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1.
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 26(2): e21spe2, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1862369

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: This paper reviews the history of women scientists in the 'Western world', whilst highlighting the persistent socio-structural issues that have led to the hiding and masking of the participation of women in Science. Further, a reflection is made of the situation of Dentistry, specifically in the field of Orthodontics in Brazil. The difference between genders is discussed, with the intention to map the progress of women in management and leadership positions, in both the academic and professional fields. Description: In Brazil, within Dentistry and Orthodontics, despite being in a numerical majority, women are still underrepresented in the area of professional leadership. This is true for Research Groups and Research Productivity; an example being the relatively low authorship of publications in a Brazilian journal of Orthodontics. They are also underrepresented as lead presenters at professional meetings, whilst there are also few female Presidents of professional organizations and associations. Conclusion: Despite being in a numerical majority, it is also important that women act in a more co-ordinated and consistent manner to achieve greater representation in these areas. The necessary changes in the structure in order to achieve this are not only of women and for women, but they must also involve the whole of society so that leadership, rights and duties are equally distributed between the genders.


RESUMO Objetivo: Este estudo objetivou resgatar a história de mulheres cientistas nos principais períodos históricos do mundo ocidental, para realçar a questão socioestrutural persistente que "invisibiliza" e mascara a participação das mulheres na Ciência. A partir disso, realizou-se uma reflexão sobre a situação da Odontologia, especificamente na área de Ortodontia no Brasil, no que tange à diferença de gêneros, com a finalidade de mapear a atuação das mulheres nos cargos de gestão e liderança nos âmbitos acadêmico e profissional. Descrição: No Brasil, na área de Odontologia e Ortodontia, apesar de serem maioria numérica, as mulheres ainda são minoria na liderança de Grupos de Pesquisa, Produtividade em Pesquisa, na autoria de artigos em um periódico nacional da área de Ortodontia, palestrantes de congressos e na presidência de Associações de Classe. Conclusão: Apesar de apresentar maioria numérica, é importante que as mulheres atuem de maneira mais consistente. As mudanças necessárias na estrutura não são apenas da mulher e para a mulher, mas devem envolver toda a sociedade para que direitos e deveres sejam distribuídos de forma igualitária entre os sexos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Orthodontics , Physicians, Women , Authorship , Brazil , Leadership
2.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 842909, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817936

ABSTRACT

Background: Endocrinology has one of the highest proportions of female specialists and trainees, however females have traditionally been underrepresented in leadership positions and as speakers at scientific meetings. Hypothesis: Females would represent less than half of invited speakers (plenary, symposium sessions) at endocrinology conferences and in leadership positions of endocrinology societies. Method: An audit of Australian diabetes and endocrinology societies and their respective annual scientific meetings between 2016 - 2020. Analysis of the gender of conference speakers across oral, symposium and plenary sessions, session chairs, program organising committees and society committees. Results: A total of 1638 speakers (females 856, 52.3%) across 550.4 hours (females 273.6, 49.7%) of presentations at the conferences were identified. Among plenary sessions of all 3 societies there were more male (61%) than female speakers. A total of 608 session chairs were identified, with 313 (51.5%) females. The majority of organising committee members (n=116) were female (56%), however the representation across each organising committee varied. There was a low proportion of society female council members (39% female). Conclusion: There was an equal representation of females and males as conference speakers and session chairs. However, there was an underrepresentation of women in more prestigious roles of plenary speakers and society council members. We implore conscious efforts to address this disparity.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Endocrinology , Physicians, Women , Australia , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Societies, Medical
3.
5.
Dig Dis Sci ; 67(2): 390-396, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718797

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Over the last few decades, advances have been made regarding gender equality starting from medical students to trainees, to leadership in academics. The female representation in specialty academic conferences not only reflects the existing gender disparities in that specialty but also can influence young female trainees to join that field. Digestive Disease Week (DDW) is the premier digestive disease event. We aimed to calculate the proportion of female representation among speakers and moderators at the DDW meetings held from 2018 to 2020. METHODS: The data for DDW 2018-2020 were collected via the online web-based planner. The gender of speakers of presentations and moderators of sessions were identified by a google search. We further categorized the data by each participating society (AGA, ASGE, AASLD, and SSAT), by presentation track, by session track, and total overall representation in each year. RESULTS: Despite the subject of the gender gap being in focus, the proportion of female moderators and speakers was low in DDW in the last 3 years. The female speakers constituted 31.6% in 2018, 33.8% in 2019 and 34.6% in 2020. There was slightly improved female representation in sessions of Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Stomach, and Small Bowel Disorders, Microbiome in GI & Liver disease, and Basic Science over the last 3 years. CONCLUSION: Based on our study and those referenced in this article, we believe that strategies to promote the inclusivity of female moderators and speakers at DDW provide a huge opportunity to influence gender equity within GI.


