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1.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 251, 2022 03 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759697

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a global pandemic with poorly understood long-term consequences. Determining the trajectory of recovery following COVID-19 hospitalization is critical for prioritizing care, allocating resources, facilitating prognosis, and informing rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate recovery following COVID-19 hospitalization. METHODS: Participants age 18 years or older who were hospitalized for ≥24 h due to COVID-19 completed phone/video call virtual assessments (including the 10-time chair rise test) and survey forms at three time points (2-6, 12, and 18 weeks) after hospital discharge. Univariate logistic and linear regression models assessed the associations of the outcomes with primary predictors (categorical age, sex, race/ethnicity group, and categorical pre-hospitalization frailty) at baseline; the same were used to assess differences in change from week 2-6 (continuous outcomes) or outcome persistence/worsening (categorical) at last contact. RESULTS: One hundred nine adults (age 53.0 [standard deviation 13.1]; 53% female) participated including 43 (39%) age 60 or greater; 59% identified as an ethnic and/or racial minority. Over 18 weeks, the mean time to complete the 10-time chair rise test decreased (i.e., improved) by 6.0 s (95% CI: 4.1, 7.9 s; p < 0.001); this change did not differ by pre-hospital frailty, race/ethnicity group, or sex, but those age ≥ 60 had greater improvement. At weeks 2-6, 67% of participants reported a worse Clinical Frailty Scale category compared to their pre-hospitalization level, whereas 42% reported a worse frailty score at 18 weeks. Participants who did not return to pre-hospitalization levels were more likely to be female, younger, and report a pre-hospitalization category of 'very fit' or 'well'. CONCLUSIONS: We found that functional performance improved from weeks 2-6 to 18 weeks of follow-up; that incident clinical frailty developed in some individuals following COVID-19; and that age, sex, race/ethnicity, and pre-hospitalization frailty status may impact recovery from COVID-19. Notably, individuals age 60 and older were more likely than those under age 45 years to return to their pre-hospitalization status and to make greater improvements in functional performance. The results of the present study provide insight into the trajectory of recovery among a representative cohort of individuals hospitalized due to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Telemedicine , Female , Frailty/diagnosis , Frailty/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Physical Functional Performance , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 Feb 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715346

ABSTRACT

This prospective cohort study aimed to evaluate whether COVID-19 lockdown caused biological, psychological, and/or physical performance variations in footballers. We compared the 2018/2019 and 2019/2020 seasons evaluating the plasma volume, hematological parameters, iron/ferritin, creatine kinase, vitamin D, cortisol, testosterone, and physiological state of players of the Italian football major league (Serie A). Measurements were performed before the preparatory period (T0), at the beginning (T1) and in the middle (T2) of the championship, and in March (T3) and at the end of season (T4). The results showed that in the 2019/2020 season affected by the lockdown, the weight, BMI, and fat mass percentage were higher than in the previous season. Hematocrit, hemoglobin, red blood cells, and ferritin decreased during both seasons, more significantly than in the regular season. During both seasons, creatine kinase increased from T2 whilst iron concentrations decreased in T3. Testosterone increased in both seasons from T0 to T3 and returned to initial levels at T4; cortisol increased in T2 and T3 during the 2018/2019 season but not during the COVID-19 season. Physical performance tests revealed differences associated with lockdown. Thus, although from a medical point of view, none of the evaluated changes between the two seasons were clinically relevant, training at home during lockdown did not allow the players to maintain the jumping power levels typical of a competitive period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Football , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Physical Functional Performance , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0262830, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690735

