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1.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 72(12): 2565-2566, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245600

ABSTRACT

Adult vaccination is an accepted part of health care and diabetes care. In spite of evidence regarding the efficacy and utility of vaccination in preventing disease, we continue to encounter vaccine hesitancy and vaccine skepticism. As physicians, it is our duty to encourage the public to get vaccinated. In this article, we create a simple framework which helps assess the barriers to vaccine acceptance, and create bridges to overcome vaccine hesitancy and skepticism. We use an interesting mnemonic, NARCO, to remind ourselves, and our readers, of the appropriate hierarchy of interviewing related to vaccine acceptance.


Subject(s)
Physicians , Vaccination Hesitancy , Adult , Humans , Health Facilities , Memory , Vaccination , Primary Health Care
2.
West J Emerg Med ; 23(5): 678-683, 2022 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242722

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The pandemic has been difficult on physicians, with two fifths of doctors in one survey reporting that their mental health is now worse than before the pandemic. It is likely that a significant proportion of these physicians are parents of children necessitating childcare, as approximately 32% of the US workforce has someone in their household under the age of 14. We sought to study the impact of the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on physician parents in academia. Our goal was to investigate the intersection of professional and personal challenges, as well as perceived impact on domestic life and professional development secondary to the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Using Survey Monkey, we developed a 37-question survey to address the aim of this study. Questions were grouped into four categories: demographics; impact on childcare; impact on care; and impact on mental health/wellness. Most of the questions were multiple choice with a few fill-in-the-blank options to allow participants to provide additional information related to their experiences as physicians during the pandemic. A link to the survey was disseminated via email to physicians at our home institution, Rush University Medical Center (Chicago), via our own intra- and interdepartmental communications, We used private social media accounts such as Facebook physician groups to reach out to physicians at other academic medical centers. Survey responses were voluntary and collected anonymously over an eight-week period, without identifiable data. Inclusion criteria included any physician identifying themselves as working full or full or part time in an academic facility in the US and caregivers for children <18 years. RESULTS: Survey respondents were mostly female (83.2%), practicing in the Midwest (61.2%), and ranked as assistant professor (59.5%). The majority of respondents had two children (65.1%) who were <11 years in age (85.6%). Most respondents worked full time with 72.8% working over 50% clinically. Childcare was disrupted for 171 of 232 respondents (73.7%); 62.9% struggled with balancing work with childcare; 81.9% worried often or very often about fulfilling their responsibilities. A vast majority, 210 of 232 respondents (90.5%) had some degree of concern about feeling overburdened by their roles. More than half (57.3%) worried that their professional advancement was impacted by the pandemic, and 53.9% considered making adjustments to their clinical workload/. Over half (51.6%) thought that increased domestic responsibilities impacted their professional advancement. CONCLUSION: In the survey, which was completed primarily by early-career women physicians practicing in a variety of specialties and geographic regions, we noted that childcare disruption amidst the pandemic was extremely prevalent. The majority of respondents reported full-time equivalent work; thus, it is reasonable to assume that significant workloads and limitations in remote work in combination with childcare constraints resulted in significant burden. A large number felt the challenges were negatively impacting their professional development and felt overburdened by their various roles.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Physicians, Women , Physicians , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Parenting/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(11)2023 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232822

ABSTRACT

The health crisis has had a strong impact on intensive care units. The objective of this study was to investigate the experience of resuscitation physicians during the COVID-19 health crisis to understand the associated determinants of quality of life, burnout, and brownout. This qualitative, longitudinal study covered two periods (T1, February 2021, and T2, May 2021). The data were collected in individual semi-directed interviews with 17 intensive care physicians (ICPs) (T1). Nine of the latter also participated in a second interview (T2). The data were examined using grounded theory analysis. We identified a multiplication of burnout and brownout indicators and factors already known in intensive care. In addition, burnout and brownout indicators and factors specific to the COVID-19 crisis were added. The evolution of professional practices has disrupted the professional identity, the meaning of work, and the boundaries between private and professional life, leading to a brownout and blur-out syndrome. The added value of our study lies in identifying the positive effects of the crisis in the professional domain. Our study revealed indicators and factors of burnout and brownout associated with the crisis among ICPs. Finally, it highlights the beneficial effects of the COVID-19 crisis on work.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Physicians , Humans , Quality of Life , Longitudinal Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Burnout, Psychological , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Critical Care , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
BMJ Open Qual ; 12(2)2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239446

