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1.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD012924, 2021 08 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1813440

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Children and adolescents diagnosed with cancer are at high risk of experiencing severe side effects from cancer treatment, many of which are amenable to physical therapy. These side effects can negatively impact a child's quality of life and ability to participate in daily activities (e.g. play and attendance at school). Researchers have evaluated physical therapy interventions in children with cancer and childhood cancer survivors. However, factors such as small sample sizes, varying intervention protocols and differences in cancer types among trials make it difficult to draw conclusions about efficacy. OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this review was to evaluate the efficacy of physical therapy interventions - with a specific focus on symptom relief and compensation of therapy-related side effects - on the quality of life of children and adolescents diagnosed with cancer. Participants must be between the ages of 0 and 19 years at the time of the physical therapy intervention study. The intervention may occur prior to, during or following cancer treatment. The intervention must be compared to a control group of children receiving standard care, no physical therapy intervention or a comparison intervention. We have excluded general physical exercise studies where the primary aim was to improve physical fitness through aerobic, anaerobic, resistance exercise or combined physical exercise training regimens (i.e. combined aerobic and resistance exercise regimens). We have also intended to record the occurrence of any adverse effects resulting from physical therapy interventions. The secondary aims were to evaluate the efficacy of physical therapy on impairments of pain, peripheral neuropathy, balance, gait, functional abilities and mobility, motor function and performance, range of motion, strength and fatigue. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PEDro, ongoing trial registries, conference proceedings and the reference lists of relevant studies and reviews in March 2020. We also contacted oncology rehabilitation researchers working in paediatrics in March 2020 to identify additional studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: The review included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cross-over trials, and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) that compared the effects of physical therapy interventions to a control group, and involved children and adolescents diagnosed with cancer between the ages of 0 and 19 years at the time of the intervention. We excluded studies examining general physical exercise interventions where the primary aim was to improve physical fitness through aerobic exercise, resistance exercise or combined physical exercise training regimens (i.e. combined aerobic and resistance exercise regimens). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. MAIN RESULTS: We found no RCTs, cross-over trials or CCTs comparing the effects of physical therapy interventions with a focus on symptom relief and compensation of therapy-related side effects for children and adolescents between the ages of 0 and 19 years. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Results demonstrate that the evidence to date is inadequate to inform clinical practice. Recommendations for future research include the need for large-scale, high-quality designs that examine: (1) paediatric populations with same cancer types; (2) similar intervention protocols; (3) long-term outcomes; (4) physical therapy interventions (e.g. electrophysical modalities and sensory interventions); and (5) outcomes commonly impaired in children with cancer (e.g. peripheral neuropathy and gait deficits).


Subject(s)
Exercise , Neoplasms , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Exercise Therapy , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Neoplasms/therapy , Physical Fitness , Physical Therapy Modalities , Quality of Life , Young Adult
3.
Front Public Health ; 10: 857691, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776085

ABSTRACT

Objective: According to the seventh demographic census, China's elderly population reached 260 million, accounting for 18.7% of the total population, indicating that China is on the verge of transitioning from a relatively mild aging to a moderately aging society, and an aging society inevitably brings concerns about the elderly people's health. The purpose of this study was to better understand the effect of economic development on the physical fitness of the elderly people aged 60-69 in China during the first two decades of the twenty-first century, as well as to establish a correlation between China's gross domestic product (GDP) and changes in the elderly people's passing rate of national physical fitness standards. Methods: A linear regression analysis was performed on the data of GDP and the passing rate of national physical fitness standards of Chinese elderly people aged 60-69 in 2000, 2005, 2010, 2014, and 2020. Results: The passing rate of national physical fitness standards for elderly people aged 60-69 increased linearly (R 2 = 80.56%, p < 0.05), indicating that the physical fitness of the elderly tends to increase steadily with GDP expansion. Conclusions: Between 2000 and 2020, the annual improvement in the physical fitness of the elderly people in China is inextricably linked to rapid economic development. Increased financial investments in public sports services and a corresponding national fitness plan all contribute to an overall improvement in the physical fitness of the elderly people. This outcome is the effect of fiscal and policy coordination, which may represent a distinctive Chinese model and contribution to the global effort to manage and improve population physical fitness.