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: During the course of the COVID-19 pandemic, there have been suggestions that various techniques could be employed to improve the fit and, therefore, the effectiveness of face masks. It is well recognized that improving fit tends to improve mask effectiveness, but whether these fit modifiers are reliable remains unexplored. In this study, we assess a range of common "fit hacks" to determine their ability to improve mask performance. METHODS: Between July and September 2020, qualitative fit testing was performed in an indoor living space. We used quantitative fit testing to assess the fit of both surgical masks and KN95 masks, with and without 'fit hacks', on four participants. Seven fit hacks were evaluated to assess impact on fit. Additionally, one participant applied each fit hack multiple times to assess how reliable hacks were when reapplied. A convenience of four participants took part in the study, three females and one male with a head circumference range of 54 to 60 centimetres. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The use of pantyhose, tape, and rubber bands were effective for most participants. A pantyhose overlayer was observed to be the most effective hack. High degrees of variation were noted between participants. However, little variation was noted within participants, with hacks generally showing similar benefit each time they were applied on a single participant. An inspection of the fit hacks once applied showed that individual facial features may have a significant impact on fit, especially the nose bridge. CONCLUSIONS: Fit hacks can be used to effectively improve the fit of surgical and KN95 masks, enhancing the protection provided to the wearer. However, many of the most effective hacks are very uncomfortable and unlikely to be tolerated for extended periods of time. The development of effective fit-improvement solutions remains a critical issue in need of further development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , N95 Respirators/trends , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Humans , Male , Masks/trends , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/trends , Physical Functional Performance , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(3)2022 Jan 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625795

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic requires wearing face masks in many areas of our daily life; hence, the potential side effects of mask use are discussed. Therefore, the present study explores whether wearing a medical face mask (MedMask) affects physical working capacity (PWC). Secondary, the influence of a filtering facepiece mask with exhalation valve class 2 (FFP2exhal) and a cotton fabric mask (community mask) on PWC was also investigated. Furthermore, corresponding physiological and subjective responses when wearing face masks as well as a potential moderating role of subjects' individual cardiorespiratory fitness and sex on face mask effects were analyzed. Thirty-nine subjects (20 males, 19 females) with different cardiorespiratory fitness levels participated in a standardized submaximal bicycle ergometer protocol using either a MedMask, FFP2exhal, community mask, or no mask (control) on four days, in randomized order. PWC130 and PWC150 as the mechanical load at the heart rates of 130 and 150 beats per minute were measured as well as transcutaneous carbon dioxide partial pressure, saturation of peripheral capillary oxygen, breathing frequency, blood pressure, perceived respiratory effort, and physical exhaustion. Using the MedMask did not lead to changes in PWC or physiological response compared to control. Neither appeared changes exceeding normal ranges when the FFP2exhal or community mask was worn. Perceived respiratory effort was up to one point higher (zero-to-ten Likert scale) when using face masks (p < 0.05) compared to control. Sex and cardiorespiratory fitness were not factors influencing the effects of the masks. The results of the present study provide reason to believe that wearing face masks for infection prevention during the COVID-19 pandemic does not pose relevant additional physical demands on the user although some more respiratory effort is required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Bicycling , Female , Humans , Male , Masks , Physical Functional Performance , SARS-CoV-2
5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(1): e2146168, 2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1620079

ABSTRACT

Importance: The association of COVID-19 not requiring hospitalization with functional mobility in community-dwelling adults above and beyond the impact of the pandemic control measures implemented in 2020 remains to be elucidated. Objective: To evaluate the association between a COVID-19 diagnosis and change in mobility and physical function of adults in Canada aged 50 years or older during the initial pandemic lockdown. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cohort study used data from the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA) COVID-19 study. This study was launched on April 15, 2020, and the exit questionnaires were completed between September and December 2020. Prepandemic data from the first CLSA follow-up (2015-2018) were also used. Respondents included middle-aged and older community-dwelling participants residing in Canadian provinces. Data were analyzed from February to May 2021. Exposures: The assessment for self-reported COVID-19 status was adapted from the Public Health Agency of Canada and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention case definition available at the time of data collection; cases were classified as confirmed or probable, suspected, or non-COVID-19. Main Outcomes and Measures: Changes in mobility since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic were assessed using global rating of change in mobility scales at the COVID-19 exit questionnaire. Participant-reported new onset of difficulty in 3 physical function tasks was also examined. Results: Among 51 338 participants at baseline, 21 491 participants (41.9%) were 65 years or older and 26 155 participants (51.0%) were women and 25 183 (49.1%) were men. Of 2748 individuals with confirmed or probable or suspected COVID-19, 113 (94.2%) were not hospitalized. Individuals with confirmed or probable COVID-19 had higher odds of worsening mobility in terms of ability to engage in household activity (odds ratio [OR], 1.89; 95% CI, 1.11-3.22), physical activity (OR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.32-2.76), and standing up after sitting in a chair (OR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.06-5.11) compared with adults without COVID-19 during the same pandemic time period. Similar results were found for suspected COVID-19 status (eg, household activity: OR, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.82-2.41). Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study among older adults in Canada found that receiving a COVID-19 diagnosis was significantly associated with worse mobility and functioning outcomes even in the absence of hospitalization. These findings suggest that interventions may be needed for individuals with mild to moderate COVID-19 who do not require hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Exercise , Geriatric Assessment , Independent Living , Mobility Limitation , Pandemics , Physical Functional Performance , Activities of Daily Living , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 Testing , Canada , Cohort Studies , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Movement , Odds Ratio , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report
6.
Eur J Intern Med ; 95: 50-60, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1531203

