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1.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1399347

ABSTRACT

Lippia graveolens is a traditional crop and a rich source of bioactive compounds with various properties (e.g., antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, UV defense, anti-glycemic, and cytotoxicity) that is primarily cultivated for essential oil recovery. The isolated bioactive compounds could be useful as additives in the functional food, nutraceuticals, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. Carvacrol, thymol, ß-caryophyllene, and p-cymene are terpene compounds contained in oregano essential oil (OEO); flavonoids such as quercetin O-hexoside, pinocembrin, and galangin are flavonoids found in oregano extracts. Furthermore, thermoresistant compounds that remain in the plant matrix following a thermal process can be priced in terms of the circular economy. By using better and more selective extraction conditions, the bioactive compounds present in Mexican oregano can be studied as potential inhibitors of COVID-19. Also, research on extraction technologies should continue to ensure a higher quality of bioactive compounds while preventing an undesired chemical shift (e.g., hydrolysis). The oregano fractions can be used in the food, health, and agricultural industries.


Subject(s)
Lippia/chemistry , Phytochemicals/therapeutic use , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cosmetics , Dietary Supplements , Functional Food , Humans , Phytochemicals/isolation & purification , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
2.
Pharmacol Res ; 163: 105224, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364404

ABSTRACT

Acute lung injury (ALI) and its more severe form, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) as common life-threatening lung diseases with high mortality rates are mostly associated with acute and severe inflammation in lungs. With increasing in-depth studies of ALI/ARDS, significant breakthroughs have been made, however, there are still no effective pharmacological therapies for treatment of ALI/ARDS. Especially, the novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) is ravaging the globe, and causes severe respiratory distress syndrome. Therefore, developing new drugs for therapy of ALI/ARDS is in great demand, which might also be helpful for treatment of COVID-19. Natural compounds have always inspired drug development, and numerous natural products have shown potential therapeutic effects on ALI/ARDS. Therefore, this review focuses on the potential therapeutic effects of natural compounds on ALI and the underlying mechanisms. Overall, the review discusses 159 compounds and summarizes more than 400 references to present the protective effects of natural compounds against ALI and the underlying mechanism.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Lung/drug effects , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Acute Lung Injury/etiology , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/pathology , Animals , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Phytochemicals/isolation & purification , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , Signal Transduction
3.
Biophys Chem ; 275: 106608, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219972

ABSTRACT

This paper proposes natural drug candidate compounds for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We investigated the binding properties between the compounds in the Moringa oleifera plant and the main protease (Mpro) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 using molecular docking and ab initio fragment molecular orbital calculations. Among the 12 compounds, niaziminin was found to bind the strongest to Mpro. We furthermore proposed novel compounds based on niaziminin and investigated their binding properties to Mpro. The results reveal that the introduction of a hydroxyl group into niaziminin enhances its binding affinity to Mpro. These niaziminin derivatives can be promising candidate drugs for the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Moringa oleifera/chemistry , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Thiocarbamates/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/classification , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Catalytic Domain , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/genetics , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Drug Design , Drug Discovery , Gene Expression , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Phytochemicals/classification , Phytochemicals/isolation & purification , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/classification , Protease Inhibitors/isolation & purification , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protein Binding , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Protein Structure, Secondary , Quantum Theory , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Structure-Activity Relationship , Thermodynamics , Thiocarbamates/classification , Thiocarbamates/isolation & purification , Thiocarbamates/pharmacology
4.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 414: 115425, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1053802

