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1.
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol ; 36: 3946320221142793, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2138626

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Medicinal herbs are being investigated for medicationhg development against SARS-CoV-2 as a rich source of bioactive chemicals. One of the finest approaches for finding therapeutically effective drug molecules in real time is virtual screening scheme such as molecular docking in conjunction with molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. These virtual techniques provide an ample opportunity for the screening of plausible inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 different target proteins from a comprehensive and extensive phytochemical library. The study was designed to identify potential phytochemicals by virtual screening against different receptor proteins. METHODS: In the current study, a library of plant secondary metabolites was created by manually curating 120 phytochemicals known to have antimicrobial as well as antiviral properties. In the current study, different potential phytochemicals were identified by virtual screening against various selected receptor proteins (i.e., viral main proteases, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), ADP ribose phosphatase, nonstructural proteins NSP7, NSP8, and NSP9) which are key proteins responsible for transcription, replication and maturation of SARS-CoV-2 in the host. Top three phytochemicals were selected against each viral receptor protein based on their best S-scores, RMSD values, molecular interactions, binding patterns and drug-likeness properties. RESULTS: The results of molecular docking study revealed that phytochemicals (i.e., baicalin, betaxanthin, epigallocatechin, fomecin A, gallic acid, hortensin, ichangin, kaempferol, limonoic acid, myricetin hexaacetat, pedalitin, quercetin, quercitrin, and silvestrol) have strong antiviral potential against SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, the reported preeminent reliable phytochemicals also revealed toxicity by no means during the evaluation through ADMET profiling. Moreover, the MD simulation study also exhibited thermal stability and stable binding affinity of the pedalitin with SARS-CoV-2 RdRp and SARS-CoV-2 main protease which suggests appreciable efficacy of the lead optimization. CONCLUSION: The biological activity and pharmacologically distinguishing characteristics of these lead compounds also satisfied as repurposing antiviral drug contenders and are worth substantial evaluation in the biological laboratory for the recommendation of being plausible antiviral drug candidates against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase
2.
Molecules ; 27(22)2022 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123760

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a human coronaviruses that emerged in China at Wuhan city, Hubei province during December 2019. Subsequently, SARS-CoV-2 has spread worldwide and caused millions of deaths around the globe. Several compounds and vaccines have been proposed to tackle this crisis. Novel recommended in silico approaches have been commonly used to screen for specific SARS-CoV-2 inhibitors of different types. Herein, the phytochemicals of Pakistani medicinal plants (especially Artemisia annua) were virtually screened to identify potential inhibitors of the SARS-CoV-2 main protease enzyme. The X-ray crystal structure of the main protease of SARS-CoV-2 with an N3 inhibitor was obtained from the protein data bank while A. annua phytochemicals were retrieved from different drug databases. The docking technique was carried out to assess the binding efficacy of the retrieved phytochemicals; the docking results revealed that several phytochemicals have potential to inhibit the SARS-CoV-2 main protease enzyme. Among the total docked compounds, the top-10 docked complexes were considered for further study and evaluated for their physiochemical and pharmacokinetic properties. The top-3 docked complexes with the best binding energies were as follows: the top-1 docked complex with a -7 kcal/mol binding energy score, the top-2 docked complex with a -6.9 kcal/mol binding energy score, and the top-3 docked complex with a -6.8 kcal/mol binding energy score. These complexes were subjected to a molecular dynamic simulation analysis for further validation to check the dynamic behavior of the selected top-complexes. During the whole simulation time, no major changes were observed in the docked complexes, which indicated complex stability. Additionally, the free binding energies for the selected docked complexes were also estimated via the MM-GB/PBSA approach, and the results revealed that the total delta energies of MMGBSA were -24.23 kcal/mol, -26.38 kcal/mol, and -25 kcal/mol for top-1, top-2, and top-3, respectively. MMPBSA calculated the delta total energy as -17.23 kcal/mol (top-1 complex), -24.75 kcal/mol (top-2 complex), and -24.86 kcal/mol (top-3 complex). This study explored in silico screened phytochemicals against the main protease of the SARS-CoV-2 virus; however, the findings require an experimentally based study to further validate the obtained results.