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: For a better understanding of the factors underlying the Post-Acute COVID Syndrome, we studied the relationship between symptoms and functional alterations in COVID-19 patients 10 months after hospitalization. METHODS: One-hundred-one patients hospitalized between March 1st and June 30th 2020 participated in a follow-up visit for an assessment of clinical history, comorbidities, lung function, physical capacity and symptoms, including the SGRQ for health-related quality of life, PHQ-9-D for depression, and SOMS-2 J for somatoform disorders. Data were analyzed by univariate comparisons and multiple logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: Median age was 60 years, 42% were female, 76% had at least one comorbidity, the median length of the hospital stay was 8 days, 19% had been on the ICU. The most prevalent symptoms included shortness of breath (49%), fatigue (49%) and cognitive impairment (39%). Signs of major depression (PHQ-9-D ≥ 10) occurred in 28%/2% (p < 0.05) of patients with/without self-reported cognitive impairment, with median total SGRQ score being 25.4/5.3 (p < 0.05). There were associations between shortness of breath and BMI, SGRQ and hemoglobin levels; between fatigue, SGRQ and PHQ-9-D; and between cognitive impairment and PHQ-9-D (p < 0.05 each) but not with lung function or physical capacity. Characteristics of the acute disease were not related to symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The findings demonstrate that 10 months after discharge from a hospital stay due to COVID-19, the percentages of patients with symptoms were high. Symptoms showed a consistent pattern but could not be attributed to altered lung function or physical capacity. Our results suggest a role for alternative etiologies including psychosocial factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Physical Functional Performance , Psychosocial Functioning , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Quality of Life
7.
J Nutr Health Aging ; 26(1): 52-56, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1530435

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, face-to-face assessments were limited. Fortunately, older adults have access to web-technology (60%). Thus, we aimed to explore if assessing physical performance remotely is as reliable and valid as in person. At the end of the first lockdown, 15 older adults agreed to perform two similar evaluations in remote and face-to-face conditions. Functional capacities [5-repetitions Sit-to-Stand (STS); unipodal balance, 4-m walking speed (normal (NWS); fast (FWS)), 3-m Timed-Up and Go (normal (nTUG); fast (fTUG))] and muscle power and endurance were assessed. Fast walking speed was moderately reliable. Unipodal balance, NWS and nTUG were highly reliable (ICC>0.7). fTUG, STS, muscle endurance and power were extremely reliable (ICC>0.9). For absolute reliability, SEM varied from 15.54 to 5.14%. Finally, the MDC varied from 43.07 to 14.21%. Assessing functional capacities and muscle function remotely is as reliable and valid as a face-to-face assessment and should be considered as a clinical practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Internet , Physical Functional Performance , Postural Balance , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Videoconferencing
8.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 151: w30072, 2021 10 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505652