Subject(s)
Congresses as Topic/trends , Gastroenterology/trends , Physicians, Women/trends , Digestive System Diseases , Humans , Societies, Medical
6.
Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets ; 21(12): 2238-2252, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714873

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Some endocrinologists were involved in the management of patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 during the first wave of the pandemic. This study aims to analyze burnout levels among the Association of Medical Endocrinologists (AME) members before and during the pandemic. METHODS: We recruited two AME members samples at two different times: before COVID-19 (n = 811) and during the first wave of the ongoing pandemic (n = 579). Both the samples filled the Maslach Burnout Inventory. We performed MANOVAs to evaluate demographic and COVID-19 related differences in burnout levels and Pearson's Chi-square test to compare burnout severity before and during the pandemic. RESULTS: Women reported higher Emotional Exhaustion and reduced Professional Accomplishment than men. The oldest physicians had lower levels of Emotional Exhaustion and Depersonalization and higher Professional Accomplishment than younger workers. Independent contractors displayed lower levels of burnout compared to established contractors. Finally, the pandemic, per se, did not lead to changes in burnout levels. DISCUSSION: Women and young physicians are at higher risk of burnout. It is also possible that front- line professionals are at higher risk during a health care crisis. Moreover, it is likely that the length of exposure to the pandemic has not been sufficient to impact burnout levels. CONCLUSION: Short-term exposure to pandemic-related activities seemed to have a low impact on burnout severity, except for physicians directly involved in managing COVID-19 cases. It is strongly recommended the availability of psychological support in public hospitals.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Endocrinologists/psychology , Occupational Health , Psychological Distress , Workload/psychology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Burnout, Professional/diagnosis , Burnout, Professional/psychology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Physicians, Women/psychology , Prevalence , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Time Factors , Women, Working/psychology
7.
Ann Surg ; 275(3): 435-437, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707712

ABSTRACT

Sex inequity in academic achievement was well documented before the COVID-19 pandemic, and evolving data suggest that women in academic surgery are disproportionately disadvantaged by the pandemic. This perspective piece reviews currently accepted solutions to the sex achievement gap, with their associated shortcomings. We also propose innovative strategies to overcoming barriers to sex equity in academic medicine that broadly fall into three categories: strategies to mitigate inequitable caregiving responsibilities, strategies to reduce cognitive load, and strategies to value uncompensated, impactful work. These approaches address inequities at the system-level, as opposed to the individual-level, lifting the burden of changing the system from women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Faculty, Medical , Physicians, Women , Specialties, Surgical , Female , Humans , Sex Distribution
8.
Can J Public Health ; 113(1): 107-116, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1675364

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This paper analyzes results from focus groups held with women physicians in British Columbia which explored questions around how gender norms and roles influenced their experiences during COVID-19. METHODS: Four virtual focus groups were organized between July and September 2020. Participants (n = 27) were voluntarily recruited. Data were analyzed using applied thematic analysis. RESULTS: In addition to the COVID-19-related changes experienced across the profession, women physicians faced distinct challenges related to an increase in unpaid care responsibilities, and often felt excluded from, and occasionally dismissed by, leadership. Women leaders often felt their contributions were unrecognized and undervalued. Participants drew strength from other women leaders, peer networks, and professional support, but these strategies were limited by unpaid care and emotional labour demands, which were identified as increasing risk of burnout. DISCUSSION: Even though women physicians hold a degree of relative privilege, unpaid care work and gender norms contribute to distinct secondary effects of COVID-19. Women physicians link these to pre-pandemic assumptions (within families and communities) that women would absorb care deficits at their own cost. Health system leadership continues to reflect a masculine normative experience wherein the personal and professional are separated, and which devalues the emotional labour often associated with feminine leadership. The strategies participants employed to address negative impacts, while demonstrating resourcefulness and peer support, reflect individualistic responses to social-structural challenges. There is a need for greater recognition of women's contributions at home and work, increased representation in decision-making, and practical supports such as childcare and counselling.