Subject(s)
Artemisia annua , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Phytochemicals/pharmacology
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(22)2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110124

ABSTRACT

Cholesterol synthesis occurs in almost all cells, but mainly in hepatocytes in the liver. Cholesterol is garnering increasing attention for its central role in various metabolic diseases. In addition, cholesterol is one of the most essential elements for cells as both a structural source and a player participating in various metabolic pathways. Accurate regulation of cholesterol is necessary for the proper metabolism of fats in the body. Disturbances in cholesterol homeostasis have been linked to various metabolic diseases, such as hyperlipidemia and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). For many years, the use of synthetic chemical drugs has been effective against many health conditions. Furthermore, from ancient to modern times, various plant-based drugs have been considered local medicines, playing important roles in human health. Phytochemicals are bioactive natural compounds that are derived from medicinal plants, fruit, vegetables, roots, leaves, and flowers and are used to treat a variety of diseases. They include flavonoids, carotenoids, polyphenols, polysaccharides, vitamins, and more. Many of these compounds have been proven to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiobesity and antihypercholesteremic activity. The multifaceted role of phytochemicals may provide health benefits to humans with regard to the treatment and control of cholesterol metabolism and the diseases associated with this disorder, such as NAFLD. In recent years, global environmental climate change, the COVID-19 pandemic, the current war in Europe, and other conflicts have threatened food security and human nutrition worldwide. This further emphasizes the urgent need for sustainable sources of functional phytochemicals to be included in the food industry and dietary habits. This review summarizes the latest findings on selected phytochemicals from sustainable sources-algae and edible mushrooms-that affect the synthesis and metabolism of cholesterol and improve or prevent NAFLD.


Subject(s)
Agaricales , COVID-19 , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Humans , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/drug therapy , Agaricales/chemistry , Pandemics , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Phytochemicals/therapeutic use , Cholesterol/therapeutic use
4.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 156: 113946, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2085962

ABSTRACT

Qingfei Paidu decoction (QFPDD) has been clinically proven to be effective in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the bioactive components and therapeutic mechanisms remain unclear. This study aimed to explore the effective components and underlying mechanisms of QFPDD in the treatment of COVID-19 by targeting the virus-host interactome and verifying the antiviral activities of its active components in vitro. Key active components and targets were identified by analysing the topological features of a compound-target-pathway-disease regulatory network of QFPDD for the treatment of COVID-19. The antiviral activity of the active components was determined by a live virus infection assay, and possible mechanisms were analysed by pseudotyped virus infection and molecular docking assays. The inhibitory effects of the components tested on the virus-induced release of IL-6, IL-1ß and CXCL-10 were detected by ELISA. Three components of QFPDD, oroxylin A, hesperetin and scutellarin, exhibited potent antiviral activities against live SARS-CoV-2 virus and HCoV-OC43 virus with IC50 values ranging from 18.68 to 63.27 µM. Oroxylin A inhibited the entry of SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus into target cells and inhibited SARS-CoV-2 S protein-mediated cell-cell fusion by binding with the ACE2 receptor. The active components of QFPDD obviously inhibited the IL-6, IL-1ß and CXCL-10 release induced by the SARS-CoV-2 S protein. This study supports the clinical application of QFPDD and provides an effective analysis method for the in-depth study of the mechanisms of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/drug therapy , Molecular Docking Simulation , Interleukin-6 , SARS-CoV-2 , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Phytochemicals/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Sep 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066116

ABSTRACT

Naturally occurring bioactives, also known as phytochemicals, have been widely recognized and researched owing to their multiple potentialities [...].