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The current COVID-19 pandemic is caused by SARS-CoV-2 which belongs to coronaviridae family. Despite the global prevalence, there are currently no vaccines or drugs. Dietary plant derived exosome-like vesicles are known as edible nanoparticles (ENPs). ENPs are filled with microRNAs (miRNAs), in bioavailable form. Recently, cross-kingdom regulation of human transcripts by plant miRNAs have been demonstrated. However, ENP derived miRNAs targeting SARS-CoV-2 has not been described. STUDY DESIGN: Mature ENP-derived miRNA sequences were retrieved from small RNA sequencing datasets available in the literature. In silico target prediction was performed to identify miRNAs that could target SARS-CoV-2. ENPs were isolated from ginger and grapefruit plants and the expression of SARS-CoV-2 targeting miRNAs were confirmed by qRT-PCR. RESULTS: From a total of 260 ENP-derived miRNAs, we identified 22 miRNAs that could potentially target SARS-CoV-2 genome. 11 miRNAs showed absolute target specificity towards SARS-CoV-2 but not SARS-CoV. ENPs from soybean, ginger, hamimelon, grapefruit, tomato and pear possess multiple miRNAs targeting different regions within SARS-CoV-2. Interestingly, osa/cme miR-530b-5p specifically targeted the ribosomal slippage site between ORF1a and ORF1b. We validated the relative expression of six miRNAs (miR-5077, miR-6300, miR-156a, miR-169, miR-5059 and miR-166 m) in ginger and grapefruit ENPs by RT-PCR which showed differential enrichment of specific miRNAs in ginger and grapefruit ENPs. CONCLUSION: Since administration of ENPs leads to their accumulation into lung tissues in vivo, ENP derived miRNAs targeting SARS-CoV-2 genome has the potential to be developed as an alternative therapy.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Exosomes/chemistry , MicroRNAs/pharmacology , Nanoparticles , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plants, Edible/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Base Sequence , Binding Sites , COVID-19/drug therapy , Citrus paradisi/chemistry , Computer Simulation , Genome, Viral , Ginger/chemistry , Humans , MicroRNAs/isolation & purification , Phytochemicals/isolation & purification , Plants, Edible/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
5.
Curr Top Med Chem ; 21(7): 571-596, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1034909

ABSTRACT

Even after one year of its first outbreak reported in China, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is still sweeping the World, causing serious infections and claiming more fatalities. COVID-19 is caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, which belongs to the genus Betacoronavirus (ß-CoVs), which is of greatest clinical importance since it contains many other viruses that cause respiratory disease in humans, including OC43, HKU1, SARS-CoV, and MERS. The spike (S) glycoprotein of ß-CoVs is a key virulence factor in determining disease pathogenesis and host tropism, and it also mediates virus binding to the host's receptors to allow viral entry into host cells, i.e., the first step in virus lifecycle. Viral entry inhibitors are considered promising putative drugs for COVID-19. Herein, we mined the biomedical literature for viral entry inhibitors of other coronaviruses, with special emphasis on ß-CoVs entry inhibitors. We also outlined the structural features of SARS-CoV-2 S protein and how it differs from other ß-CoVs to better understand the structural determinants of S protein binding to its human receptor (ACE2). This review highlighted several promising viral entry inhibitors as potential treatments for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Receptors, Virus/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/virology , Cathepsin L/antagonists & inhibitors , Cathepsin L/chemistry , Cathepsin L/genetics , Cathepsin L/metabolism , Gene Expression , Humans , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Phytochemicals/isolation & purification , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/isolation & purification , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus/chemistry , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Serine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Small Molecule Libraries/chemistry , Small Molecule Libraries/isolation & purification , Small Molecule Libraries/pharmacology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Structure-Activity Relationship
6.
Molecules ; 25(21)2020 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-983187