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) continues to affect many countries globally, with the long-term impact of the disease now being recognized. According to the latest research, some of the affected individuals continue to experience functional limitations, reduced physical performance and impaired health-related quality of life (HRQoL) even after eight months. This prospective cohort study aimed to describe the longer-term recovery of physical performance and HRQoL in COVID-19 survivors over one year. METHOD: A cohort (n = 43; 32-84 years old) hospitalized with COVID-19 between March and June 2020 was followed over one year and assessed at three time points: hospital discharge, 3 months and 12 months post-admission. Participants experienced mild (10/43) to critical (6/43) pneumonia and stayed in the hospital for a median of 10 days (IQR 9). Participants were assessed for physical performance (six-minute walk test), HRQoL (EQ-5D-5L), COVID-19 related limitations in functionality (PCFS), hospital-related anxiety and depression (HADS-A/-D), lung function (FEV1, FVC) and dyspnea during activity (mMRC). All assessments were conducted by physiotherapists trained in cardio-respiratory rehabilitation. RESULTS: After discharge, 8/34 showed reduced physical performance, 9/42 had lower HRQoL and 14/32 had COVID-19 induced limitations in functionality on the PCFS scale. Physical performance did not change significantly between discharge and 12-month follow-up, but 15/34 participants showed clinically relevant improvements in walking distance (>30 m). However, 16/34 had a decreased walking distance >30 m when comparing 3-month to 12-month follow-up. At 12 months, 12/41 of participants still perceived COVID-19 related limitations in daily life on the PCFS scale. For HRQoL, 12/41 participants still perceived moderate-to-severe symptoms of pain and discomfort and 13/41 slight-to-severe symptoms of anxiety and depression. CONCLUSION: This cohort of adult patients hospitalized for mild to severe COVID-19 in Switzerland was generally mildly affected but still reported some limitations after one year. These results offer preliminary indications for ongoing support after hospitalization and point towards the need for specific, individualized follow-up to support their recovery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cohort Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Middle Aged , Physical Functional Performance , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil ; 101(1): 48-52, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483698

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This report describes persistent symptoms associated with post-acute COVID-19 syndrome (PACS) and the impact of these symptoms on physical function, cognitive function, health-related quality of life, and participation. DESIGN: This study used a cross-sectional observational study design. Patients attending Mount Sinai's post-acute COVID-19 syndrome clinic completed surveys containing patient-reported outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 156 patients completed the survey, at a median (range) time of 351 days (82-457 days) after COVID-19 infection. All patients were prevaccination. The most common persistent symptoms reported were fatigue (n = 128, 82%), brain fog (n = 105, 67%), and headache (n = 94, 60%). The most common triggers of symptom exacerbation were physical exertion (n = 134, 86%), stress (n = 107, 69%), and dehydration (n = 77, 49%). Increased levels of fatigue (Fatigue Severity Scale) and dyspnea (Medical Research Council) were reported, alongside reductions in levels of regularly completed physical activity. Ninety-eight patients (63%) scored for at least mild cognitive impairment (Neuro-Qol), and the domain of the EuroQol: 5 dimension, 5 level most impacted was Self-care, Anxiety/Depression and Usual Activities. CONCLUSIONS: Persistent symptoms associated with post-acute COVID-19 syndrome seem to impact physical and cognitive function, health-related quality of life, and participation in society. More research is needed to further clarify the relationship between COVID-19 infection and post-acute COVID-19 syndrome symptoms, the underlying mechanisms, and treatment options.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cognition Disorders/virology , Physical Functional Performance , Quality of Life , Social Participation , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(20)2021 10 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480714

ABSTRACT

The association between the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) score and several adverse health outcomes, including mortality, has been reported in the scientific literature. We conducted a comprehensive literature review of studies on the relationship between SPPB and mortality. The current paper synthesizes the characteristics and main findings of longitudinal studies available in the literature that investigated the role of the SPPB in predicting mortality in older adults. The studies (n = 40) are from North America, South America, Europe, and Asia; the majority (n = 16) were conducted with community-dwelling older adults and reported an association between lower SPPB scores and a higher risk of mortality, and between higher SPPB scores and higher survival. Nevertheless, few studies have analyzed the accuracy of the instrument to predict mortality. The only study that established cut-off points was conducted with older adults discharged from an acute care hospital. Although an SPPB score lower than 10 seems to predict all-cause mortality, further studies showing cut-off points in specific settings and loco-regional specificities are still necessary.