Subject(s)
Economic Development , Physical Fitness , Aged , China , Exercise , Humans , Middle Aged
4.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 6822385, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752939

ABSTRACT

We determined player-to-player distance, body-to-ball contact, and exercise intensity during three training modalities in various football populations. 213 participants were recruited, ranging from 9-year-old boys to young men and 11-year-old girls to middle-aged women. All groups were analysed with video-filming and GPS-based Polar Pro monitors during three types of football training for 20 min, i.e., COVID-19-modified training (CMT) with >2-metre player-to-player distance, small-sided games (SSG), and simulated match-play with normal rules (SMP), in randomised order. Time spent in a danger zone (1.5 m) per-percent-infected-player (DZ PPIP) ranged from 0.015 to 0.279% of playing time. DZ PPIP for SSG was higher (P < 0.05) than CMT and SMP. The average number of contacts (within 1.5 m) with a potentially infected player ranged from 12 to 73 contacts/hour. SSG had more (P < 0.05) contacts than CMT and SMP, with SMP having a higher (P < 0.05) number of contacts than CMT. Time/contact ranged from 0.87 to 3.00 seconds for the groups. No player-to-player and body-to-ball touches were registered for CMT. Total player-to-player contacts were 264% higher (P < 0.05) in SSG than SMP, ranging from 80 to 170 and 25 to 56 touches, respectively. In all groups, a greater total distance was covered during SMP compared to CMT (38-114%; P < 0.05). All groups performed more high-intensity running (33-54%; P < 0.05) and had higher heart rates during SMP compared to CMT. Different types of football training all appear to exert a minor COVID-19 infection risk; however, COVID-19-modified training may be safer than small-sided game training, but also match-play. In contrast, exercise intensity is lower during COVID-19-modified training than match-play.


Subject(s)
Athletic Performance/physiology , Athletic Performance/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , Football/physiology , Football/statistics & numerical data , Physical Fitness/physiology , Risk Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Denmark , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736898

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Childhood obesity is an important public health problem. Children with overweight or obesity often tend to show the pediatric inactivity triad components; these involve exercise deficit disorder, pediatric dynapenia, and physical illiteracy. The aim of the study was to examine the influence of an active video games (AVG) intervention combined with multicomponent exercise on muscular fitness, physical activity (PA), and motor skills in children with overweight or obesity. (2) Methods: A total of 29 (13 girls) children (10.07 ± 0.84 years) with overweight or obesity were randomly allocated in the intervention group (AVG group; n = 21) or in the control group (CG; n = 8). The intervention group performed a 5-month AVG training using the Xbox 360® with the Kinect, the Nintendo Wii®, dance mats, and the BKOOL® interactive cycling simulator, combined with multicomponent exercise, performing three sessions per week. The control group continued their daily activities without modification. Weight, PA using accelerometers, and motor competence using the Test of Gross Motor Development 3rd edition were measured. Muscular fitness was evaluated through the Counter Movement Jump height, maximal isometric strength of knee extension and handgrip strength, and lean mass using Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry. Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon signed rank tests were performed. The biserial correlation coefficients (r) were calculated. Spearman's correlation coefficients among PA, muscular fitness, and motor competence variables were also calculated. (3) Results: The AVG group significantly increased their knee extension maximal isometric strength (4.22 kg; p < 0.01), handgrip strength (1.93 kg; p < 0.01), and jump height (1.60 cm; p < 0.01), while the control group only increased the knee extension maximal isometric strength (3.15 kg; p < 0.01). The AVG group improved motor competence and light physical activity (p < 0.05) and decreased sedentary time (p < 0.05). Lean mass improved in both AVG group and CG (p < 0.05). Lastly, the percentage of improvement of motor skills positively correlated with the percentage of improvement in vigorous PA (r = 0.673; p = 0.003) and the percentage of improvement in CMJ (r = 0.466; p = 0.039). (4) Conclusions: A 5-month intervention combining AVG with multicomponent training seems to have positive effects on muscle fitness, motor competence, and PA in children with overweight or obesity.


