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1.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 148: 112756, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708753

ABSTRACT

The 2019 corona virus disease (COVID-19) has caused a global chaos, where a novel Omicron variant has challenged the healthcare system, followed by which it has been referred to as a variant of concern (VOC) by the World Health Organization (WHO), owing to its alarming transmission and infectivity rate. The large number of mutations in the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein is responsible for strengthening of the spike-angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) interaction, thereby explaining the elevated threat. This is supplemented by enhanced resistance of the variant towards pre-existing antibodies approved for the COVID-19 therapy. The manuscript brings into light failure of existing therapies to provide the desired effect, however simultaneously discussing the novel possibilities on the verge of establishing suitable treatment portfolio. The authors entail the risks associated with omicron resistance against antibodies and vaccine ineffectiveness on one side, and novel approaches and targets - kinase inhibitors, viral protease inhibitors, phytoconstituents, entry pathways - on the other. The manuscript aims to provide a holistic picture about the Omicron variant, by providing comprehensive discussions related to multiple aspects of the mutated spike variant, which might aid the global researchers and healthcare experts in finding an optimised solution to this pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cathepsins/metabolism , ErbB Receptors/antagonists & inhibitors , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Immunization, Secondary , Phytotherapy/methods , Plants, Medicinal , Protein Binding/physiology , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs/physiology , Protein Structural Elements/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Viral Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Viral Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use
2.
Nutrients ; 14(2)2022 Jan 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613925

ABSTRACT

Despite the ongoing vaccination efforts, there is still an urgent need for safe and effective treatments to help curb the debilitating effects of COVID-19 disease. This systematic review aimed to investigate the efficacy of supplemental curcumin treatment on clinical outcomes and inflammation-related biomarker profiles in COVID-19 patients. We searched PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, EMBASE, ProQuest, and Ovid databases up to 30 June 2021 to find studies that assessed the effects of curcumin-related compounds in mild to severe COVID-19 patients. Six studies were identified which showed that curcumin supplementation led to a significant decrease in common symptoms, duration of hospitalization and deaths. In addition, all of these studies showed that the intervention led to amelioration of cytokine storm effects thought to be a driving force in severe COVID-19 cases. This was seen as a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in proinflammatory cytokines such as IL1ß and IL6, with a concomitant significant (p < 0.05) increase in anti-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-10, IL-35 and TGF-α. Taken together, these findings suggested that curcumin exerts its beneficial effects through at least partial restoration of pro-inflammatory/anti-inflammatory balance. In conclusion, curcumin supplementation may offer an efficacious and safe option for improving COVID-19 disease outcomes. We highlight the point that future clinical studies of COVID-19 disease should employ larger cohorts of patients in different clinical settings with standardized preparations of curcumin-related compounds.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Curcumin/administration & dosage , Dietary Supplements , Hospitalization , Phytotherapy/methods , Curcumin/pharmacology , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Interleukin-10/metabolism , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Interleukins/metabolism , Male , Patient Acuity , Transforming Growth Factor alpha/metabolism , Treatment Outcome
3.
Am J Chin Med ; 49(8): 1965-1999, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599109

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a chronic and irreversible interstitial lung disease that even threatens the lives of some patients infected with COVID-19. PF is a multicellular pathological process, including the initial injuries of epithelial cells, recruitment of inflammatory cells, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, activation and differentiation of fibroblasts, etc. TGF-[Formula: see text]1 acts as a key effect factor that participates in these cellular processes of PF. Recently, much attention was paid to inhibiting TGF-[Formula: see text]1 mediated cell processes in the treatment of PF with Chinese herbal medicines (CHM), an important part of traditional Chinese medicine. Here, this review first summarized the effects of TGF-[Formula: see text]1 in different cellular processes of PF. Then, this review summarized the recent research on CHM (compounds, multi-components, single medicines and prescriptions) to directly and/or indirectly inhibit TGF-[Formula: see text]1 signaling (TLRs, PPARs, micrRNA, etc.) in PF. Most of the research focused on CHM natural compounds, including but not limited to alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols and terpenes. After review, the research perspectives of CHM on TGF-[Formula: see text]1 inhibition in PF were further discussed. This review hopes that revealing the inhibiting effects of CHM on TGF-[Formula: see text]1-mediated cellular processes of PF can promote CHM to be better understood and utilized, thus transforming the therapeutic activities of CHM into practice.