Subject(s)
Independent Living , Physical Functional Performance , Aged , Asia , Europe , Geriatric Assessment , Humans , Longitudinal Studies
11.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256695, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403301

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to examine to what extent the physical match performance of professional soccer players is both position and player specific. First, official match data from the 2019/20 German Bundesliga season was used to search for players that met the inclusion criteria of playing a minimum of four entire matches in at least two different playing positions. Overall, 25 players met the criteria prior to the COVID-19 induced break, playing a minimum of eight matches. Second, the physical match performance of these players was analyzed separately for each position they played. The following four parameters were captured: total distance, high-intensity distance, sprinting distance, and accelerations. Third, the 25 players' physical match performance data was then compared to normative data for each position they played to understand whether players adapted their physical performance (position dependent), or maintained their performance regardless of which position they were assigned to (position independent). When switching the position, the change in physical match performance of the respective players could be explained by 44-58% through the normative positional data. Moreover, there existed large individual differences in the way players adapted or maintained their performance when acting in different positions. Coaches and practitioners should be aware that some professional soccer players will likely incur differences in the composition of physical match performance when switching positions and therefore should pay special consideration for such differences in the training and recovery process of these players.


Subject(s)
Athletic Performance , Physical Functional Performance , Soccer , Adaptation, Physiological , Humans
12.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(3): e216315, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384067

ABSTRACT

Importance: Nursing home residents account for approximately 40% of deaths from SARS-CoV-2. Objective: To identify risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 incidence, hospitalization, and mortality among nursing home residents in the US. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective longitudinal cohort study was conducted in long-stay residents aged 65 years or older with fee-for-service Medicare residing in 15 038 US nursing homes from April 1, 2020, to September 30, 2020. Data were analyzed from November 22, 2020, to February 10, 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was risk of diagnosis with SARS-CoV-2 (per International Statistical Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification [ICD-10-CM] codes) by September 30 and hospitalization or death within 30 days after diagnosis. Three-level (resident, facility, and county) logistic regression models and competing risk models conditioned on nursing home facility were used to determine association of patient characteristics with outcomes. Results: Among 482 323 long-stay residents included, the mean (SD) age was 82.7 (9.2) years, with 326 861 (67.8%) women, and 383 838 residents (79.6%) identifying as White. Among 137 119 residents (28.4%) diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 during follow up, 29 204 residents (21.3%) were hospitalized, and 26 384 residents (19.2%) died within 30 days. Nursing homes explained 37.2% of the variation in risk of infection, while county explained 23.4%. Risk of infection increased with increasing body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) (eg, BMI>45 vs BMI 18.5-25: adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.19; 95% CI, 1.15-1.24) but varied little by other resident characteristics. Risk of hospitalization after SARS-CoV-2 increased with increasing BMI (eg, BMI>45 vs BMI 18.5-25: aHR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.28-1.52); male sex (aHR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.29-1.35); Black (aHR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.24-1.32), Hispanic (aHR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.15-1.26), or Asian (aHR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.36-1.57) race/ethnicity; impaired functional status (eg, severely impaired vs not impaired: aHR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.10-1.22); and increasing comorbidities, such as renal disease (aHR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.18-1.24) and diabetes (aHR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.13-1.18). Risk of mortality increased with age (eg, age >90 years vs 65-70 years: aHR, 2.55; 95% CI, 2.44-2.67), impaired cognition (eg, severely impaired vs not impaired: aHR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.71-1.86), and functional impairment (eg, severely impaired vs not impaired: aHR, 1.94; 1.83-2.05). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that among long-stay nursing home residents, risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with county and facility of residence, while risk of hospitalization and death after SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with facility and individual resident characteristics. For many resident characteristics, there were substantial differences in risk of hospitalization vs mortality. This may represent resident preferences, triaging decisions, or inadequate recognition of risk of death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Homes for the Aged , Hospitalization , Nursing Homes , Pandemics , Severity of Illness Index , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Physical Functional Performance , Residence Characteristics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , United States
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(16)2021 08 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367833

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the in-season pandemic lockdown influenced physical match performance in professional soccer players who participated in the competition of German Bundesliga and Polish Ekstraklasa. The data from 306 games for German Bundesliga and 296 games for Polish Ekstraklasa were divided into before- and after-lockdown periods. The physical performance of German Bundesliga teams after the 63-day COVID-19 lockdown did not differ significantly from that in the first part of the season. In contrast, Polish Ekstraklasa teams, after the 81-day lockdown, displayed significantly shorter total distances (p < 0.001), shorter high-intensity running distances (p = 0.03), and fewer high-intensity actions (p = 0.02). Moreover, when the effective playing time was considered, teams covered significantly less relative total distance (p < 0.001) and relative high-intensity running distance (p = 0.02). The results of the current study suggest that physical performance during the matches of the German Bundesliga was not influenced by the COVID-19 lockdown, contrary to those of the Polish Ekstraklasa. This difference could have been caused by different break lengths and different restrictions implemented in these countries during the pandemic lockdown.