Subject(s)
Pediatric Obesity , Video Games , Body Mass Index , Child , Exercise , Female , Hand Strength/physiology , Humans , Motor Skills , Overweight/therapy , Pediatric Obesity/therapy , Physical Fitness/physiology
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(4)2022 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715315

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was the evaluation of the hormonal response of wheelchair rugby participants under the half-year training cycle. The study sample included 11 members of the Polish national wheelchair rugby team with spinal cord injury at the cervical level, ranging in age from 21 to 41 years, body weight (72.2 ± 11.53 kg), and body height (182.3 ± 6.11 cm). The disabled individuals with spinal cord injury subjected to the study constitute a homogeneous group in terms of age, body height, weight, and injury level. The study was carried out at the beginning and at the end of a 6-month training period. In the first and second examination, measurements of the peak oxygen uptake (peakVO2) and blood biochemical analysis were performed (Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and concentration of creatinine (Cr), total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT), and cortisol (C)). A significant change was observed in the concentration of C in the Wheelchair Rugby players' blood between two research periods (p < 0.05 (ES:0.76)) and a correlation between the post-training change in FT/C concentration and the change in Cr concentration (r = -0.6014, p < 0.05). The 6-month training period did not result in overloads within the group of players. However, due to the significant loss of the capacity of the spinal cord injury (SCI) and the possibility of a life-threatening trend, the anabolic/catabolic status of the players should be monitored using blood biochemical indices.


Subject(s)
Football , Spinal Cord Injuries , Wheelchairs , Adult , Football/injuries , Humans , Physical Fitness/physiology , Young Adult
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(3)2022 01 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686723

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Physical activity and physical fitness play an important role in adolescence. Both are considered to be indicators of the current and future health status of young adults. The main objective of this article was to report the normative values of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A) and the International Fitness Scale (IFIS) instruments in Peruvian school adolescents. METHODS: A sample of 1229 participants (622 girls and 607 boys) aged between 12 and 17 years was used. The type of study was descriptive-comparative. All measures used were obtained by means of self-administered instruments. The PAQ-A was used to assess the level of physical activity and the IFIS to assess the self-perceived physical fitness level of the adolescents. RESULTS: It was observed that the PAQ-A questionnaire results obtained from the total sample was 2.34; significantly higher for boys (2.41) compared with girls (2.27). For the IFIS, the total score was 3.07, with boys obtaining 3.13 and girls 2.97. CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that there was a direct relationship between the level of PA and self-perceived PF in Peruvian adolescents. Furthermore, adolescent boys were more physically active than girls and they had a better self-perceived PF with the exception of flexibility. Finally, there was a higher weight category involved at the lower level of PA.


Subject(s)
Exercise , Physical Fitness , Adolescent , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Overweight , Peru , Schools , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(3)2022 02 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674636

ABSTRACT

Strategies to reduce the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have caused different behavioural modifications in all populations. Therefore, this study aimed to determine changes in active commuting, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), physical fitness, and sedentary time during the COVID-19 pandemic in Chilean parents. Eighty-six fathers (41.30 ± 6.82 years) and 294 mothers (40.68 ± 6.92 years) of children from different schools from Valparaíso, Chile, participated. Inclusion criteria were adults with schoolchildren who were resident in Chile during the research period. Convenience sampling was used as a non-probabilistic sampling technique. Respondents completed a self-reported online survey about active commuting, MVPA, self-perceived physical fitness, and sedentary time July-September 2020 during the first pandemic period. Comparisons between before and during the pandemic were performed using t-tests and covariance analysis (ANCOVA), establishing a significance level at p < 0.05. Most participants stayed at home during the pandemic, whereas active and passive commuting significantly decreased in both fathers and mothers (p < 0.001). MVPA and physical fitness scores reduced considerably (p < 0.05), while sedentary time significantly increased (p < 0.05), independent of the sex of parents and children's school type. Differences by age groups and the number of children were more heterogeneous, as younger parents showed a larger decrease in MVPA (p < 0.05) and physical fitness score (p < 0.05). Additionally, parents with one child showed a larger decrease in sedentary time (p < 0.05) than those with two or more children. The COVID-19 pandemic significantly affected healthy behaviours. Hence, health policies should promote more strategies to mitigate the long-term health effects of the pandemic on Chilean parents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Child , Chile/epidemiology , Exercise , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Physical Fitness , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sedentary Behavior
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(3)2022 Feb 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674635