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A coalition (Strategic Clinical Improvement Committee), with a mandate to promote physician quality improvement (QI) involvement, identified hospital laboratory test overuse as a priority. The coalition developed and supported the spread of a multicomponent initiative about reducing repetitive laboratory testing and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) ordering across one Canadian province. This study's purpose was to identify coalition factors enabling medicine and emergency department (ED) physicians to lead, participate and influence appropriate BUN test ordering. METHODS: Using sequential explanatory mixed methods, intervention components were grouped as person focused or system focused. Quantitative phase/analyses included: monthly total and average of the BUN test for six hospitals (medicine programme and two EDs) were compared pre initiative and post initiative; a cost avoidance calculation and an interrupted time series analysis were performed (participants were divided into two groups: high (>50%) and low (<50%) BUN test reduction based on these findings). Qualitative phase/analyses included: structured virtual interviews with 12 physicians/participants; a content analysis aligned to the Theoretical Domains Framework and the Behaviour Change Wheel. Quotes from participants representing high and low groups were integrated into a joint display. RESULTS: Monthly BUN test ordering was significantly reduced in 5 of 6 participating hospital medicine programmes and in both EDs (33% to 76%), resulting in monthly cost avoidance (CAN$900-CAN$7285). Physicians had similar perceptions of the coalition's characteristics enabling their QI involvement and the factors influencing BUN test reduction. CONCLUSIONS: To enable physician confidence to lead and participate, the coalition used the following: a simply designed QI initiative, partnership with a coalition physician leader and/or member; credibility and mentorship; support personnel; QI education and hands-on training; minimal physician effort; and no clinical workflow disruption. Implementing person-focused and system-focused intervention components, and communication from a trusted local physician-who shared data, physician QI initiative role/contribution and responsibility, best practices, and past project successes-were factors influencing appropriate BUN test ordering.


Subject(s)
Physicians , Quality Improvement , Humans , Leadership , Canada , Interrupted Time Series Analysis
6.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1169764, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238996

ABSTRACT

Background: Occupational stress is one of the major occupational health hazards globally. This study investigated the current situation of and factors influencing the occupational stress of physicians and nurses in emergency departments (EDs) after contracting coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Methods: An online questionnaire survey was conducted among physicians and nurses in EDs in China between January 5 and 8, 2023. A general descriptive analysis of variables was conducted, the differences in the occupational stress of physicians and nurses in EDs with different characteristics were analyzed using the chi-square test, and factors influencing occupational stress were investigated using generalized ordinal logistic regression. Results: Of the 1924 physicians and nurses in EDs who contracted COVID-19, 64.71% considered their occupational stress high or very high, with overly intense work as the primary stressor. Those with ≥ 10 years of work tenure, working in tertiary hospitals and with higher professional titles were more stressed, while females, nurses, those with a master's degree or higher, and those who continued to work after contracting COVID-19 were less stressed. There were differences in the predictors of occupational stress between physicians and nurses. Conclusion: China's physicians and nurses in EDs had high occupational stress after contracting COVID-19. Attention should be given to the occupational mental health of physicians and nurses in EDs, and training on the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 infection should be strengthened.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nurses , Occupational Stress , Physicians , Female , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Occupational Stress/epidemiology , Occupational Stress/psychology , Emergency Service, Hospital
7.
Perm J ; 27(2): 179-183, 2023 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245286

ABSTRACT

Burnout is not a new concept in the health care field. Most, if not all, resident physicians (residents) experience burnout at least once during their training. However, the COVID-19 pandemic placed a large strain on the health care system and exacerbated stressors that contribute to burnout, including anxiety, depression, and work overload. The authors reviewed the literature on resident burnout in the era of COVID-19 to elucidate common stressors across the specialties and identify successful interventions or initiatives that may be most effective for residency programs.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Internship and Residency , Physicians , Humans , Pandemics , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0286080, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244150