Subject(s)
Cell Physiological Phenomena/drug effects , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/antagonists & inhibitors , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Phytotherapy/methods , Pulmonary Fibrosis/complications , Pulmonary Fibrosis/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism
5.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD013877, 2021 07 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320059

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Loss of olfactory function is well recognised as a cardinal symptom of COVID-19 infection, and the ongoing pandemic has resulted in a large number of affected individuals with abnormalities in their sense of smell. For many, the condition is temporary and resolves within two to four weeks. However, in a significant minority the symptoms persist. At present, it is not known whether early intervention with any form of treatment (such as medication or olfactory training) can promote recovery and prevent persisting olfactory disturbance.  OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects (benefits and harms) of interventions that have been used, or proposed, to prevent persisting olfactory dysfunction due to COVID-19 infection. A secondary objective is to keep the evidence up-to-date, using a living systematic review approach.  SEARCH METHODS: The Cochrane ENT Information Specialist searched the Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register; Cochrane ENT Register; CENTRAL; Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid Embase; Web of Science; ClinicalTrials.gov; ICTRP and additional sources for published and unpublished studies. The date of the search was 16 December 2020. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials including participants who had symptoms of olfactory disturbance following COVID-19 infection. Individuals who had symptoms for less than four weeks were included in this review. Studies compared any intervention with no treatment or placebo.  DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard Cochrane methodological procedures. Our primary outcomes were the presence of normal olfactory function, serious adverse effects and change in sense of smell. Secondary outcomes were the prevalence of parosmia, change in sense of taste, disease-related quality of life and other adverse effects (including nosebleeds/bloody discharge). We used GRADE to assess the certainty of the evidence for each outcome.  MAIN RESULTS: We included one study of 100 participants, which compared an intranasal steroid spray to no intervention. Participants in both groups were also advised to undertake olfactory training for the duration of the trial. Data were identified for only two of the prespecified outcomes for this review, and no data were available for the primary outcome of serious adverse effects. Intranasal corticosteroids compared to no intervention (all using olfactory training) Presence of normal olfactory function after three weeks of treatment was self-assessed by the participants, using a visual analogue scale (range 0 to 10, higher scores = better). A score of 10 represented "completely normal smell sensation". The evidence is very uncertain about the effect of intranasal corticosteroids on self-rated recovery of sense of smell (estimated absolute effect 619 per 1000 compared to 520 per 1000, risk ratio (RR) 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.85 to 1.68; 1 study; 100 participants; very low-certainty evidence).  Change in sense of smell was not reported, but the self-rated score for sense of smell was reported at the endpoint of the study with the same visual analogue scale (after three weeks of treatment). The median scores at endpoint were 10 (interquartile range (IQR) 9 to 10) for the group receiving intranasal corticosteroids, and 10 (IQR 5 to 10) for the group receiving no intervention (1 study; 100 participants; very low-certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is very limited evidence regarding the efficacy of different interventions at preventing persistent olfactory dysfunction following COVID-19 infection. However, we have identified a small number of additional ongoing studies in this area. As this is a living systematic review, the evidence will be updated regularly to incorporate new data from these, and other relevant studies, as they become available.  For this (first) version of the living review, we identified a single study of intranasal corticosteroids to include in this review, which provided data for only two of our prespecified outcomes. The evidence was of very low certainty, therefore we were unable to determine whether intranasal corticosteroids may have a beneficial or harmful effect.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , COVID-19/complications , Mometasone Furoate/administration & dosage , Olfaction Disorders/drug therapy , Phytotherapy/methods , Administration, Intranasal , Bias , Citrus , Confidence Intervals , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/prevention & control , Recovery of Function , Syzygium , Visual Analog Scale
6.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304692