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus II, levels of physical inactivity have become more severe and widespread than ever before. Physical inactivity is known to have a negative effect on the human body, but the extent to which reduced physical fitness has effected immune function before and after the current pandemic has not yet been uncovered. The aim of this study was to investigate the detraining effects of the COVID-19 confinement period on physical fitness, immunocytes, inflammatory cytokines, and proteins in various age groups. The participants of this study included sixty-four male adults who did not exercise during the pandemic, although they had exercised regularly before. Materials and Methods: Participants were classified by age group, which included the 20s group (20s'G, n = 14), 30s group (30s'G, n = 12), 40s group (40s'G, n = 12), 50s group (50s'G, n = 12), and 60s group (60s'G, n = 14). Results: Regarding body composition, muscle mass significantly decreased, whereas fat mass, fat percentage, and waist/hip ratio significantly increased in most groups. Cardiopulmonary endurance and strength significantly decreased in all groups, while muscle endurance and flexibility decreased in some groups compared to the pre-COVID-19 pandemic. This study confirmed the immunocytopenia and enhanced inflammation due to physical inactivity during the COVID-19 pandemic, and a greater detrimental decrease mainly after the age of 50. Conclusion: This study confirmed a decrease in physical fitness after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, characterized by an increase in fat mass and a decrease in muscle mass, thereby increasing cytokines and reducing immunocytes in the body. While social distancing is important during the pandemic, maintaining physical fitness should also be a top priority.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , C-Reactive Protein , Cytokines , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Physical Fitness , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(2)2022 Jan 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613788

ABSTRACT

Handgrip strength is an indirect indicator of physical fitness that is used in medical rehabilitation for its potential prognostic value. An increasing number of studies indicate that COVID-19 survivors experience impaired physical fitness for months following hospitalization. The aim of our study was to assess physical fitness indicator differences with another prevalent and hypoxia-driven disease, Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS). Our findings showed differences between post-COVID-19 and OSAS groups in cardiovascular responses, with post-COVID-19 patients exhibiting higher values for heart rate and in mean arterial blood pressure. Oxygen saturation (SpO2) was lower in post-COVID-19 patients during a six-minute walking test (6MWT), whereas the ΔSpO2 (the difference between the baseline to end of the 6MWT) was higher compared to OSAS patients. In patients of both groups, statistically significant correlations were detected between handgrip strength and distance during the 6MWT, anthropometric characteristics, and body composition parameters. In our study, COVID-19 survivors demonstrated a long-term reduction in muscle strength compared to OSAS patients. Lower handgrip strength has been independently associated with a prior COVID-19 hospitalization. The differences in muscle strength and oxygenation could be attributed to the abrupt onset of the disorder, which does not allow compensatory mechanisms to act effectively. Targeted rehabilitation focusing on such residual impairments may thus be indispensable within the setting of post-COVID-19 syndrome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sarcopenia , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , COVID-19/complications , Hand Strength , Humans , Hypoxia , Physical Fitness , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Front Public Health ; 9: 785679, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581104

ABSTRACT

Background: The negative impact of isolation, confinement, and physical (in)activity due to pandemic movement restriction has been well-documented over the past year, but less is known on the impact of these policies on children's physical fitness. This study was designed to determine the effects of pandemic movement restriction policies on the 24-hour movement behavior (24-HMB) of children, and whether any alterations are reflected in worsening physical fitness outcomes determined via direct testing. Methods: A two-phase, repeated-measures study with matched controls was conducted. Phase One: N = 62 schoolchildren (N = 31 female) completed self-assessment questionnaires on 24-HMB in October 2018 (pre-pandemic) and again in April 2020, at the height of movement restrictions enacted in response to the COVID-19 pandemic first wave. Phase Two: physical fitness of the original N = 62 children were determined directly pre- and post-isolation using an eight-component standardized fitness test battery and compared to N = 62 control children who were matched for age, sex, school region, and fitness centile scores. Results: During lockdown (total duration: 63 days), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) decreased by ~46 min per day, screen time demonstrated a significant interaction effect, such that kids reported spending less recreational screen time on weekends during lockdown compared to no restriction, and sleep duration was consistently lower (95% CI: -104.1 to -45.5 min, p < 0.001). No interaction effect was present for direct fitness indicators, including: hand tapping (reaction time), standing broad jump, polygon backward obstacle course (coordination), sit-ups, stand-and-reach, bent-arm hang, 60-m, and 600-m run (p ≥ 0.05) although significant main effects are noted for both sexes. Conclusion: Initial changes in 24-HMB did not translate to reductions in physical fitness per se, likely due to the high initial fitness levels of the children. Further work is needed to confirm whether longer or repeated movement restrictions exacerbate initial negative 24-HMB trends, especially for children who are less fit when restrictions are initiated, prolonged, or repeated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Male , Physical Fitness , Policy , SARS-CoV-2 , Screen Time , Sleep
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2021 12 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580795