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Continuous monitoring of vital signs is introduced at general hospital wards to detect patient deterioration. Interpretation and response currently rely on experience and expert opinion. This study aims to determine whether consensus exist among hospital professionals regarding the interpretation of vital signs of COVID-19 patients. In addition, we assessed the ability to recognise respiratory insufficiency and evaluated the interpretation process. METHODS: We performed a mixed methods study including 24 hospital professionals (6 nurses, 6 junior physicians, 6 internal medicine specialists, 6 ICU nurses). Each participant was presented with 20 cases of COVID-19 patients, including 4 or 8 hours of continuously measured vital signs data. Participants estimated the patient's situation ('improving', 'stable', or 'deteriorating') and the possibility of developing respiratory insufficiency. Subsequently, a semi-structured interview was held focussing on the interpretation process. Consensus was assessed using Krippendorff's alpha. For the estimation of respiratory insufficiency, we calculated the mean positive/negative predictive value. Interviews were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. RESULTS: We found no consensus regarding the patient's situation (α 0.41, 95%CI 0.29-0.52). The mean positive predictive value for respiratory insufficiency was high (0.91, 95%CI 0.86-0.97), but the negative predictive value was 0.66 (95%CI 0.44-0.88). In the interviews, two themes regarding the interpretation process emerged. "Interpretation of deviations" included the strategies participants use to determine stability, focused on finding deviations in data. "Inability to see the patient" entailed the need of hospital professionals to perform a patient evaluation when estimating a patient's situation. CONCLUSION: The interpretation of continuously measured vital signs by hospital professionals, and recognition of respiratory insufficiency using these data, is variable, which might be the result of different interpretation strategies, uncertainty regarding deviations, and not being able to see the patient. Protocols and training could help to uniform interpretation, but decision support systems might be necessary to find signs of deterioration that might otherwise go unnoticed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Physicians , Humans , Patients' Rooms , COVID-19/diagnosis , Vital Signs , Hospitals
9.
Perm J ; 27(2): 160-168, 2023 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242879

ABSTRACT

Perioperative care delivery is a patient-centered, multidisciplinary process. It relies heavily on synchronized teamwork from a well-coordinated team. Perioperative physicians-surgeons and anesthesiologists-face enormous challenges in surgical care delivery due to changing work environments, post-COVID consequences, shift work disorder, value conflict, escalating demands, regulatory complexity, and financial uncertainties. Physician burnout in this working environment has become increasingly prevalent. It is not only harmful to physicians' health and well-being, but it also affects the quality and safety of patient care. Additionally, the economic costs associated with physician burnout are untenable due to the high turnover rate, high recruitment expenses, and potential early permanent exit from medical practice. In this deteriorating environment of unbalanced physician supply/demand, recognizing, managing, and preventing physician burnout may help preserve the system's most valuable asset and contribute to higher quality and safety of patient care. Leaders in government agencies, health care systems, and organizations must work together to re-engineer the health care system for better physicians and patient care.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Perioperative Medicine , Physicians , Humans , Burnout, Professional/prevention & control , Burnout, Psychological , Patient Care , Quality of Health Care
10.
PLoS One ; 18(6): e0286339, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242307

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A national survey we conducted in 2008 showed that many Japanese physicians interacted with and received gifts from pharmaceutical representatives (PRs) and had a positive attitude toward relationships with PRs. The revised promotion code of the Japan Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association in 2019 prohibited the provision of non-educational promotional aids including sticky notes, mouse pads, and calendars. During the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, face-to-face meetings were socially restricted. This study assessed the extent of current Japanese physicians' involvement in pharmaceutical promotional activities and their attitudes toward relationships with PRs and to ascertain any changes between 2008 and 2021. We also examined the factors that predicted positive attitudes toward gifts from PRs. METHODS: From January to March 2021, we conducted a national mail survey of Japanese physicians in seven specialties: internal medicine, surgery, orthopedics, pediatrics, obstetrics-gynecology, psychiatry, and ophthalmology. RESULTS: There were 1636 participants and the response rate was 63.2%. Most physicians met face-to-face with PRs (78.8%), whereas only a minority received meals outside the workplace (4.5%). PRs were thought to have an important role in continuing medical education (66.1%) and to provide accurate information about new drugs (74.2%). Opinions were divided on the appropriateness of gifts from PRs. Most thought that stationery and meals provided by the industry did not affect prescribing behavior (89.7% and 75.8%, respectively). Factors that predicted a positive attitude toward gifts from PRs were male, orthopedic specialty vs. internal medicine, more interactions with PRs, a positive attitude toward informational value, and no rules banning meetings with PRs. CONCLUSION: Involvement in pharmaceutical promotional activities is still common among practicing physicians in Japan, although the extent of the involvement had declined. Rules banning meetings with PRs appear to continue being effective at limiting a physician's involvement with promotional activities and their critical attitudes toward gifts from PRs.


