement telemedicine into the dermatologic surgery practice workflow.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dermatology/statistics & numerical data , Mohs Surgery , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data , Attitude of Health Personnel , COVID-19/prevention & control , Dermatology/organization & administration , Humans , Patient Education as Topic , Patient Satisfaction , Physical Examination , Pilot Projects , Postoperative Care , Referral and Consultation , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Workflow
8.
Int J Med Educ ; 12: 274-299, 2021 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595676

ABSTRACT

Objectives:  To investigate the acceptability and the effectiveness of a virtual adaptation of a well-established, mandatory, community-based pre-clinical remote area health placement in which medical students learn about the social and environmental determinants of health in remote Australia; and make recommendations to guide the delivery of future learning experiences. Methods: A mixed-methods convergent design was used. All 99 students, 36 placement hosts and 10 staff were invited to complete an online survey and 27(27%), 12(33%) and 10(100%), respectively, contributed data.  Qualitative data were collected via semi-structured interviews from four students, four hosts and six staff. Survey data were analysed using descriptive statistics (frequency and percentage) and open-ended responses summarised to provide supporting contextual evidence. Interview transcripts were analysed and coded independently, then corroborated to identify and summarise common themes using thematic analysis. Results: Survey and interview data indicated that the virtual placement was acceptable to students and hosts and enabled students to achieve intended learning objectives.   Virtual activities enabled students and hosts to develop authentic, genuine interpersonal relationships, which in turn were facilitated when hosts and students had practiced videoconferencing beforehand with good high-speed internet connections via mobile devices. Pastoral care and access to IT support were essential. Conclusions: Virtual placements can be used in combination with and are an option for students and hosts who cannot attend/courses that cannot fund physical placements. Careful design and further research is required to ensure that virtual placements enable "head, heart and hands" learning and do not create/reinforce inequities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Physical Examination , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
Orthopedics ; 45(1): e7-e10, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542852

ABSTRACT

As coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) reached pandemic status, in-person orthopedic clinics across the United States were forced to close as many states adopted stay-at-home orders. Previously, the use of telemedicine in orthopedic practices was minimal for a variety of reasons, one being the inability to perform a physical examination in a specialty reliant on direct patient contact for diagnosis and treatment. A prospective cohort of 52 patients consented to participate in a novel virtual physical examination protocol during routine telemedicine visits at a large, tertiary orthopedic spine practice. Participants were asked to perform a series of carefully designed physical maneuvers using readily available household objects to allow their provider to better assess sensory and motor function in the tele-medicine setting. Patients were then asked to complete a short satisfaction survey. In total, 52 patients completed the physical examination and survey. Males and females were distributed evenly among the cohort at 50%. The mean age was 52.1±15.5 years. The average score for ease of understanding the examination (1=easiest, 5=hardest) was 1.1, while the average score for ease of performance was 1.5. Most participants (97.56%) felt their provider was better able to understand their condition using the virtual examination findings. This study highlights the utility of a virtual physical examination for assessment of spine patients in the telemedicine setting. Furthermore, this study illustrates the ease with which such an examination can be implemented and performed to improve patient evaluation and satisfaction. [Orthopedics. 2022;45(1):e7-e10.].


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Surgeons , Telemedicine , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Physical Examination , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
11.
Clin J Sport Med ; 32(1): e1-e6, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494074

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The American Medical Society for Sports Medicine (AMSSM) convened an expert panel to address the current evidence, knowledge gaps, and recommendations surrounding the COVID vaccination in athletes during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. The group held a series of meetings beginning in July 2021 and reviewed the available literature while using an iterative process and expert consensus to finalize this guidance statement. This document is intended to provide clinicians with suggestions on how to incorporate the COVID vaccination during the preparticipation physical examination for athletes in all levels of training and competition. The statement is not intended to address treatment, infection control principles, safety, ethical discussion, or public health issues related to SARS-CoV-2. The AMSSM task force acknowledges the clinical uncertainty, evolving public health objectives, and the limited data currently available to create this guidance statement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sports , Athletes , Clinical Decision-Making , Humans , Pandemics , Physical Examination , SARS-CoV-2 , Uncertainty , United States , Vaccination
12.
Int Forum Allergy Rhinol ; 12(5): 744-756, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1490687