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Phytochemicals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Phytochemicals/therapeutic use
6.
Front Public Health ; 10: 964741, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065648

ABSTRACT

Arisaema jacquemontii Blume is a highly medicinal and poisonous plant belong to the family Araceae. It is used to treat several deadly diseases, including viral infections. It has antioxidant, anti-cancerous, antimalarial, anti-vermicidal, and antiviral activities. Therefore, five parts of the Arisaema jacquemontii Blume plant, such as leaf, seed, stem, pulp, and rhizome extract, were evaluated for metabolic and in silico characterization of probable compounds using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. A total of 22 compounds were isolated from the methanolic extracts of A. jacquemontii Blume. A selected antiviral COVID-19 protein i.e., protease (6LU7) was docked against the obtained compounds. Different affinities were obtained through various compounds. The best results were shown by three different compounds identified in the rhizome. The maximum binding affinity of these compounds is 8.1 kJ/mol. Molecular docking (MD) indicate that these molecules have the highest binding energies and hydrogen bonding interactions. The binding mode of interaction was discovered to be reasonably effective for counteracting the SARS virus COVID-19. The findings of this study could be extremely useful in the development of more phytochemical-based COVID-19 therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials , Arisaema , COVID-19 , Antioxidants , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Arisaema/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Molecular Docking Simulation , Peptide Hydrolases , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology
7.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol ; 395(12): 1525-1536, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2048210

ABSTRACT

Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f. is nicknamed the 'Miracle plant' or sometimes as the 'Wonder plant'. It is a plant that has been used since ancient times for the innumerable health benefits associated with it. It is one of the important plants that has its use in conventional medicinal treatments. It is a perennial succulent, drought-tolerant member of the family Asphodelaceae. There are scores of properties associated with the plant that help in curing various forms of human ailments. Extracts and gels obtained from plants have been shown to be wonderful healers of different conditions, mainly various skin problems. Also, this plant is popular in the cosmetics industry. The underlying properties of the plant are now mainly associated with the natural phytochemicals present in the plant. Diverse groups of phytoingredients are found in the plant, including various phenolics, amino acids, sugars, vitamins, and different other organic compounds, too. One of the primary ingredients found in the plant is the aloin molecule. It is an anthraquinone derivative and exists as an isomer of Aloin A and Aloin B. Barbaloin belonging to the first group is a glucoside of the aloe-emodin anthrone molecule. Various types of pharmacological properties exhibited by the plant can be attributed to this chemical. Few significant ones are antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-cancer, anti-microbial, and anti-viral, along with their different immunity-boosting actions. Recently, molecular coupling studies have also found the role of these molecules as a potential cure against the ongoing COVID-19 disease. This study comprehensively focuses on the numerous pharmacological actions of the primary compound barbaloin obtained from the Aloe vera plant along with the mechanism of action and the potent application of these natural molecules under various conditions.


Subject(s)
Aloe , COVID-19 , Humans , Aloe/chemistry , Anthracenes/pharmacology , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry
8.
Molecules ; 27(18)2022 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043868

ABSTRACT

Traditionally, Brassica species are widely used in traditional medicine, human food, and animal feed. Recently, special attention has been dedicated to Brassica seeds as source of health-promoting phytochemicals. This review provides a summary of recent research on the Brassica seed phytochemistry, bioactivity, dietary importance, and toxicity by screening the major online scientific database sources and papers published in recent decades by Elsevier, Springer, and John Wiley. The search was conducted covering the period from January 1964 to July 2022. Phytochemically, polyphenols, glucosinolates, and their degradation products were the predominant secondary metabolites in seeds. Different extracts and their purified constituents from seeds of Brassica species have been found to possess a wide range of biological properties including antioxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and neuroprotective activities. These valuable functional properties of Brassica seeds are related to their richness in active compounds responsible for the prevention and treatment of various chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cancer, and COVID-19. Currently, the potential properties of Brassica seeds and their components are the main focus of research, but their toxicity and health risks must also be accounted for.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Brassica , COVID-19 , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Brassica/chemistry , Ethnopharmacology , Glucosinolates , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Seeds
9.
Chem Biodivers ; 19(11): e202200655, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2034734