Subject(s)
Drug Industry , Interprofessional Relations , Physicians , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Attitude of Health Personnel , East Asian People , Gift Giving , Practice Patterns, Physicians'
11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(6): e2318315, 2023 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242177

ABSTRACT

This survey study assesses the frequency and nature of harassment on social media experienced by physicians, biomedical scientists, and trainees during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Physicians , Social Media , Humans , Pandemics
12.
BMJ Open ; 13(5): e065719, 2023 05 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241385

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To understand how and why Australian cancer physicians interact with the pharmaceutical industry. DESIGN: Qualitative study using semistructured interviews, performed by a medical oncologist. Thematic analysis using a combination of deductive and inductive codes. SETTING: Given the evidence on industry influences on clinical practice and the importance to the market of oncology drugs, we sought to better understand cancer physicians' experiences. Practising consultant medical oncologists and clinical haematologists from four Australian states were interviewed over Zoom. PARTICIPANTS: 16 cancer physicians were interviewed between November 2021 and March 2022, from 37 invited (response rate 43%). Most were medical oncologists (n=12 of 16, 75%) and male (n=9 of 16, 56%). OUTCOME MEASURES: The analysis of all interviews was based on grounded theory. Transcripts were coded and then codes formed into themes with supporting quotes. The themes were then placed into categories, used to describe the broad areas into which the themes could be grouped. RESULTS: Six themes were identified that fell within two broad categories: cancer physicians' views and experiences of interactions and management of these interactions. Views and experiences included: the transactional nature of relationships, risks of research dependence, ethical challenges and varied attitudes based on interaction type. Management themes included: lack of useful guidance and reduced interactions during the COVID-19 pandemic. These led to an overarching seventh theme, on the desire for a 'middle road'. Cancer physicians identified the transactional nature of industry relationships and felt uncomfortable with several types of interactions, including those with sales representatives. Most wanted less contact with industry, and the forced separation that occurred with the COVID-19 pandemic was generally welcome. CONCLUSIONS: Cancer physicians may have difficulty balancing the perceived need to interact with industry in modern cancer care while maintaining distance to minimise conflicts of interest. Further research is needed to assess management strategies in this area.


Subject(s)
Drug Industry , Medical Oncology , Physicians , Humans , Male , Attitude of Health Personnel , Australia , Conflict of Interest , COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , Female
14.
Ann Dermatol Venereol ; 150(2): 114-120, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20231149

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In areas of low physician density, especially as regards dermatologists in France, there is an increasing interest in tele-expertise. This is particularly the case in the Sarthe department, where the number of physicians continues to decline and access to care was further limited by the COVID 19 epidemic. STUDY DESIGN: We retrospectively collected data from tele-expertise requests submitted to Le Mans General Hospital by general practitioners via a dedicated platform between May 6, 2019, and April 9, 2021. RESULTS: Six hundred and forty three requests relating to 90 different diagnoses were recorded during this period. One hundred and thirty four patients (20% of requests) were invited to attend a face-to-face consultation within an average of 29 days. DISCUSSION: Through the use of tele-expertise at Le Mans Genreal Hospital it was possible to introduce a means of tackling the problem of the lack of dermatologists in the Sarthe department. Rapid responses enabled the number of consultation requests to be reduced, leading to fewer population displacements in the context of the present pandemic. CONCLUSION: These initial results are encouraging and confirm that tele-expertise seems a satisfactory option to optimize access to care for populations in areas of low physician density.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Physicians , Telemedicine , Male , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Hospitals, General , COVID-19/epidemiology , France
15.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 30(7): 1323-1332, 2023 06 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2328343

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: As the real-world electronic health record (EHR) data continue to grow exponentially, novel methodologies involving artificial intelligence (AI) are becoming increasingly applied to enable efficient data-driven learning and, ultimately, to advance healthcare. Our objective is to provide readers with an understanding of evolving computational methods and help in deciding on methods to pursue. TARGET AUDIENCE: The sheer diversity of existing methods presents a challenge for health scientists who are beginning to apply computational methods to their research. Therefore, this tutorial is aimed at scientists working with EHR data who are early entrants into the field of applying AI methodologies. SCOPE: This manuscript describes the diverse and growing AI research approaches in healthcare data science and categorizes them into 2 distinct paradigms, the bottom-up and top-down paradigms to provide health scientists venturing into artificial intelligent research with an understanding of the evolving computational methods and help in deciding on methods to pursue through the lens of real-world healthcare data.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , Physicians , Humans , Data Science , Big Data , Delivery of Health Care
16.
Intensive Care Med ; 49(5): 545-553, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327929