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A substantial proportion of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) patients demonstrate olfactory and gustatory dysfunction (OGD). Self-reporting for OGD is widely used as a predictor of COVID-19. Although psychophysical assessment is currently under investigation in this role, the sensitivity of these screening tests for COVID-19 remains unclear. In this systematic review we assess the sensitivity of self-reporting and psychophysical tests for OGD. METHODS: A systematic search was performed on PubMed, EMBASE, and ClinicalTrials.gov from inception until February 16, 2021. Studies of suspected COVID-19 patients with reported smell or taste alterations were included. Data were pooled for meta-analysis. Sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) were reported in the outcomes. RESULTS: In the 50 included studies (42,902 patients), self-reported olfactory dysfunction showed a sensitivity of 43.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 37.8%-50.2%), a specificity of 91.8% (95% CI, 89.0%-93.9%), and a DOR of 8.74 (95% CI, 6.67-11.46) for predicting COVID-19 infection. Self-reported gustatory dysfunction yielded a sensitivity of 44.9% (95% CI, 36.4%-53.8%), a specificity of 91.5% (95% CI, 87.7%-94.3%), and a DOR of 8.83 (95% CI, 6.48-12.01). Olfactory psychophysical tests analysis revealed a sensitivity of 52.8% (95% CI, 25.5%-78.6%), a specificity of 88.0% (95% CI, 53.7%-97.9%), and a DOR of 8.18 (95% CI, 3.65-18.36). One study used an identification test for gustatory sensations assessment. CONCLUSION: Although demonstrating high specificity and DOR values, neither self-reported OGD nor unvalidated and limited psychophysical tests were sufficiently sensitive in screening for COVID-19. They were not suitable adjuncts in ruling out the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Smell , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Physical Examination , Self Report , Sensitivity and Specificity
13.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(12): e14988, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480123

ABSTRACT

AIMS: It is evident that the COVID-19 pandemic has affected the medical practice and training of residents. In this study, we evaluated the physical examination (PE) habits of residents working in a university hospital and how their PE practices did change during the pandemic. METHODS: This single-centre, non-interventional, cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in a university hospital using an online survey questionnaire between 5 and 20 October 2020. RESULTS: Of the 308 residents who participated in the study, 172 of them (55.8%) were female and the median age was 27 (IQR (3) = Q1 (29)-Q3 (26)). Amongst all, 263 participants (85.4%) declared that they have worked in the areas where suspected/confirmed COVID-19 patients were being served. A total of 262 (85%) residents stated that PE habits have changed generally during the pandemic. There was a significant difference with regards to the change in PE habits between those residents who have worked in the COVID-19 areas (n = 230, 87.5%) and those who have not (n = 32, 71.1%) (P = .004). PE habits of Internal Medicine Residents were changed more than others (P < .001). The main reason for the change in PE habits in general (77.9%) and during the examination of suspected/confirmed COVID-19 patients (89.7%) were "self-protection." Independent factors for limited PE in suspected/confirmed COVID-19 patients were found as "Avoiding performing physical examination to be exposed less/to protect (adjusted ORs = 13.067)," "relying on laboratory and radiological investigations during practice (adjusted ORs = 4.358)," and "not having a thought that reduced physical examination will render the diagnosis and course of COVID-19 (adjusted ORs = 2.244)." CONCLUSIONS: This study clearly demonstrated that the COVID-19 pandemic has had a serious impact on the PE habits of the residents while examining patients in general and with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Habits , Hospitals, University , Humans , Physical Examination , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
Pain ; 162(11): 2621-2624, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475890
15.
Med Teach ; 44(3): 300-308, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475585

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic presented an enormous and immediate challenge to assessing clinical skills in healthcare professionals. Many institutions were unable to deliver established face-to-face assessment methods such as Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs). Assessors needed to rapidly institute alternative assessment methods to ensure that candidates met the clinical competences required for progression. Using a systematic review, we aimed to evaluate the feasibility, and acceptability of remote methods of clinical skills assessment, including remote structured clinical assessments and the submission of video recordings. We searched for studies reporting on Remote Clinical Assessments or its variants in MEDLINE, Embase and The Cochrane library from 2000 to March 2021. Twenty eight studies were included in the review; 20 studies related to remote structured clinical examinations or OSCEs and 8 reported the use of video submissions. The participants of the different studies included medical students, nursing students, dental students and doctors in training. A variety of different online platforms were utilised including Zoom, Skype, webcams, and Adobe Connect online. The studies found that delivery of remote clinical assessments is possible and provides an alternative method of assessing many clinical skills, but most also acknowledge limitations and challenges. They are acceptable to both candidates and examiners, and where measured, show moderate agreement with on-site clinical assessments. Current evidence is based on studies with low methodological quality and for the most part, small sample sizes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Medical , Clinical Competence , Educational Measurement/methods , Humans , Pandemics , Physical Examination
16.
J Ultrasound Med ; 40(11): 2507-2512, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1473881
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(19)2021 09 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463626