ABSTRACT

Viral infections and associated diseases are responsible for a substantial number of mortality and public health problems around the world. Each year, infectious diseases kill 3.5 million people worldwide. The current pandemic caused by COVID-19 has become the greatest health hazard to people in their lifetime. There are many antiviral drugs and vaccines available against viruses, but they have many disadvantages, too. There are numerous side effects for conventional drugs, and active mutation also creates drug resistance against various viruses. This has led scientists to search herbs as a source for the discovery of more efficient new antivirals. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 65% of the world population is in the practice of using plants and herbs as part of treatment modality. Additionally, plants have an advantage in drug discovery based on their long-term use by humans, and a reduced toxicity and abundance of bioactive compounds can be expected as a result. In this review, we have highlighted the important viruses, their drug targets, and their replication cycle. We provide in-depth and insightful information about the most favorable plant extracts and their derived phytochemicals against viral targets. Our major conclusion is that plant extracts and their isolated pure compounds are essential sources for the current viral infections and useful for future challenges.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Herpes Simplex/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Phytochemicals/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/classification , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Drug Discovery , HIV/drug effects , HIV/pathogenicity , HIV/physiology , HIV Infections/pathology , HIV Infections/virology , Hepacivirus/drug effects , Hepacivirus/pathogenicity , Hepacivirus/physiology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/pathology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/virology , Herpes Simplex/pathology , Herpes Simplex/virology , Humans , Influenza, Human/pathology , Influenza, Human/virology , Orthomyxoviridae/drug effects , Orthomyxoviridae/pathogenicity , Orthomyxoviridae/physiology , Pandemics , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Phytochemicals/classification , Phytochemicals/isolation & purification , Plants, Medicinal , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Simplexvirus/drug effects , Simplexvirus/pathogenicity , Simplexvirus/physiology , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
7.
Molecules ; 25(21)2020 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-902611

ABSTRACT

The new coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has recently put the world under stress, resulting in a global pandemic. Currently, there are no approved treatments or vaccines, and this severe respiratory illness has cost many lives. Despite the established antimicrobial and immune-boosting potency described for honey, to date there is still a lack of evidence about its potential role amid COVID-19 outbreak. Based on the previously explored antiviral effects and phytochemical components of honey, we review here evidence for its role as a potentially effective natural product against COVID-19. Although some bioactive compounds in honey have shown potential antiviral effects (i.e., methylglyoxal, chrysin, caffeic acid, galangin and hesperidinin) or enhancing antiviral immune responses (i.e., levan and ascorbic acid), the mechanisms of action for these compounds are still ambiguous. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work exclusively summarizing all these bioactive compounds with their probable mechanisms of action as antiviral agents, specifically against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Honey/analysis , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Animals , COVID-19 , Forecasting , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Phytochemicals/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Molecules ; 25(17)2020 Aug 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740497

ABSTRACT

A pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19) began in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, and the number of newly reported cases continues to increase. More than 19.7 million cases have been reported globally and about 728,000 have died as of this writing (10 August 2020). Recently, it has been confirmed that the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) enzyme is responsible not only for viral reproduction but also impedes host immune responses. The Mpro provides a highly favorable pharmacological target for the discovery and design of inhibitors. Currently, no specific therapies are available, and investigations into the treatment of COVID-19 are lacking. Therefore, herein, we analyzed the bioactive phytocompounds isolated by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) from Tinospora crispa as potential COVID-19 Mpro inhibitors, using molecular docking study. Our analyses unveiled that the top nine hits might serve as potential anti-SARS-CoV-2 lead molecules, with three of them exerting biological activity and warranting further optimization and drug development to combat COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Tinospora/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Antiviral Agents/classification , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/enzymology , COVID-19 , Catalytic Domain , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Cysteine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Cysteine Endopeptidases/genetics , Cysteine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Drug Discovery , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Gene Expression , Humans , Kinetics , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pandemics , Phytochemicals/classification , Phytochemicals/isolation & purification , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Protease Inhibitors/classification , Protease Inhibitors/isolation & purification , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protein Binding , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Protein Structure, Secondary , SARS-CoV-2 , Substrate Specificity , Thermodynamics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism
9.
Molecules ; 25(17)2020 Aug 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-727433