ABSTRACT

Selected traditional medicinal plants exhibit therapeutic effects in coronavirus disease (Covid-19) patients. This review aims to identify the phytochemicals from five traditional medicinal plants (Glycyrrhiza glabra, Nigella sativa, Curcuma longa, Tinospora cordifolia and Withania somnifera) with high potential in modulating the main protease (Mpro) activity and cytokine storm in Covid-19 infection. The Mpro binding affinity of 13 plant phytochemicals were in the following order: Withanoside II>withanoside IV>withaferin A>α-hederin>withanoside V>sitoindoside IX>glabridin>liquiritigenin, nigellidine>curcumin>glycyrrhizin>tinocordiside>berberine. Among these phytochemicals, glycyrrhizin, withaferin A, curcumin, nigellidine and cordifolioside A suppressed SARS-CoV-2 replication and showed stronger anti-inflammatory activities than standard Covid-19 drugs. Both preclinical and clinical evidences supported the development of plant bioactive compounds as Mpro inhibitors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Curcumin , Plants, Medicinal , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Cytokine Release Syndrome , COVID-19/drug therapy , Peptide Hydrolases , Curcumin/pharmacology , Glycyrrhizic Acid , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation
10.
Comput Biol Med ; 149: 106049, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2007624

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections generate approximately one million virions per day, and the majority of available antivirals are ineffective against it due to the virus's inherent genetic mutability. This necessitates the investigation of concurrent inhibition of multiple SARS-CoV-2 targets. We show that fortunellin (acacetin 7-O-neohesperidoside), a phytochemical, is a promising candidate for preventing and treating coronavirus disease (COVID-19) by targeting multiple key viral target proteins. Fortunellin supports protective immunity while inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokines and apoptosis pathways and protecting against tissue damage. Fortunellin is a phytochemical found in Gojihwadi kwath, an Indian traditional Ayurvedic formulation with an antiviral activity that is effective in COVID-19 patients. The mechanistic action of its antiviral activity, however, is unknown. The current study comprehensively evaluates the potential therapeutic mechanisms of fortunellin in preventing and treating COVID-19. We have used molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulations, free-energy calculations, host target mining of fortunellin, gene ontology enrichment, pathway analyses, and protein-protein interaction analysis. We discovered that fortunellin reliably binds to key targets that are necessary for viral replication, growth, invasion, and infectivity including Nucleocapsid (N-CTD) (-54.62 kcal/mol), Replicase-monomer at NSP-8 binding site (-34.48 kcal/mol), Replicase-dimer interface (-31.29 kcal/mol), Helicase (-30.02 kcal/mol), Papain-like-protease (-28.12 kcal/mol), 2'-O-methyltransferase (-23.17 kcal/mol), Main-protease (-21.63 kcal/mol), Replicase-monomer at dimer interface (-22.04 kcal/mol), RNA-dependent-RNA-polymerase (-19.98 kcal/mol), Nucleocapsid-NTD (-16.92 kcal/mol), and Endoribonuclease (-16.81 kcal/mol). Furthermore, we identify and evaluate the potential human targets of fortunellin and its effect on the SARS-CoV-2 infected tissues, including normal-human-bronchial-epithelium (NHBE) and lung cells and organoids such as pancreatic, colon, liver, and cornea using a network pharmacology approach. Thus, our findings indicate that fortunellin has a dual role; multi-target antiviral activities against SARS-CoV-2 and immunomodulatory capabilities against the host.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokines , Endoribonucleases , Flavonoids , Glycosides , Humans , Methyltransferases , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Papain , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , RNA
11.
Phytomedicine ; 104: 154324, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2000662

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 highly caused contagious infections and massive deaths worldwide as well as unprecedentedly disrupting global economies and societies, and the urgent development of new antiviral medications are required. Medicinal herbs are promising resources for the discovery of prophylactic candidate against COVID-19. Considerable amounts of experimental efforts have been made on vaccines and direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs), but neither of them was fast and fully developed. PURPOSE: This study examined the computational approaches that have played a significant role in drug discovery and development against COVID-19, and these computational methods and tools will be helpful for the discovery of lead compounds from phytochemicals and understanding the molecular mechanism of action of TCM in the prevention and control of the other diseases. METHODS: A search conducting in scientific databases (PubMed, Science Direct, ResearchGate, Google Scholar, and Web of Science) found a total of 2172 articles, which were retrieved via web interface of the following websites. After applying some inclusion and exclusion criteria and full-text screening, only 292 articles were collected as eligible articles. RESULTS: In this review, we highlight three main categories of computational approaches including structure-based, knowledge-mining (artificial intelligence) and network-based approaches. The most commonly used database, molecular docking tool, and MD simulation software include TCMSP, AutoDock Vina, and GROMACS, respectively. Network-based approaches were mainly provided to help readers understanding the complex mechanisms of multiple TCM ingredients, targets, diseases, and networks. CONCLUSION: Computational approaches have been broadly applied to the research of phytochemicals and TCM against COVID-19, and played a significant role in drug discovery and development in terms of the financial and time saving.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Hepatitis C, Chronic , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/drug therapy , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Molecular Docking Simulation , Phytochemicals/pharmacology
12.
Molecules ; 27(15)2022 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1994118