ABSTRACT

Respiratory tract infections are underestimated, as they are mild and generally not incapacitating. In clinical medicine, however, these infections are considered a prevalent problem. By 2030, the third most comprehensive reason for death worldwide will be chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), according to the World Health Organization. The current arsenal of anti-inflammatory drugs shows little or no benefits against COPD. For thousands of years, herbal drugs have been used to cure numerous illnesses; they exhibit promising results and enhance physical performance. Ginseng is one such herbal medicine, known to alleviate pro-inflammatory chemokines and cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8) formed by macrophages and epithelial cells. Furthermore, the mechanisms of action of ginsenoside are still not fully understood. Various clinical trials of ginseng have exhibited a reduction of repeated colds and the flu. In this review, ginseng's structural features, the pathogenicity of microbial infections, and the immunomodulatory, antiviral, and anti-bacterial effects of ginseng were discussed. The focus was on the latest animal studies and human clinical trials that corroborate ginseng's role as a therapy for treating respiratory tract infections. The article concluded with future directions and significant challenges. This review would be a valuable addition to the knowledge base for researchers in understanding the promising role of ginseng in treating respiratory tract infections. Further analysis needs to be re-focused on clinical trials to study ginseng's efficacy and safety in treating pathogenic infections and in determining ginseng-drug interactions.


Subject(s)
Ginsenosides/pharmacology , Panax/chemistry , Phytotherapy/methods , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Animals , Complementary Therapies , Humans
7.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295889

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a pandemic disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which is potentially fatal for vulnerable individuals. Disease management represents a challenge for many countries, given the shortage of medicines and hospital resources. The objective of this work was to review the medicinal plants, foods and natural products showing scientific evidence for host protection against various types of coronaviruses, with a focus on SARS-CoV-2. Natural products that mitigate the symptoms caused by various coronaviruses are also presented. Particular attention was placed on natural products that stabilize the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System (RAAS), which has been associated with the entry of the SARS-CoV-2 into human cells.


Subject(s)
Biological Products/pharmacology , Coronavirus/drug effects , Phytotherapy/methods , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biological Products/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Pandemics , Plant Extracts/metabolism , Plants/chemistry , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects
8.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0248479, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266543

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2 has become a global pandemic in a very short time span. Currently, there is no specific treatment or vaccine to counter this highly contagious disease. There is an urgent need to find a specific cure for the disease and global efforts are directed at developing SARS-CoV-2 specific antivirals and immunomodulators. Ayurvedic Rasayana therapy has been traditionally used in India for its immunomodulatory and adaptogenic effects, and more recently has been included as therapeutic adjuvant for several maladies. Amongst several others, Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha), Tinospora cordifolia (Guduchi) and Asparagus racemosus (Shatavari) play an important role in Rasayana therapy. The objective of this study was to explore the immunomodulatory and anti SARS-CoV2 potential of phytoconstituents from Ashwagandha, Guduchi and Shatavari using network pharmacology and docking. The plant extracts were prepared as per ayurvedic procedures and a total of 31 phytoconstituents were identified using UHPLC-PDA and mass spectrometry studies. To assess the immunomodulatory potential of these phytoconstituents an in-silico network pharmacology model was constructed. The model predicts that the phytoconstituents possess the potential to modulate several targets in immune pathways potentially providing a protective role. To explore if these phytoconstituents also possess antiviral activity, docking was performed with the Spike protein, Main Protease and RNA dependent RNA polymerase of the virus. Interestingly, several phytoconstituents are predicted to possess good affinity for the three targets, suggesting their application for the termination of viral life cycle. Further, predictive tools indicate that there would not be adverse herb-drug pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic interactions with concomitantly administered drug therapy. We thus make a compelling case to evaluate the potential of these Rasayana botanicals as therapeutic adjuvants in the management of COVID-19 following rigorous experimental validation.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Asparagus Plant/chemistry , COVID-19/metabolism , Immunologic Factors/metabolism , Molecular Docking Simulation/methods , Plant Extracts/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Tinospora/chemistry , Withania/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Binding Sites , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , Herb-Drug Interactions , Humans , Immunologic Factors/pharmacokinetics , India , Medicine, Ayurvedic/methods , Phytotherapy/methods , Plant Extracts/pharmacokinetics , Protein Binding , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
9.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 44: 50-60, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252604