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: A high daily census may hinder the ability of physicians to deliver quality care in the intensive care unit (ICU). We sought to determine the relationship between intensivist-to-patient ratios and mortality among ICU patients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of intensivist-to-patient ratios in 29 ICUs in 10 hospitals in the United States from 2018 to 2020. We used meta-data from progress notes in the electronic health record to determine an intensivist-specific caseload for each ICU day. We then fit a multivariable proportional hazards model with time-varying covariates to estimate the relationship between the daily intensivist-to-patient ratio and ICU mortality at 28 days. RESULTS: The final analysis included 51,656 patients, 210,698 patient days, and 248 intensivist physicians. The average caseload per day was 11.8 (standard deviation: 5.7). There was no association between the intensivist-to-patient ratio and mortality (hazard ratio for each additional patient: 0.987, 95% confidence interval: 0.968-1.007, p = 0.2). This relationship persisted when we defined the ratio as caseload over the sample-wide average (hazard ratio: 0.907, 95% confidence interval: 0.763-1.077, p = 0.26) and cumulative days with a caseload over the sample-wide average (hazard ratio: 0.991, 95% confidence interval: 0.966-1.018, p = 0.52). The relationship was not modified by the presence of physicians-in-training, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants (p value for interaction term: 0.14). CONCLUSIONS: Mortality for ICU patients appears resistant to high intensivist caseloads. These results may not generalize to ICUs organized differently than those in this sample, such as ICUs outside the United States.


Subject(s)
Personnel Staffing and Scheduling , Physicians , Humans , United States , Retrospective Studies , Hospital Mortality , Intensive Care Units , Critical Care
18.
Global Health ; 19(1): 28, 2023 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326880

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In The Netherlands, physicians specialized in global health and tropical medicine (Ps-GHTM) are trained to work in low-resource settings (LRS) after their training program of 27 months. After working for a period of time in LRS, many Ps-GHTM continue their careers in the Dutch healthcare system. While there is limited evidence regarding the value of international health experience for medical students and residents, it is unknown to what extent this applies to Ps-GHTM and to their clinical practice in the Netherlands. METHODS: In this qualitative study we conducted semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs) with Ps-GHTM to explore the perceived applicability of their experience abroad for their subsequent return to the Netherlands. Topic guides were developed using literature about the applicability of working abroad. Findings from the interviews served as a starting point for FGDs. The interviews and FGDs were analysed using directed content analysis. RESULTS: 15 themes are described relating experience abroad to healthcare delivery in The Netherlands: broad medical perspective, holistic perspective, adaptive communication skills, creativity, flexibility, cultural awareness, self-reliance, clinical competence, cost awareness, public health, leadership, open-mindedness, organization of care, self-development, and teamwork. Highlighting the variety in competencies and the complexity of the topic, not all themes were recognized by all respondents in the FGDs nor deemed equally relevant. Flexibility, cultural awareness and holistic perspective are examples of important benefits to work experience in LRS. CONCLUSION: Ps-GHTM bring their competencies to LRS and return to the Netherlands with additionally developed skills and knowledge. These may contribute to healthcare delivery in the Netherlands. This reciprocal value is an important factor for the sustainable development of global health. Identifying the competencies derived from work experience in LRS could give stakeholders insight into the added value of Ps-GHTM and partly help in refining the specialization program.


Subject(s)
Physicians , Tropical Medicine , Humans , Global Health , Clinical Competence , Delivery of Health Care
20.
Hum Resour Health ; 21(1): 36, 2023 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324858

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This paper responds to Asante et al. (in Hum Resour Health, 2014), providing an updated picture of the impacts of Cuban medical training in the Pacific region based on research carried out in 2019-2021, which focused on the experiences of Pacific Island doctors trained in Cuba and their integration into practice in their home countries. METHODS: The research focussed on two case studies-Solomon Islands and Kiribati. Study methods for this research included multi-sited ethnographic methods and semi-structured interviews as well as qualitative analysis of policy documents, reports, and media sources. RESULTS: The Cuban health assistance programme has had a significant impact on the medical workforce in the Pacific region increasing the number of doctors employed by Pacific Ministries of Health between 2012 and 2019. Qualitatively, there have been some notable improvements in the medical workforce and health delivery over this period. However, the integration of the Cuban-trained doctors into practise has been challenging, with criticisms of their clinical, procedural and communication skills, and the need for the rapid development of bridging and internship training programmes (ITPs) which were inadequately planned for at the outset of the programme. CONCLUSIONS: The Cuban programme in the Pacific is an important model of development assistance for health in the region. While Cuba's offer of scholarships was the trigger for a range of positive outcomes, the success of the programme has relied on input from a range of actors including support from other governments and institutions, and much hard work by the graduates themselves, often in the face of considerable criticism. Key impacts of the programme to date include the raw increase in the number of doctors and the development of the ITPs and career pathways for the graduates, although this has also led to the reorientation of Cuban graduates from preventative to curative health. There is considerable potential for these graduates to contribute to improved health outcomes across the region, particularly if their primary and preventative health care skills are utilised.


Subject(s)
Internship and Residency , Physicians , Humans , Cuba , Pacific Islands
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