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study examined the effects of a five-month lockdown due to COVID-19 pandemic on physical fitness parameters in urban adolescent male and female students. METHODS: Two hundred and ninety-three male and female students (age: 15.8 ± 0.3 years) who attended the fourth grade of the same high school during the years 2016-2017 (first control group), 2018-2019 (second control group) and 2020-2021 (lockdown group) took part in the present study. RESULTS: The percentage of overweight and obese students, according to body mass index, increased in males from 16.0% (2016-2017) and 14.6% (2018-2019), to 36.7% in 2020-2021 (p < 0.01), and in females from 8.6% (2016-2017) and 7.0% (2016-2017), to 25.6% in 2020-2021 (p < 0.01). Lower body fitness, as assessed by jumping, sprinting and agility tests, was impaired for both males and females after the lockdown compared with the 2016-2017 and 2018-2019 cohorts (vertical jumps: 10.4-15.1%; p < 0.01; d = 0.58-1.01, 30 m sprint: 3.7-4.9%; p < 0.01; d = 0.62-0.74; 505 agility test: from 6.1% to 9.4%; p < 0.01; d = 0.80-1.04). However, flexibility and performance in upper-body fitness tests (handgrip maximum isometric strength and medicine ball throws with different loads) was significantly reduced only in males after the lockdown (p < 0.05 to 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that a five-month lockdown negative influenced the physical fitness of adolescent students. Notably, greater reductions were observed in upper body strength, power and flexibility in males than in females. These results highlight the need to maintain strength, power and body mass during long periods of inactivity in adolescent populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Hand Strength , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Physical Fitness , SARS-CoV-2 , Students
14.
Front Immunol ; 12: 587146, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574304

ABSTRACT

The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a fast spreading virus leading to the development of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19). Severe and critical cases are characterized by damage to the respiratory system, endothelial inflammation, and multiple organ failure triggered by an excessive production of proinflammatory cytokines, culminating in the high number of deaths all over the world. Sedentarism induces worse, continuous, and progressive consequences to health. On the other hand, physical activity provides benefits to health and improves low-grade systemic inflammation. The aim of this review is to elucidate the effects of physical activity in physical fitness, immune defense, and its contribution to mitigate the severe inflammatory response mediated by SARS-CoV-2. Physical exercise is an effective therapeutic strategy to mitigate the consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this sense, studies have shown that acute physical exercise induces the production of myokines that are secreted in tissues and into the bloodstream, supporting its systemic modulatory effect. Therefore, maintaining physical activity influence balance the immune system and increases immune vigilance, and also might promote potent effects against the consequences of infectious diseases and chronic diseases associated with the development of severe forms of COVID-19. Protocols to maintain exercise practice are suggested and have been strongly established, such as home-based exercise (HBE) and outdoor-based exercise (OBE). In this regard, HBE might help to reduce levels of physical inactivity, bed rest, and sitting time, impacting on adherence to physical activity, promoting all the benefits related to exercise, and attracting patients in different stages of treatment for COVID-19. In parallel, OBE must improve health, but also prevent and mitigate COVID-19 severe outcomes in all populations. In conclusion, HBE or OBE models can be a potent strategy to mitigate the progress of infection, and a coadjutant therapy for COVID-19 at all ages and different chronic conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Exercise , Healthy Lifestyle , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sedentary Behavior , Animals , Home Care Services , Humans , Physical Fitness , Social Isolation
15.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0260332, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526704