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The world is currently struggling with the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Dietary supplements (DSs) and herbal medicine provide a potentially convenient and accessible method for its recovery, but direct evidence is limited. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of DSs and herbs in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted in multiple electronic English and Chinese databases. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving DSs or herbal medicine interventions on patients with COVID-19 from November 2019 to February 2021 were included. Data was extracted, summarized and critically examined. RESULTS: Out of 9402 records identified in the initial search, twelve RCTs were included in this review. Risk of bias of these RCTs was deemed high. Most of the trials were of low methodologic quality. Nine studies showed herbal supplements were beneficial to the recovery of COVID-19 patients; zinc sulfate could shorten the duration of loss of smell but not total recovery from COVID-19. No severe adverse events were reported. CONCLUSION: Herbal supplements may help patients with COVID-19, zinc sulfate is likely to shorten the duration of olfactory dysfunction. DS therapy and herbal medicine appear to be safe and effective adjuvant therapies for patients with COVID-19. These results must be interpreted with caution due to the overall low quality of the included trials. More well-designed RCTs are needed in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Dietary Supplements , Herbal Medicine/methods , Phytotherapy/methods , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Front Immunol ; 12: 637553, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247858

ABSTRACT

Plants have been extensively studied since ancient times and numerous important chemical constituents with tremendous therapeutic potential are identified. Attacks of microorganisms including viruses and bacteria can be counteracted with an efficient immune system and therefore, stimulation of body's defense mechanism against infections has been proven to be an effective approach. Polysaccharides, terpenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids, glycosides, and lactones are the important phytochemicals, reported to be primarily responsible for immunomodulation activity of the plants. These phytochemicals may act as lead molecules for the development of safe and effective immunomodulators as potential remedies for the prevention and cure of viral diseases. Natural products are known to primarily modulate the immune system in nonspecific ways. A number of plant-based principles have been identified and isolated with potential immunomodulation activity which justify their use in traditional folklore medicine and can form the basis of further specified research. The aim of the current review is to describe and highlight the immunomodulation potential of certain plants along with their bioactive chemical constituents. Relevant literatures of recent years were searched from commonly employed scientific databases on the basis of their ethnopharmacological use. Most of the plants displaying considerable immunomodulation activity are summarized along with their possible mechanisms. These discussions shall hopefully elicit the attention of researchers and encourage further studies on these plant-based immunomodulation products as potential therapy for the management of infectious diseases, including viral ones such as COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Biological Products/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Complementary Therapies/methods , Phytotherapy/methods , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Animals , Humans , Immunomodulation , Plants, Medicinal , Terpenes/therapeutic use
11.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 26(5): 51-75, 2021 04 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241385

ABSTRACT

In 2020, a novel strain of coronavirus (COVID-19) has led to a significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. As of the date of this writing, a total of 116 M cases has been diagnosed worldwide leading to 2.5 M deaths. The number of mortalities is directly correlated with the rise of innate immune cells (especially macrophages) in the lungs that secrete inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß and IL-6) leading to the development of "Cytokine Storm Syndrome" (CSS), multi-organ-failure and death. Given that currently the treatment of this condition is rare and release of effective vaccine might be months away, here, we review the plants and their pharmacologically active-compounds as potential phytopharmaceuticals for the virus induced inflammatory response. Experimental validation of the effectiveness of these natural compounds to prevent or reduce the cytokine storm might be beneficial as an adjunct treatment of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Phytotherapy/methods , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Macrophages/drug effects , Macrophages/immunology , Macrophages/metabolism , Plants, Medicinal/classification , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virulence/drug effects , Virulence/immunology
12.
Arch Pharm Res ; 44(5): 439-474, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202014