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to determine the variability of several chemical compounds and the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of eight types of berries harvested from two different geographical regions in the same year. The analyses were performed on bilberry, black currant, gooseberry, red currant, raspberry, sea buckthorn, strawberry and sour cherry, which were handpicked during the summer of 2019, in the same periods when they are typically harvested for consumer purposes. Total anthocyanins content (TAC), total flavonoids content (TFC), total polyphenolic compounds (TPC), determination of the Ferric-Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP), determination of the DPPH free radical scavenging assay (RSA), determination of nine phenolic compounds by HPLC-UV assay and antimicrobial activity were determined for undiluted hydroalcoholic extracts of all the studied berries. The results showed that the berries from Romania were richer in antioxidant compounds than the berries from Russia. The TPC content varied between 4.13-22.2 mg GAE/g d.w., TFC between 3.33-8.87 mg QE/g d.w. and TAC between 0.13-3.94 mg/g d.w. The highest variability was determined for TPC. Regarding the antioxidant activity assessed by FRAP assay, values were between 6.02-57.23 µmols TE/g d.w. and values for the RSA method between 18.44-83.81%. From the eight types of berries analyzed, bilberries and raspberries had the highest antioxidant activity considering both regions and both determination methods. Not only the type, but also the environmental and cultivation conditions in which the berries grow, can lead to variations in their chemical composition. The extracted polyphenolic compounds from the studied berries showed antibacterial properties on pathogens, such as Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphyloccocus aureus. The inhibitory action on Salmonella typhi and fungi Candida albicans and Aspegillus niger was absent to very low. The antimicrobial activity of the hydroalcoholic extracts was dependent on the provenance of the berries, too.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Ribes , Vaccinium myrtillus , Anthocyanins/analysis , Anthocyanins/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/analysis , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/chemistry , Flavonoids/analysis , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Fruit/chemistry , Phytochemicals/analysis , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Ribes/chemistry
13.
Molecules ; 27(15)2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969393

ABSTRACT

Siddha medicine is one of the oldest medical systems in the world and is believed to have originated more than 10,000 years ago and is prevalent across ancient Tamil land. It is undeniable that inhibitor preferences rise with increasing solubility in water due to the considerations pertaining to the bioavailability and the ease of which unabsorbed residues can be disposed of. In this study, we showed the phytochemical discrimination of Saussurea costus extracted with water at room temperature as a green extraction procedure. A total of 48 compounds were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The fatty acids had a high phytochemical abundance at 73.8%, followed by tannins at 8.2%, carbohydrates at 6.9%, terpenoids at 4.3%, carboxylic acids at 2.5%, hydrocarbons at 2.4%, phenolic compounds at 0.2%, and sterols at 1.5%. Of these compounds, 22 were docked on the active side and on the catalytic dyad of His41 and Cys145 of the main protease of SARS-CoV-2 (Mpro). Eight active inhibitors were carbohydrates, five were fatty acids, three were terpenoids, two were carboxylic acids, one was a tannin, one was a phenolic compound, and one was a sterol. The best inhibitors were 4,8,13-Cyclotetradecatriene-1,3-diol, 1,5,9-trimethyl-12-(1-methylethyl), Andrographolide, and delta.4-Androstene-3.beta.,17.beta.-diol, with a binding affinity that ranged from -6.1 kcal/mol to -6.5 kcal/mol. The inhibitory effect of Saussurea costus of SARS-CoV-2 entry into the cell was studied using a pseudovirus with Spike proteins from the D614G variant and the VOC variants Gamma and Delta. Based on the viral cycle of SARS-CoV-2, our results suggest that the Saussurea costus aqueous extract has no virucidal effect and inhibits the virus in the events after cell entry. Furthermore, the biological activity of the aqueous extract was investigated against HSV-1 virus and two bacterial strains, namely Staphylococcus aureus ATCC BAA 1026 and Escherichia coli ATCC 9637. According to this study, an enormous number of water-soluble inhibitors were identified from Saussurea costus against the Mpro, and this is unprecedented as far as we know.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Saussurea , COVID-19/drug therapy , Carbohydrates , Carboxylic Acids , Fatty Acids , Humans , India , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Saussurea/chemistry , Terpenes , Water
14.
J Food Biochem ; 46(10): e14345, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956770