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Traditional measures of muscular strength require in-person visits, making administration in large epidemiologic cohorts difficult. This has left gaps in the literature regarding relationships between strength and long-term health outcomes. The aim of this study was to test the feasibility and validity of a video-led, self-administered 30-second sit-to-stand (STS) test in a sub-cohort of the U.S.-based Cancer Prevention Study-3. METHODS: A video was created to guide participants through the STS test. Participants submitted self-reported scores (n = 1851), and optional video recordings of tests (n = 134). Two reviewers scored all video tests. Means and standard deviations (SD) were calculated for self-reported and video-observed scores. Mean differences (95% confidence intervals (CI)) and Spearman correlation coefficients between self-reported and observed scores were calculated, stratifying by demographic characteristics. RESULTS: Participants who uploaded a video reported 14.1 (SD = 3.5) stands, which was not significantly different from the number of stands achieved by the full cohort (13.9 (SD = 4.2), P-difference = 0.39). Self-reported and video-observed scores were highly correlated (ρ = 0.97, mean difference = 0.3, 95% CI = 0.1-0.5). There were no significant differences in correlations by sociodemographic factors (all P-differences ≥0.42). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the self-administered, video-guided STS test may be appropriate for participants of varying ages, body sizes, and activity levels, and is feasible for implementation within large, longitudinal studies. This video-guided test would also be useful for remote adaptation of the STS test during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Movement , Neurologic Examination/methods , Telemedicine/methods , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Physical Fitness , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sitting Position , Standing Position
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 10 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480755

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the COVID-19-related confinement and social restrictions affected the levels of physical fitness and academic achievement in primary school French children. A total of 206 primary school children (106 before confinements and 100 after restrictions) completed a test battery evaluating their anthropometric characteristics, body compositions, activity preferences, cognitive performances and physical fitness. The performance of the Standing Long Jump was better at T0 (169.9 ± 142.5 cm) compared to T1 (135.2 ± 31.4 cm) (p = 0.0367), and the Medicine Ball Throw performance declined from T0 to T1 (297.3 ± 81.1 cm vs. 249 ± 52 cm; p < 0.0001). Motor skills (26.9 ± 6.2 s vs. 30.9 ± 5.4 s; p < 0.0001), the shuttle-run test (stages completed), Maximal Aerobic Speed, and the estimated VO2max were lower at T1 compared to T0 (p < 0.0001). Executive functioning was found to be greater at T0 compared to T1 (p < 0.0001). Explicit liking or wanting for sedentary or physical activities did not change between T0 and T1. Both overall physical fitness and cognitive performance drastically declined among primary school French children with the COVID-19-related public health restrictions, which reinforces the need to urgently develop preventive strategies in anticipation of further mitigation measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Public Health , Child , Cognition , Humans , Physical Fitness , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools
17.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 8400241, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476886

ABSTRACT

This study is aimed at examining the feasibility and effectiveness of aerobic and resistance training (WeActive) and mindful exercise (WeMindful) interventions in improving physical activity (PA), psychological well-being (PWB), and subjective vitality among college students. Participants in this study were 77 college students who were randomly assigned to either the WeActive group (n = 43) or the WeMindful group (n = 28). The WeActive group attended two 30-minute aerobic and resistance training sessions per week, and the WeMindful group attended two 30-minute yoga and mindful exercise sessions per week for eight weeks. All participants completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, the World Health Organization-Five Well-Being Index, and the Subjective Vitality Scale before and after the intervention, as well as the Assessing Feasibility and Acceptability Questionnaire at the end of the intervention. The primary study outcome measures were PA, PWB, and subjective vitality. A repeated-measures ANCOVA indicated a significant main effect of time for total PA (F = 7.89, p = 0.006, η 2 = 0.049), vigorous PA (F = 5.36, p = 0.024, η 2 = 0.022), and walking (F = 7.34, p = 0.009, η 2 = 0.042) in both intervention groups. There was a significant interaction effect of time and group for PWB (F = 11.26, p = 0.001, η 2 = 0.022), where the WeActive group experienced a decrease in PWB scores while participants in the WeMindful group experienced an increase in PWB scores over time. There was a main effect of group for subjective vitality (F = 8.91, p = 0.007, η 2 = 0.088), indicating that the WeMindful group experienced a greater increase in subjective vitality than the WeActive group. Further, the participants in both groups indicated that the synchronized and asynchronized Zoom-based WeActive and WeMindful interventions were acceptable, appropriate, and feasible for participants. This study demonstrated that mindful exercise is effective in increasing PA, PWB, and subjective vitality while aerobic and resistance training may only be effective in increasing PA.