ABSTRACT

Artemisia and its allied species have been employed for conventional medicine in the Northern temperate regions of North America, Europe, and Asia for the treatments of digestive problems, morning sickness, irregular menstrual cycle, typhoid, epilepsy, renal problems, bronchitis malaria, etc. The multidisciplinary use of artemisia species has various other health benefits that are related to its traditional and modern pharmaceutical perspectives. The main objective of this review is to evaluate the traditional, modern, biological as well as pharmacological use of the essential oil and herbal extracts of Artemisia nilagirica, Artemisia parviflora, and other allied species of Artemisia. It also discusses the botanical circulation and its phytochemical constituents viz disaccharides, polysaccharides, glycosides, saponins, terpenoids, flavonoids, and carotenoids. The plants have different biological importance like antiparasitic, antimalarial, antihyperlipidemic, antiasthmatic, antiepileptic, antitubercular, antihypertensive, antidiabetic, anxiolytic, antiemetic, antidepressant, anticancer, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective, insecticidal, antiviral activities, and also against COVID-19. Toxicological studies showed that the plants at a low dose and short duration are non or low-toxic. In contrast, a high dose at 3 g/kg and for a longer duration can cause toxicity like rapid respiration, neurotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, etc. However, further in-depth studies are needed to determine the medicinal uses, clinical efficacy and safety are crucial next steps.


Subject(s)
Artemisia , Phytotherapy/methods , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Artemisia/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Medicine, Traditional , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Plant Oils/therapeutic use
13.
J Evid Based Integr Med ; 26: 2515690X21996662, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1160336

ABSTRACT

The management of the global pandemic outbreak due to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been challenging with no exact dedicated treatment nor established vaccines at the beginning of the pandemic. Nonetheless, the situation seems to be better controlled with the recent COVID-19 vaccines roll-out globally as active immunisation to prevent COVID-19. The extensive usage and trials done in recent outbreak in China has shown the effectiveness of traditional Chinese Medicines (TCM) in improving the wellbeing of COVID-19 patients. Therefore, COVID-19 Prevention and Treatment guidelines has listed a number of recommended concoctions meant for COVID-19 patients. Licorice, more commonly known as Gancao in Chinese Pinyin, is known as one of the most frequently used ingredients in TCM prescriptions for treatment of epidemic diseases. Interestingly, it is deemed as food ingredient as well, where it is normally used in Western cuisines' desserts and sweets. The surprising fact that licorice appeared in the top 10 main ingredients used in TCM prescriptions in COVID-19 has drawn great attention from researchers in revealing its biological potential in overcoming this disease. To date, there are no comprehensive review on licorice and its benefits when used in COVID-19. Thus, in this current review, the possible benefits, mechanism of actions, safety and limitations of licorice were explored in hope to provide a quick reference guide for its preclinical and clinical experimental set-up in this very critical moment of pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Glycyrrhiza , Phytotherapy/methods , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Glycyrrhiza/chemistry , Humans
14.
Int J Technol Assess Health Care ; 37: e45, 2021 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1137721

ABSTRACT

Traditional and complementary medicines are increasingly considered possible options for prevention and symptomatic treatment of the novel coronavirus, COVID-19. With renewed attention on these therapies from researchers and policy makers alike, the well-documented challenges of evaluating their safety and efficacy are once again of global concern. Between 2005 and 2018, the World Health Organization conducted a series of surveys, in which 88 percent of responding member states confirmed that their biggest challenge in traditional medicine was the need for technical guidance on research and evaluation. As a first step in pursuing this need, our commentary summarizes thirteen international and regional guidance documents by three broad categories on evaluating safety, efficacy, and product quality for market-based approval and distribution of these treatments. We highlight the paucity of updated international recommendations on these subjects and identify gaps that could inform the current evidence base. All available guidance note the need for evidence surrounding the efficacy of these treatments and practices but are also quick to caution against methodological difficulties in the conduct of such evaluations. Evidence suggests that improved evaluation methods on efficacy and effectiveness are crucial toward expanding future research into establishing the cost-effectiveness of these therapies, in the context of shifting acceptance, interest, and integration of traditional medicines into health systems, and as another step toward Universal Health Coverage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Complementary Therapies/economics , Complementary Therapies/methods , Global Health , Complementary Therapies/adverse effects , Complementary Therapies/standards , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Humans , Phytotherapy/methods , Phytotherapy/standards , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Chin J Integr Med ; 27(1): 3-6, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059813