ABSTRACT

Presently, there are no approved drugs or vaccines to treat COVID-19, which has spread to over 200 countries and at the time of writing was responsible for over 650,000 deaths worldwide. Recent studies have shown that two human proteases, TMPRSS2 and cathepsin L, play a key role in host cell entry of SARS-CoV-2. Importantly, inhibitors of these proteases were shown to block SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here, we perform virtual screening of 14,011 phytochemicals produced by Indian medicinal plants to identify natural product inhibitors of TMPRSS2 and cathepsin L. AutoDock Vina was used to perform molecular docking of phytochemicals against TMPRSS2 and cathepsin L. Potential phytochemical inhibitors were filtered by comparing their docked binding energies with those of known inhibitors of TMPRSS2 and cathepsin L. Further, the ligand binding site residues and non-covalent interactions between protein and ligand were used as an additional filter to identify phytochemical inhibitors that either bind to or form interactions with residues important for the specificity of the target proteases. This led to the identification of 96 inhibitors of TMPRSS2 and 9 inhibitors of cathepsin L among phytochemicals of Indian medicinal plants. Further, we have performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to analyze the stability of the protein-ligand complexes for the three top inhibitors of TMPRSS2 namely, qingdainone, edgeworoside C and adlumidine, and of cathepsin L namely, ararobinol, (+)-oxoturkiyenine and 3α,17α-cinchophylline. Interestingly, several herbal sources of identified phytochemical inhibitors have antiviral or anti-inflammatory use in traditional medicine. Further in vitro and in vivo testing is needed before clinical trials of the promising phytochemical inhibitors identified here.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Cathepsin L/chemistry , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Receptors, Virus/chemistry , Serine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Amino Acid Sequence , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Binding Sites , COVID-19 , Cathepsin L/antagonists & inhibitors , Cathepsin L/genetics , Cathepsin L/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/enzymology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coumarins/chemistry , Coumarins/isolation & purification , Coumarins/pharmacology , Gene Expression , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , India , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Monosaccharides/chemistry , Monosaccharides/isolation & purification , Monosaccharides/pharmacology , Pandemics , Phytochemicals/isolation & purification , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/enzymology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protease Inhibitors/isolation & purification , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation, alpha-Helical , Protein Conformation, beta-Strand , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Quinazolines/chemistry , Quinazolines/isolation & purification , Quinazolines/pharmacology , Receptors, Virus/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Thermodynamics , Virus Internalization/drug effects
10.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol ; 22(4): 444-450, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-630363

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of the present review is to provide basic knowledge regarding the treatment of Coronavirus via medicinal plants. Coronavirus (COVID-19, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV) as a viral pneumonia causative agent, has infected thousands of people in China and worldwide. Currently, there is no specific medicine or vaccine available that can treat or prevent this virus and this has posed a severe threat to human health; therefore, there is an urgent need to develop a novel drug or anticoronavirus vaccine. However, natural compounds to treat coronaviruses are the most effective alternative and complementary therapies due to their diverse range of biological and therapeutic properties. METHODS: We performed an open-ended, English restricted search of Scopus database, Web of Science, and Pubmed for all available literature from Jan-March, 2020, using terms related to phytochemical compounds, medicinal plants and coronavirus. RESULTS: The view on anti-coronavirus (anti-CoV) activity in the plant-derived phytochemicals and medicinal plants gives a strong base to develop a novel treatment employing these compounds for coronavirus. Various phytochemicals and medicinal plant extracts have been revised and are considered as potential anti-CoV agents for effective control of the virus and future drug development. Herein, we discuss some important plants (Scutellaria baicalensis, Psorothamnus arborescens, Glycyrrhiza radix, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Lycoris radiate, Phyllanthus emblica, Camellia sinensis, Hyptis atrorubens Poit, Fraxinus sieboldiana, Erigeron breviscapus, Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium, Amaranthus tricolor, Phaseolus vulgaris, Rheum palmatum, Curcuma longa and Myrica cerifera) that have emerged to have broad-spectrum antiviral activity. CONCLUSION: Nigella sativa has potent anti-SARS-CoV activity and it might be a useful source for developing novel antiviral therapies for coronavirus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Phytochemicals/therapeutic use , Plants, Medicinal , SARS Virus/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Alkaloids/isolation & purification , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Alkaloids/therapeutic use , Animals , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Curcuma , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Nigella sativa , Phytochemicals/isolation & purification , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Scutellaria baicalensis
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