RéSUMé: OBJECTIFS: Dans cet article, nous analysons les résultats de groupes thématiques tenus avec des femmes médecins en Colombie-Britannique pour explorer des questions sur l'influence des normes et des rôles liés au genre sur les expériences vécues durant la COVID-19. MéTHODE: Quatre groupes thématiques virtuels ont été organisés entre juillet et septembre 2020. Les participantes (n = 27) ont été recrutées parmi des volontaires. Les données ont fait l'objet d'une analyse thématique appliquée. RéSULTATS: En plus des changements liés à la COVID-19 vécus dans toute la profession, les femmes médecins ont connu des difficultés particulières liées à l'augmentation de leurs responsabilités domestiques non rémunérées et se sont souvent senties exclues, et parfois rejetées, par la haute direction. Les dirigeantes ont souvent senti que leurs contributions étaient non reconnues et sous-estimées. Les participantes se sont appuyées sur d'autres dirigeantes et sur leurs réseaux de pairs et de soutien professionnel, mais ces stratégies ont été limitées par les exigences de leur travail domestique non rémunéré et de leur labeur émotionnel, qui sont reconnues comme faisant augmenter le risque d'épuisement professionnel. DISCUSSION: Bien que les femmes médecins soient relativement privilégiées, le travail domestique non rémunéré et les normes liées au genre ont contribué à des effets secondaires de la COVID-19 qui leur sont particuliers. Les femmes médecins expliquent ces effets par l'hypothèse, qui prévalait déjà avant la pandémie (au sein des familles et des communautés), que les femmes combleraient les lacunes dans les soins à leurs propres dépens. Les dirigeants des systèmes de santé continuent de refléter une expérience masculine normative selon laquelle la vie personnelle et la vie professionnelle sont séparées, et qui dévalorise le labeur émotionnel souvent associé au leadership féminin. Bien qu'elles fassent preuve d'ingéniosité et d'entraide, les stratégies employées par les participantes pour aborder les impacts négatifs reflètent des réponses individualistes à des difficultés sociostructurelles. Il est nécessaire de mieux reconnaître les contributions des femmes à la maison et au travail, d'accroître leur représentation dans la prise de décisions et de renforcer les mesures d'aide pratiques comme les services de garde et le counseling.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Physicians, Women , British Columbia , Female , Humans , Leadership , SARS-CoV-2
10.
J Pediatr ; 242: 145-151.e1, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1634965

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the impact of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) on the neonatology workforce, focusing on professional and domestic workloads. STUDY DESIGN: We surveyed US neonatologists in December 2020 regarding the impact of COVID-19 on professional and domestic work during the pandemic. We estimated associations between changes in time spent on types of professional and domestic work and demographic variables with multivariable logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: Two-thirds (67.6%) of the 758 participants were women. Higher proportions of women than men were in the younger age group (63.3% vs 29.3%), held no leadership position (61.4% vs 46.3%), had dependents at home (68.8% vs 56.3%), did not have a partner or other adult at home (10.6% vs 3.2%), and had an employed partner (88.1% vs 64.6%) (P < .01 for all). A higher proportion of women than men reported a decrease in time spent on scholarly work (35.0% vs 29.0%; P = .02) and career development (44.2% vs 34.9%; P < .01). A higher proportion of women than men reported spending more time caring for children (74.2% vs 55.8%; P < .01). Reduced time spent on career development was associated with younger age (aOR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.20-4.08) and number of dependents (aOR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.01-1.45). Women were more likely to report an increase in time spent time doing domestic work (aOR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.07-2.19) and a reduction in time on self-care (aOR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.29-0.81). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 significantly impacts the neonatology workforce, disproportionately affecting younger, parent, and women physicians. Targeted interventions are needed to support postpandemic career recovery and advance physician contributions to the field.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Neonatologists/statistics & numerical data , Workload , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Gender Role , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Physicians, Women/statistics & numerical data , Professional Role , Puerto Rico , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States
11.
Lancet ; 398(10312): 1680-1681, 2021 11 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621109
12.
Anesth Analg ; 133(6): 1497-1509, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607763