ABSTRACT

The overall aim of this scoping review is to outline the current state of research on health literacy (HL) in the workplace: the primary objective is to clarify the concept of individual work-related HL; the secondary aims are to report on interventions that promote individual work-related HL and to present respective measurement instruments validated to date. A high level of work-related HL could support work ability and in the longer run employability. These topics are becoming increasingly important in current circumstances and in view of ongoing developments (e.g., digitalization and "new" work). A basic understanding and measurement of HL as an individual competence in the context of working life is necessary to develop future interventions to promote HL among people of working age. According to the participants, concept, and context (PCC) framework, we included articles on health literacy (concept) in the target group of people of working age in the workplace (population and context). Key information sources were the databases PubMed, CINAHL, PsycInfo, and PSYNDEX. A total of 30 articles were included. There are several terms for "health literacy in the workplace" (including individual work-related or occupational HL). The conceptualizations of the individual employee's competence covered all aspects of HL ("access", "understand", "appraise", and "apply" health information). The conceptualizations differed, among others, in the covered time horizon (referring either only to employees' current work situation or additionally to their employability in the lifespan) or whether they referred also to the viability of the respective company. Published interventions attempting to promote individual work-related HL seem mostly to be targeted at the promotion of mental HL. A variety of outcomes have been measured in intervention studies, while specific measurement instruments for individual work-related HL seem to be scarce. We recommend the development of country-specific instruments for the assessment of individual work-related health literacy and to measure mental and physical work-related health literacy.


Subject(s)
Health Literacy , Occupational Health , Humans , Mental Health , Physical Examination , Workplace
19.
J R Coll Physicians Edinb ; 51(3): 211-214, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1457788
20.
JBI Evid Synth ; 19(11): 2929-2957, 2021 06 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456517

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This scoping review sought to establish the current state of knowledge regarding physical assessment skills taught globally in undergraduate nursing curricula. Explicitly, the review aimed to determine which skills are being taught via curricula and which skills are performed by students in clinical placements, as well as what physical assessment skills are being used by registered nurses in practice. INTRODUCTION: Nursing programs are expected to teach the physical assessment skills required for entry-level registered nurses to practice competently. The discrepancy lies in determining which skills are essential to teach entry-level nurses and which are unessential. INCLUSION CRITERIA: Studies that examined physical assessment skills taught to students in any undergraduate registered nursing program or used by registered nurses in practice were considered. Physical assessments included all techniques or skills taught in any year of a university or college teaching global registered nursing curricula. METHODS: Databases searched included MEDLINE (Ovid), CINAHL Complete (EBSCO), Scopus, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Ovid). Sources of unpublished studies included ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global, OpenGrey, Open Access Theses and Dissertations, and Google Scholar. Studies published in English between January 2008 and November 2019 were included. Two independent reviewers screened titles and abstracts. Studies meeting the inclusion criteria were imported into the Covidence systematic review manager. Extracted data were presented in a descriptive format, including characteristics of included studies and relevant key findings. RESULTS: Thirteen records were extracted for synthesis: one integrated review, one author reflection, one mixed methods study, and 10 quantitative studies. The sources represented a global context: the United States, New Zealand, Turkey, Australia, Norway, Korea, Italy, and one of unknown origin. Three studies examined physical assessment skills routinely taught in global nursing curricula. Three studies explored physical assessment skills routinely used by students during nursing programs. Seven studies examined which physical assessment skills were routinely performed by registered nurses in practice. In the studies, there were 98 to 122 physical assessment skills taught in global nursing programs. However, only 33 skills were routinely taught in curricula, and of those, only 20 were the same across all studies (core skills). Students in nursing programs routinely performed 30 physical assessment skills, and six of the 30 skills were the same across all studies (core skills). Of the six core skills routinely performed by students, five were also routinely taught in nursing curricula in the included studies. Registered nurses routinely performed 39 physical assessment skills, and 11 skills were the same across all studies (core skills). Ten of the physical assessment skills taught in curricula were routinely performed by registered nurses in practice. CONCLUSION: This scoping review provides insight into physical assessment skills taught in nursing curricula and used by registered nurses in practice. This knowledge is essential for curriculum revisions and planning as it provides insight on how to best meet the needs of future nursing students.


Subject(s)
Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate , Students, Nursing , Curriculum , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Physical Examination , United States
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