Subject(s)
Exercise/psychology , Internet-Based Intervention/statistics & numerical data , Mental Health , Physical Fitness/psychology , Students/psychology , Yoga/psychology , Adult , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(19)2021 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444207

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the effects of online physical education classes, using Tabata training, on middle school students' physical fitness. Fifty-four adolescents were randomly assigned to either the asynchronous online class group (AOCG, n = 24, age: 15.8 ± 0.4 years) or the synchronous online class group (SOCG, n = 24 age: 15.9 ± 0.3 years). The online physical education class lasted two days per week for 10 weeks. Recorded video lectures were conducted for the AOCG, and Tabata training for the SOCG, as real-time lecture methods. Baseline and post-online physical education class measures included muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, balance, and cardiorespiratory fitness tests. The results showed that the synchronous online physical education class had a positive effect on the improvement of muscle mass, ankle strength (dorsiflexion), hip strength (abduction, flexion, extension, and external rotation), knee strength (extension and flexion), and balance (Y-balance test) in adolescents. These findings suggest that the physical fitness of adolescents can be sufficiently improved through appropriate online physical education class methods. Further research should focus on developing and evaluating different types of exercises for synchronous online physical education classes as a precautionary measure for the second wave of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Physical Education and Training , Adolescent , Humans , Muscle Strength , Physical Fitness , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 46(1): 95-99, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402044

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to examine the effects of exercise training through telerehabilitation applied during COVID-19 isolation period on overweight and obese individuals on physical fitness and quality of life. SUBJECTS/METHODS: In our study, 41 participants between the ages of 18-65 years and whose BMI values were 25 kg/m2 and above were randomly divided into two groups as telerehabilitation group (n: 21) and control group (n: 20). Exercise training applied to the telerehabilitation group with remote live connection included warm-up exercises, trunk stabilization exercises and breathing exercises under the supervision of a physiotherapist for 6 weeks, 3 days in a week. The control group was only informed about the importance of exercise for one session and evaluated at baseline and after 6 weeks. The physical fitness levels of individuals was assessed by Senior Fitness Test protocol and quality of life by Short Form-36. RESULTS: As a result of the study, statistically significant improvements were obtained in all parameters of physical fitness, quality of life in the telerehabilitation group (p < 0.05). In the difference values of the two groups, all parameters of physical fitness and quality of life were observed that there were statistically significant differences in favor of telerehabilitation group (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: As a result, it was found that exercise training applied through telerehabilitation during the COVID-19 pandemic process was an effective, safe and viable approach in overweight and obese individuals. In the future, studies investigating the long-term effectiveness of telerehabilitation in this population are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/rehabilitation , Exercise Therapy/methods , Obesity/rehabilitation , Overweight/rehabilitation , Telerehabilitation/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Body Mass Index , Exercise , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Physical Fitness , Quality of Life , Social Isolation
20.
J Sch Health ; 91(11): 948-958, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398494

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this systematic review is to summarize what is known about health-related physical fitness (cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength and endurance, flexibility, and body composition) and physical activity among homeschool youth. Findings from this study have implications for all American youth as they return to public school from mandated schooling at home during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Database engines identified over 22,000 articles with 82 abstracts screened for further review. Of these, 18 full-text articles were additionally screened with 10 cross-sectional articles included in the final review. Articles were condensed into a standard review template and findings were summarized by topic. RESULTS: Cardiovascular endurance findings were inconsistent. Abdominal, but not upper body, muscular strength and endurance were significantly lower in homeschool students. There were no reports on flexibility. Body composition was generally healthy in homeschool students and no differences in physical activity were seen. CONCLUSIONS: Research on health-related physical fitness in homeschool youth is limited and descriptive. Further testing and potential remediation may be needed for cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength and endurance, and flexibility in homeschool youth and their public school counterparts as they return to campus. However, existing literature supports healthy body composition and physical activity in this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Physical Endurance , Physical Fitness , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools
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