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It is a global problem that humanity has not yet found a definitive solution for it. In this regard, a global effort has been done to find effective or potential adjuvant therapies in order to fight this infection. Genistein is a small, biologically active phytoestrogen flavonoid that is found in high amounts in soy and plants of the Fabaceae family. This important compound is known due to its anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects. Additionally, protective effects of genistein have been reported in different pathological conditions through modulating intracellular pathways such as PI3K, Akt, mTOR, NF-κB, PPARγ, AMPK, and Nrf2. Scientific evidence suggests that genistein could have a potential role to treat COVID-19 through its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects. Furthermore, it appears to interfere with intracellular pathways involved in viral entry into the cell. This review provides a basis for further research and development of clinical applications of genistein as a potential alternative therapy to decrease inflammation and oxidative stress in COVID-19 patients. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiological agent for the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), has brought unprecedented untold hardship to both developing and developed countries. The inflammation, cytokine storm, and oxidative stress have an important role in the pathogenesis of this infection. In this regard, finding plant-derived compounds with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects would be very beneficial in reducing the mortality induced by this infection. Genistein an isoflavone derived from soy-rich products possesses versatile biological activities. It has potent anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative and immunomodulatory effects. Furthermore, this compound may prevent viral entry to host cells and reduce SARS-CoV2-induced lung injury. Therefore, we suggest further studies on the effects of genistein on SARS-Cov-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Genistein/pharmacology , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , NF-kappa B , PPAR gamma , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Phytoestrogens/pharmacology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases
15.
Molecules ; 27(15)2022 Jul 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957395

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, emerged in late December 2019 in Wuhan, China. As of 8 April 2022, the virus has caused a global pandemic, resulting in 494,587,638 infections leading to 6,170,283 deaths around the world. Although several vaccines have received emergency authorization from USA and UK drug authorities and two more in Russia and China, it is too early to comment on the prolonged effectiveness of the vaccines, their availability, and affordability for the developing countries of the world, and the daunting task to vaccinate 7 billion people of the world with two doses of the vaccine with additional booster doses. As a result, it is still worthwhile to search for drugs and several promising leads have been found, mainly through in silico studies. In this study, we have examined the binding energies of several alkaloids and anthocyanin derivatives from the Solanaceae family, a family which contains common consumable vegetables and fruit items such as eggplant, pepper, and tomatoes. Our study demonstrates that Solanaceae family alkaloids such as incanumine and solaradixine, as well as anthocyanins and anthocyanidins, have very high predicted binding energies for the 3C-like protease of SARS-CoV-2 (also known as Mpro). Since Mpro is vital for SARS-CoV-2 replication, the compounds merit potential for further antiviral research towards the objective of obtaining affordable drugs.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , COVID-19 , Solanaceae , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Anthocyanins , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Cysteine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Solanaceae/metabolism , Vegetables/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism
16.
Infect Disord Drug Targets ; 22(5): 22-30, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951886