ABSTRACT

Research has shown that women have leadership ability equal to or better than that of their male counterparts, yet proportionally fewer women than men achieve leadership positions and promotion in medicine. The Women's Empowerment and Leadership Initiative (WELI) was founded within the Society for Pediatric Anesthesia (SPA) in 2018 as a multidimensional program to help address the significant career development, leadership, and promotion gender gap between men and women in anesthesiology. Herein, we describe WELI's development and implementation with an early assessment of effectiveness at 2 years. Members received an anonymous, voluntary survey by e-mail to assess whether they believed WELI was beneficial in several broad domains: career development, networking, project implementation and completion, goal setting, mentorship, well-being, and promotion and leadership. The response rate was 60.5% (92 of 152). The majority ranked several aspects of WELI to be very or extremely valuable, including the protégé-advisor dyads, workshops, nomination to join WELI, and virtual facilitated networking. For most members, WELI helped to improve optimism about their professional future. Most also reported that WELI somewhat or absolutely contributed to project improvement or completion, finding new collaborators, and obtaining invitations to be visiting speakers. Among those who applied for promotion or leadership positions, 51% found WELI to be somewhat or absolutely valuable to their application process, and 42% found the same in applying for leadership positions. Qualitative analysis of free-text survey responses identified 5 main themes: (1) feelings of empowerment and confidence, (2) acquisition of new skills in mentoring, coaching, career development, and project implementation, (3) clarification and focus on goal setting, (4) creating meaningful connections through networking, and (5) challenges from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the inability to sustain the advisor-protégé connection. We conclude that after 2 years, the WELI program has successfully supported career development for the majority of protégés and advisors. Continued assessment of whether WELI can meaningfully contribute to attainment of promotion and leadership positions will require study across a longer period. WELI could serve as a programmatic example to support women's career development in other subspecialties.


Subject(s)
Anesthesiologists , Empowerment , Gender Equity , Leadership , Pediatricians , Physicians, Women , Sexism , Women, Working , Attitude of Health Personnel , COVID-19 , Career Mobility , Female , Humans , Male , Mentors , Program Evaluation , Staff Development , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
Lancet ; 398(10303): 920-930, 2021 09 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593950

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has heightened interest in how physician mental health can be protected and optimised, but uncertainty and misinformation remain about some key issues. In this Review, we discuss the current literature, which shows that despite what might be inferred during training, physicians are not immune to mental illness, with between a quarter and a third reporting increased symptoms of mental ill health. Physicians, particularly female physicians, are at an increased risk of suicide. An emerging consensus exists that some aspects of physician training, working conditions, and organisational support are unacceptable. Changes in medical training and health systems, and the additional strain of working through a pandemic, might have amplified these problems. A new evidence-informed framework for how individual and organisational interventions can be used in an integrated manner in medical schools, in health-care settings, and by professional colleagues is proposed. New initiatives are required at each of these levels, with an urgent need for organisational-level interventions, to better protect the mental health and wellbeing of physicians.


Subject(s)
Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Physicians/psychology , Suicide/statistics & numerical data , Burnout, Professional , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/prevention & control , Pandemics , Physicians, Women/psychology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Suicide/prevention & control , Work Schedule Tolerance
15.
Elife ; 92020 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497818

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in school closures and distancing requirements that have disrupted both work and family life for many. Concerns exist that these disruptions caused by the pandemic may not have influenced men and women researchers equally. Many medical journals have published papers on the pandemic, which were generated by researchers facing the challenges of these disruptions. Here we report the results of an analysis that compared the gender distribution of authors on 1893 medical papers related to the pandemic with that on papers published in the same journals in 2019, for papers with first authors and last authors from the United States. Using mixed-effects regression models, we estimated that the proportion of COVID-19 papers with a woman first author was 19% lower than that for papers published in the same journals in 2019, while our comparisons for last authors and overall proportion of women authors per paper were inconclusive. A closer examination suggested that women's representation as first authors of COVID-19 research was particularly low for papers published in March and April 2020. Our findings are consistent with the idea that the research productivity of women, especially early-career women, has been affected more than the research productivity of men.


Subject(s)
Authorship , Bibliometrics , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Research Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Women , COVID-19 , Efficiency , Female , Humans , Medicine , Periodicals as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Physicians, Women/statistics & numerical data , Sex Factors , Social Isolation , United States
16.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(9): 1327-1328, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1464000
18.
Ann Surg ; 274(2): 229-230, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402756
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