Subject(s)
Athletic Performance , COVID-19 , Soccer , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Pandemics , Physical Functional Performance , Poland , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Psychiatr Q ; 92(4): 1759-1769, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1366398

ABSTRACT

The effect of the COVID-19 on the physical and mental health of Italian older individuals displaying signs of cognitive deterioration has not been deeply investigated. This longitudinal study examined the impact of COVID-19 lockdown measures on the psychological well-being and motor efficiency of a sample of Italian community-dwellers with and without cognitive decline. Forty-seven participants underwent instrumental gait analysis performed in ecological setting using wearable sensors, and completed a battery of tasks assessing cognitive functioning and psychological well-being, before and after the full lockdown due to the COVID-19 spreading. A series of Multivariate Analyses of Variance (MANOVAs) documented that the superior gait performance of the cognitively healthy participants exhibited before the COVID-19 spread, vanished when they were tested at the end of the lockdown period. Moreover, before the outbreak of the COVID-19, cognitively healthy participants and those with signs of cognitive decline reported similar levels of psychological well-being, whereas, after the lockdown, the former group reported better coping, emotional competencies, and general well-being than the participants displaying signs of cognitive decline. In conclusion, the full COVID-19 outbreak had a significant impact on the mental and motor functioning of older individuals with and without signs of cognitive deterioration living in Italy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Communicable Disease Control , Physical Functional Performance , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Male
15.
Trials ; 22(1): 505, 2021 Jul 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334758

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, lockdown and social distancing measures are applied to prevent the spread of the virus. It is well known that confinement and social isolation can have a negative impact on physical and mental health, including cognition. Physical activity and cognitive training can help enhance older adults' cognitive and physical health and prevent the negative collateral impacts of social isolation and physical inactivity. The COVEPIC study aims to document the effects of 6 months of home-based physical exercise alone versus home-based physical exercise combined with cognitive training on cognitive and physical functions in adults 50 years and older. METHODS: One hundred twenty-two healthy older adults (> 50 years old) will be recruited from the community and randomized to one of the two arms for 6 months: (1) home-based physical exercises monitoring alone and (2) combined physical exercises monitoring with home-based cognitive training. The primary outcome is cognition, including general functioning (Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score), as well as executive functions, processing speed, and episodic memory (composite Z-scores based on validated neuropsychological tests and computerized tasks). The secondary outcome is physical functions, including balance (one-leg stance test), gait and mobility performance (Timed Up and Go, 4-meter walk test), leg muscle strength (5-time sit-to-stand), and estimated cardiorespiratory fitness (Matthews' questionnaire). Exploratory outcomes include mood, anxiety, and health-related quality of life as assessed by self-reported questionnaires (i.e., Geriatric depression scale-30 items, Perceived stress scale, State-trait anxiety inventory-36 items, Perseverative thinking questionnaire, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale 10, and 12-item Short Form Survey). DISCUSSION: This trial will document the remote monitoring of home-based physical exercise alone and home-based physical combined with cognitive training to enhance cognitive and physical health of older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic period. Remote interventions represent a promising strategy to help maintain or enhance health and cognition in seniors, and potentially an opportunity to reach older adults in remote areas, where access to such interventions is limited. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical trial Identifier NCT04635462 . COVEPIC was retrospectively registered on November 19, 2020.