ABSTRACT

Covid-19 pandemic has caused hundreds of thousands deaths and millions of infections and continued spreading violently. Although researchers are racing to find or develop effective drugs or vaccines, no drugs from modern medical system have been proven effective and the high mutant rates of the virus may lead it resistant to whatever drugs or vaccines developed following modern drug development procedure. Current evidence has demonstrated impressive healing effects of several Chinese medicines (CMs) for Covid-19, which urges us to reflect on the role of CM in the era of modern medicine. Undoubtedly, CM could be promising resources for developing drug candidates for the treatment of Covid-19 in a way similar to the development of artemisinin. But the theory that builds CM, like the emphasis of driving away exogenous pathogen (virus, etc.) by restoring self-healing capacity rather than killing the pathogen directly from the inside and the 'black-box' mode of diagnosing and treating patients, is as important, yet often ignored, an treasure as CM herbs and should be incorporated into modern medicine for future advancement and innovation of medical science.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Drug Development/methods , Drug Development/standards , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , Drug Therapy, Combination , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/administration & dosage , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/trends , Mutation Rate , Pandemics , Phytotherapy/methods , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
17.
Phytother Res ; 35(6): 3013-3031, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-996303

ABSTRACT

In times of health crisis, including the current COVID-19 pandemic, the potential benefit of botanical drugs and supplements emerges as a focus of attention, although controversial efficacy claims are rightly a concern. Phytotherapy has an established role in everyday self-care and health care, but, since botanical preparations contain many chemical constituents rather than single compounds, challenges arise in demonstrating efficacy and safety. However, there is ample traditional, empirical, and clinical evidence that botanicals can offer some protection and alleviation of disease symptoms as well as promoting general well-being. Newly emerging viral infections, specifically COVID-19, represent a unique challenge in their novelty and absence of established antiviral treatment or immunization. We discuss here the roles and limitations of phytotherapy in helping to prevent and address viral infections, especially regarding their effects on immune response. Botanicals with a documented immunomodulatory, immunostimulatory, and antiinflammatory effects include adaptogens, Boswellia spp., Curcuma longa, Echinacea spp., Glycyrrhiza spp., medicinal fungi, Pelargonium sidoides, salicylate-yielding herbs, and Sambucus spp. We further provide a clinical perspective on applications and safety of these herbs in prevention, onset, progression, and convalescence from respiratory viral infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Plant Preparations/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Immunity/drug effects , Phytotherapy/methods , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
18.
Molecules ; 25(11)2020 Jun 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-981163

ABSTRACT

Flavonoids are widely used as phytomedicines. Here, we report on flavonoid phytomedicines with potential for development into prophylactics or therapeutics against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). These flavonoid-based phytomedicines include: caflanone, Equivir, hesperetin, myricetin, and Linebacker. Our in silico studies show that these flavonoid-based molecules can bind with high affinity to the spike protein, helicase, and protease sites on the ACE2 receptor used by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 to infect cells and cause COVID-19. Meanwhile, in vitro studies show potential of caflanone to inhibit virus entry factors including, ABL-2, cathepsin L, cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, Mip-1α, TNF-α), and PI4Kiiiß as well as AXL-2, which facilitates mother-to-fetus transmission of coronavirus. The potential for the use of smart drug delivery technologies like nanoparticle drones loaded with these phytomedicines to overcome bioavailability limitations and improve therapeutic efficacy are discussed.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus OC43, Human/drug effects , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/growth & development , Binding Sites , COVID-19 , Chloroquine/chemistry , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus OC43, Human/chemistry , Coronavirus OC43, Human/growth & development , Drug Carriers/administration & dosage , Drug Carriers/chemistry , Flavonoids/chemistry , Humans , Interleukins/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukins/chemistry , Interleukins/genetics , Interleukins/metabolism , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/drug effects , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/virology , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Mice , Molecular Docking Simulation , Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Phytotherapy/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Primary Cell Culture , Protein Binding , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/chemistry , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/genetics , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Thermodynamics , Virus Internalization/drug effects
19.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 16(1): 75, 2020 Dec 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-968733