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Flavonoid class phytochemicals are natural compounds present in different medicinal plants, vegetables and fruits. Ginkgo biloba contains significant amounts of bioflavonoid 'bilobetin'. Bilobetin is an active phytochemical used for the treatment of human health complications due to its medicinal properties and therapeutic benefit. The purpose of this work is to collect and reviewed scientific data on bilobetin from different literature sources; highlight their biological properties, pharmacological activities and analytical aspects. METHODS: Health beneficial aspects of bilobetin have been investigated in the present work through scientific data analysis. PubMed, Google Scholar, Google, Scopus, etc. have been searched in the present work in order to collect scientific information on bilobetin. Medicinal importance and therapeutic benefit of bilobetin has been searched in the present work through these databases of bilobetin. Detailed pharmacological activities of bilobetin have been reviewed in the present work through literature data analysis of various scientific research works. However, analytical data of bilobetin were also collected and reviewed in the present reaserch. RESULTS: Literature data analysis of bilobetin in the present work revealed the medicinal properties and therapeutic potential of bilobetin mainly due to its anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, antihyperlipidemic, and anti-proliferative activities. Literature data analysis revealed the effectiveness of bilobetin on osteoporosis, glucose metabolism, adipocytes, SARS CoV-2, Influenza A virus and human thrombin. Scientific data also revealed the importance of different analytical techniques for the isolation, separation, identification, and quantification of bilobetin. CONCLUSION: Scientific data analysis revealed biological importance and pharmacological activities of bilobetin in the health sector.


Subject(s)
Biflavonoids , COVID-19 , Plants, Medicinal , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Biflavonoids/pharmacology , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Flavonoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(59): 89295-89339, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1935851

ABSTRACT

The whole world is still challenged with COVID-19 pandemic caused by Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) which has affected millions of individuals around the globe. Although there are prophylactic vaccines being used, till now, there is ongoing research into discovery of drug candidates for total eradication of all types of coronaviruses. In this context, this study sought to investigate the inhibitory effects of six selected tropical plants against four pathogenic proteins of Coronavirus-2. The medicinal plants used in this study were selected based on their traditional applications in herbal medicine to treat COVID-19 and related symptoms. The biological activities (antioxidant, free radical scavenging, and anti-inflammatory activities) of the extracts of the plants were assessed using different standard procedures. The phytochemicals present in the extracts were identified using GCMS and further screened via in silico molecular docking. The data from this study demonstrated that the phytochemicals of the selected tropical medicinal plants displayed substantial binding affinity to the binding pockets of the four main pathogenic proteins of Coronavirus-2 indicating them as putative inhibitors of Coronavirus-2 and as potential anti-coronavirus drug candidates. The reaction between these phytocompounds and proteins of Coronavirus-2 could alter the pathophysiology of COVID-19, thus mitigating its pathogenic reactions/activities. In conclusion, phytocompounds of these plants exhibited promising binding efficiency with target proteins of SARS-COV-2. Nevertheless, in vitro and in vivo studies are important to potentiate these findings. Other drug techniques or models are vital to elucidate their compatibility and usage as adjuvants in vaccine development against the highly contagious COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Molecular Docking Simulation , Nigeria , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Phytochemicals/chemistry
18.
Phytother Res ; 35(11): 6148-6169, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1935724

ABSTRACT

Uncontrolled inflammatory responses or cytokine storm associated with viral infections results in deleterious consequences such as vascular leakage, severe hemorrhage, shock, immune paralysis, multi-organ failure, and even death. With the emerging new viral infections and lack of effective prophylactic vaccines, evidence-based complementary strategies that limit viral infection-mediated hyperinflammatory responses could be a promising approach to limit host tissue injury. The present review emphasizes the potentials of antiinflammatory phytochemicals in limiting hyperinflammatory injury caused by viral infections. The predominant phytochemicals along with their mechanism in limiting hyperimmune and pro-inflammatory responses under viral infection have been reviewed comprehensively. How certain phytochemicals can be effective in limiting hyper-inflammatory response indirectly by favorably modulating gut microbiota and maintaining a functional intestinal barrier has also been presented. Finally, we have discussed improved systemic bioavailability of phytochemicals, efficient delivery strategies, and safety measures for effective antiinflammatory phytotherapies, in addition to emphasizing the requirement of tightly controlled clinical studies to establish the antiinflammatory efficacy of the phytochemicals. Collectively, the review provides a scooping overview on the potentials of bioactive phytochemicals to mitigate pro-inflammatory injury associated with viral infections.