Subject(s)
Cognition , Exercise Therapy , Independent Living , Physical Functional Performance , Aged , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
16.
Pulmonology ; 27(6): 518-528, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284488

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: There is evidence of short- and long-term impairment of physical performance in patients with COVID-19 infection, but a verification of measures of physical impairment in this condition is lacking. We reviewed the measures used to assess physical performance in these patients. Secondary targets were measures of exercise or daily life activities induced symptoms. METHODS: Medline, CINAHL, and Pedro databases were searched from January 2020 to February 2021 for articles in the English language. Two investigators independently conducted the search, screened all titles and/or abstracts based on the inclusion criteria and independently scored the studies. The quality of the studies was evaluated by two reviewers according to the NIH quality assessment tool for observational cohort and cross-sectional studies. Discrepancies were resolved through consensus. RESULTS: Out of 156 potentially relevant articles, 31 observational studies (8 cross-sectional), 1 randomized controlled trial, and 1 protocol were included. The quality of most of the 31 evaluable studies was judged as low (11 studies) or fair (14 studies). Sample sizes of the studies ranged from 14 to 20,889 patients. among the 28 reported measures, Barthel Index (42.4% of studies), Six-Minute Walking Distance Test (36.4%), Short Physical Performance Battery (21.2%) and 1-Minute Sit-to-Stand (12.1%) were the most used. Fifteen% and 36% of studies reported exercise induced desaturation and dyspnoea when performing the assessments, respectively. Other exercise induced symptoms were fatigue and pain. Studies reported wide ranges of impairment in physical performance as compared to "reference" values (range of mean or median reported values vs "reference values": 11-77 vs 100 points for Barthel Index; 11-22 vs 22-37 repetitions/min for 1m-STS; 0.5-7.9 vs 11.4 ± 1.3 points for SPPB; and 45-223 vs 380-782 m for 6MWT respectively). CONCLUSION: This review found that a wide variety of functional status tests have been used, making comparisons difficult between studies. These measures show impairment in physical performance in COVID-19 patients. However, the quality of most of the studies was judged as low or fair.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Physical Functional Performance , Activities of Daily Living , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Exercise , Humans , Observational Studies as Topic , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
17.
Heart Vessels ; 37(1): 77-82, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274823

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to clarify the effects of gardening on hemodynamic response, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during exercise, and body weight in patients in whom phase 2 cardiac rehabilitation (CR) was interrupted due to the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Among 76 outpatients participating in consecutive phase 2 CR in both periods from March to April and June to July 2020, which were before and after CR interruption, respectively, at Sanda City Hospital were enrolled. The inclusion criterion was outpatients whose CR was interrupted due to COVID-19. Patients under the age of 65 were excluded. We compared the data of hemodynamic response and RPE during exercise on the last day before interruption and the first day after interruption when aerobic exercise was performed at the same exercise intensity in the gardener group and the non-gardener group. Forty-one patients were enrolled in the final analysis. After CR interruption, the gardener group did not show any significant difference in all items, whereas the non-gardener group experienced significant increase in HR (Peak) (p = 0.004) and worsening of the Borg scale scores for both dyspnea and lower extremity fatigue (p = 0.039 and p = 0.009, respectively). Older phase 2 CR patients engaged in gardening did not show any deterioration in hemodynamic response or RPE during exercise, despite CR interruption and refraining from going outside. Gardening may be recommended as one of the activities that can maintain or improve physical function in older phase 2 CR patients during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiac Rehabilitation , Gardening , Pandemics , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiac Rehabilitation/methods , Hemodynamics , Humans , Physical Functional Performance , Treatment Outcome
18.
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab ; 46(7): 693-703, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269054

ABSTRACT

Face masks are promoted for preventing spread of viruses; however, wearing a mask during exercise might increase CO2 rebreathing, decrease arterial oxygenation, and decrease exercise performance. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted on the impact of wearing a mask during exercise. Data sources included SPORTDiscus, PubMed, and Medline. Eligibility criteria included all study designs comparing surgical, N95, or cloth masks to a no mask condition during any type of exercise where exercise performance and/or physiological parameters were evaluated. Healthy and clinical participants were included. Mean differences (MD) or standardized mean differences (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated and pooled effects assessed. Twenty-two studies involving 1573 participants (620 females, 953 males) were included. Surgical, or N95 masks did not impact exercise performance (SMD -0.05 [-0.16, 0.07] and -0.16 [-0.54, 0.22], respectively) but increased ratings of perceived exertion (SMD 0.33 [0.09, 0.58] and 0.61 [0.23, 0.99]) and dyspnea (SMD 0.6 [0.3, 0.9] for all masks). End-tidal CO2 (MD 3.3 [1.0, 5.6] and 3.7 [3.0, 4.4] mm Hg), and heart rate (MD 2 [0,4] beats/min with N95 masks) slightly increased. Face masks can be worn during exercise with no influences on performance and minimal impacts on physiological variables. PROSPERO registration: CRD42020224988. Novelty: Face masks can be worn during exercise with no impacts on performance and minimal impacts on physiological variables.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Exercise/physiology , Masks/statistics & numerical data , N95 Respirators/statistics & numerical data , Physical Functional Performance , Carbon Dioxide/metabolism , Female , Heart Rate/physiology , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
19.
J Am Coll Surg ; 233(3): 435-444.e1, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260777