ABSTRACT

Household responses to COVID-19 in different corners of the world represent the primary health care that communities have relied on for preventing and mitigating symptoms. During a very complex and confusing time, in which public health services in multiple countries have been completely overwhelmed, and in some cases even collapsed, these first-line household responses have been quintessential for building physical, mental, and social resilience, and for improving individual and community health. This editorial discusses the outcomes of a rapid-response preliminary survey during the first phase of the pandemic among social and community contacts in five metropolises heavily affected by the COVID-19 health crisis (Wuhan, Milan, Madrid, New York, and Rio de Janeiro), and in twelve rural areas or countries initially less affected by the pandemic (Appalachia, Jamaica, Bolivia, Romania, Belarus, Lithuania, Poland, Georgia, Turkey, Pakistan, Cambodia, and South Africa). We summarized our perspectives as 17 case studies, observing that people have relied primarily on teas and spices ("food-medicines") and that there exist clear international plant favorites, popularized by various new media. Urban diasporas and rural households seem to have repurposed homemade plant-based remedies that they use in normal times for treating the flu and other respiratory symptoms or that they simply consider healthy foods. The most remarkable shift in many areas has been the increased consumption of ginger and garlic, followed by onion, turmeric, and lemon. Our preliminary inventory of food medicines serves as a baseline for future systematic ethnobotanical studies and aims to inspire in-depth research on how use patterns of plant-based foods and beverages, both "traditional" and "new", are changing during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. Our reflections in this editorial call attention to the importance of ethnobiology, ethnomedicine, and ethnogastronomy research into domestic health care strategies for improving community health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Phytotherapy/methods , Plants, Medicinal , Beverages/supply & distribution , Bolivia , Brazil , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cambodia , China , Food , Global Health , Humans , Italy , Jamaica , Lithuania , New York City , Pakistan , Poland , Romania , Rural Population , South Africa , Spain , Turkey , Urban Population
20.
Trials ; 21(1): 978, 2020 Nov 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-945261

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since December 2019, the outbreak of coronavirus pneumonia was observed in China and quickly propagate in all of the world. Nowadays, many trials are underway on this disease in which the efficacy of various therapeutic remedies including chemical or natural agents as well as different non-pharmacological methods such as acupuncture are evaluated. This study aims at investigating the effect of M. communis fruit for treatment of COVID-19 disease. METHODS: We are performing an open-label randomized controlled trial on outpatients clinically suspected to COVID-19 disease in the age range of 18-65 years old with mild to moderate symptoms and without respiratory distress. Patients in both groups (M. communis and control) receive conventional therapy, but those in M. communis group get M. communis preparation in addition to conventional therapy. Intervention will continue for 5 days and the study outcomes including clinical status as well as mortality rate and adverse effects will be measured up to 14 days. DISCUSSION: The protocol describes the design of an ongoing randomized controlled trial to establish the evidence for the usage of water extract of M. communis fruit in clinically suspected COVID-19 disease and identify any safety concerns. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial has been registered at the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials website under the code IRCT20180923041093N3 on March 28th, 2020 ( https://www.irct.ir/trial/46721 ). The results will be disseminated through manuscript publications and presentations to scientific meetings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Myrtus/adverse effects , Phytotherapy/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Myrtus/chemistry , Pandemics , Prognosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Safety , Treatment Outcome
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