Subject(s)
Phytochemicals , Virus Diseases , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Humans , Intestines , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Phytotherapy , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/prevention & control
19.
Molecules ; 27(13)2022 Jun 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934173

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to find the biological propensities of the vegetable plant Pleurospermum candollei by investigating its phytochemical profile and biological activities. Phytochemical analysis was done by spectroscopic methods to investigate the amount of total polyphenols, and biological evaluation was done by the different antioxidant, enzyme inhibitory (tyrosinase, α-amylase, and α-glucosidase), thrombolytic, and antibacterial activities. The highest amount of total phenolic and flavonoid contents was observed in methanolic extract (240.69 ± 2.94 mg GAE/g and 167.59 ± 3.47 mg QE/g); the fractions showed comparatively less quantity (57.02 ± 1.31 to 144.02 ± 2.11 mg GAE/g, and 48.21 ± 0.75 to 96.58 ± 2.30 mg QE/g). The effect of these bioactive contents was also related to biological activities. GCMS analysis led to the identification of bioactive compounds with different biological effects from methanolic extract (antioxidant; 55.07%, antimicrobial; 56.41%), while the identified compounds from the n-hexane fraction with antioxidant properties constituted 67.86%, and those with antimicrobial effects constituted 82.95%; however, the synergetic effect of polyphenols may also have contributed to the highest value of biological activities of methanolic extract. Molecular docking was also performed to understand the relationship of identified secondary metabolites with enzyme-inhibitory activities. The thrombolytic activity was also significant (40.18 ± 1.80 to 57.15 ± 1.10 % clot lysis) in comparison with streptokinase (78.5 ± 1.53 to 82.34 ± 1.25% clot lysis). Methanolic extract also showed good activity against Gram-positive strains of bacteria, and the highest activity was observed against Bacillus subtilis. The findings of this study will improve our knowledge of phytochemistry, and biological activities of P. candollei, which seems to be a ray of hope to design formulations of natural products for the improvement of health and prevention of chronic diseases; however, further research may address the development of novel drugs for use in pharmaceuticals.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Apiaceae , Biological Products , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Biological Products/pharmacology , Methanol/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Polyphenols/pharmacology
20.
Molecules ; 27(14)2022 Jul 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928613

ABSTRACT

Medicinal plants have considerable potential as antimicrobial agents due to the presence of secondary metabolites. This comprehensive overview aims to summarize the classification, morphology, and ethnobotanical uses of Euphorbia neriifolia L. and its derived phytochemicals with the recent updates on the pharmacological properties against emerging infectious diseases, mainly focusing on bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic infections. The data were collected from electronic databases, including Google Scholar, PubMed, Semantic Scholar, ScienceDirect, and SpringerLink by utilizing several keywords like 'Euphorbia neriifolia', 'phytoconstituents', 'traditional uses', 'ethnopharmacological uses', 'infectious diseases', 'molecular mechanisms', 'COVID-19', 'bacterial infection', 'viral infection', etc. The results related to the antimicrobial actions of these plant extracts and their derived phytochemicals were carefully reviewed and summarized. Euphol, monohydroxy triterpene, nerifoliol, taraxerol, ß-amyrin, glut-5-(10)-en-1-one, neriifolione, and cycloartenol are the leading secondary metabolites reported in phytochemical investigations. These chemicals have been shown to possess a wide spectrum of biological functions. Different extracts of E. neriifolia exerted antimicrobial activities against various pathogens to different extents. Moreover, major phytoconstituents present in this plant, such as quercetin, rutin, friedelin, taraxerol, epitaraxerol, taraxeryl acetate, 3ß-friedelanol, 3ß-acetoxy friedelane, 3ß-simiarenol, afzelin, 24-methylene cycloarenol, ingenol triacetate, and ß-amyrin, showed significant antimicrobial activities against various pathogens that are responsible for emerging infectious diseases. This plant and the phytoconstituents, such as flavonoids, monoterpenoids, diterpenoids, triterpenoids, and alkaloids, have been found to have significant antimicrobial properties. The current evidence suggests that they might be used as leads in the development of more effective drugs to treat emerging infectious diseases, including the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Euphorbia , COVID-19/drug therapy , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/drug therapy , Ethnobotany , Ethnopharmacology , Humans , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Phytochemicals/therapeutic use , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/pharmacology
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