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: High scores in the Medically Necessary, Time-Sensitive (MeNTS) scoring system, used for elective surgical prioritization during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, are assumed to be associated with worse outcomes. We aimed to evaluate the MeNTS scoring system in patients undergoing elective surgery during restricted capacity of our institution, with or without moderate or severe postoperative complications. STUDY DESIGN: In this prospective observational study, MeNTS scores of patients undergoing elective operations during May and June 2020 were calculated. Postoperative complication severity (classified as Group Clavien-Dindo < II or Group Clavien-Dindo ≥ II), as well as Duke Activity Index, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status, presence of smoking, leukocytosis, lymphopenia, elevated C-reactive protein (CRP), operation and anesthesia characteristics, intensive care requirement and duration, length of hospital stay, rehospitalization, and mortality were noted. RESULTS: There were 223 patients analyzed. MeNTS score was higher in the Clavien-Dindo ≥ II Group compared with the Clavien-Dindo < II Group (50.98 ± 8.98 vs 44.27 ± 8.90 respectively, p < 0.001). Duke activity status index (DASI) scores were lower, and American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status class, presence of smoking, leukocytosis, lymphopenia, elevated CRP, and intensive care requirement were higher in the Clavien-Dindo ≥ II Group (p < 0.01). Length of hospital stay was longer in the Clavien-Dindo ≥ II Group (15 [range 2-90] vs 4 [1-30] days; p < 0.001). Mortality was observed in 8 patients. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of MeNTS and DASI were 0.69 and 0.71, respectively, for predicting moderate/severe complications. CONCLUSIONS: Although significant, MeNTS score had low discriminating power in distinguishing patients with moderate/severe complications. Incorporation of a cardiovascular functional capacity measure could improve the scoring system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Elective Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Pandemics , Postoperative Complications/classification , Triage/methods , Anesthesia , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Critical Care , Elective Surgical Procedures/classification , Elective Surgical Procedures/mortality , Female , Health Priorities , Humans , Length of Stay , Leukocytosis/diagnosis , Lymphopenia/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Readmission , Physical Functional Performance , Postoperative Complications/mortality , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Severity of Illness Index , Smoking , Treatment Outcome , Turkey
20.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 53: 103047, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244795

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic caused a global confinement of more than 2 months in Spain. As a result, the general population has significantly decreased their physical activity levels. The consequences of this abrupt, sedentary lifestyle in Spanish people with Multiple Sclerosis (pwMS) were unknown. Our aim was to examine the impact of COVID-19 home confinement on neuromuscular performance, functional capacity, physical self-perception, and anxiety in pwMS. METHODS: Eighteen pwMS (8:10 men/women, age: 43.41±10.88 years, Expanded Disability Status Scale: 2.85±1.34) participated in the study. Rate of force development (RFD) and maximal voluntary isometric contraction during knee extension in both legs, Timed-Up and Go test (TUG), sit-to-stand test, 6 min walk test, 10 m walk test, Physical-Self Perception Questionnaire (PSPQ) and State-Train Anxiety Inventory (STAI) were performed just before and after home confinement. RESULTS: A non-significant moderate effect (p = 0.07; ES = -0.48) was observed in the time in the sit-to-stand test compared to pre-home confinement. There was a significant increase in the time in TUG (p = 0.02; ES = -0.67). The PSQP score decreased (p = 0.01; ES = 0.79) and STAI-state increased (p = 0.01; ES = -0.65) following home confinement. CONCLUSION: Home confinement had an impact on functional capacity, physical self-perception and state anxiety. However, neuromuscular performance was not altered after home confinement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Pandemics , Physical Functional Performance , SARS-CoV-2
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