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1.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580428

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to compare the clinical severity in patients who were coinfected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and rhinovirus or monoinfected with a single one of these viruses. METHODS: The study period ranged from 1 March 2020 to 28 February 2021 (one year). SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory viruses were identified by real-time reverse-transcription-PCR as part of the routine work at Marseille University hospitals. Bacterial and fungal infections were detected by standard methods. Clinical data were retrospectively collected from medical files. This study was approved by the ethical committee of our institute. RESULTS: A total of 6034/15,157 (40%) tested patients were positive for at least one respiratory virus. Ninety-three (4.3%) SARS-CoV-2-infected patients were coinfected with another respiratory virus, with rhinovirus being the most frequent (62/93, 67%). Patients coinfected with SARS-CoV-2 and rhinovirus were significantly more likely to report a cough than those with SARS-CoV-2 monoinfection (62% vs. 31%; p = 0.0008). In addition, they were also significantly more likely to report dyspnea than patients with rhinovirus monoinfection (45% vs. 36%; p = 0.02). They were also more likely to be transferred to an intensive care unit and to die than patients with rhinovirus monoinfection (16% vs. 5% and 7% vs. 2%, respectively) but these differences were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: A close surveillance and investigation of the co-incidence and interactions of SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory viruses is needed. The possible higher risk of increased clinical severity in SARS-CoV-2-positive patients coinfected with rhinovirus warrants further large scale studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/virology , Picornaviridae Infections/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Coinfection/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Picornaviridae Infections/diagnosis , Picornaviridae Infections/virology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Retrospective Studies , Rhinovirus , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
2.
Viruses ; 12(10)2020 10 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305816

ABSTRACT

Accurate detection of human respiratory viral infections is highly topical. We investigated how strongly inflammatory biomarkers (FeNO, eosinophils, neutrophils, and cytokines in nasal lavage fluid) and lung function parameters change upon rhinovirus 16 infection, in order to explore their potential use for infection detection. To this end, within a longitudinal cohort study, healthy and mildly asthmatic volunteers were experimentally inoculated with rhinovirus 16, and time series of these parameters/biomarkers were systematically recorded and compared between the pre- and post-infection phases of the study, which lasted two months and one month, respectively. We found that the parameters'/biomarkers' ability to discriminate between the infected and the uninfected state varied over the observation time period. Consistently over time, the concentration of cytokines, in nasal lavage fluid, showed moderate to very good discrimination performance, thereby qualifying for disease progression monitoring, whereas lung function and FeNO, while quickly and non-invasively measurable using cheap portable devices (e.g., at airports), performed poorly.


Subject(s)
Asthma/immunology , Asthma/virology , Inflammation/diagnosis , Picornaviridae Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Adult , Biomarkers/analysis , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Humans , Inflammation/virology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Nose/immunology , Picornaviridae Infections/immunology , Picornaviridae Infections/virology , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Function Tests , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Rhinovirus , Young Adult
4.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 15(4): 488-494, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1132956

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was first detected in Japan in January 2020 and has spread throughout the country. Previous studies have reported that viral interference among influenza virus, rhinovirus, and other respiratory viruses can affect viral infections at the host and population level. METHODS: To investigate the impact of COVID-19 on influenza and other respiratory virus infections, we analyzed clinical specimens collected from 2244 patients in Japan with respiratory diseases between January 2018 and September 2020. RESULTS: The frequency of influenza and other respiratory viruses (coxsackievirus A and B; echovirus; enterovirus; human coronavirus 229E, HKU1, NL63, and OC43; human metapneumovirus; human parainfluenza virus 1, 2, 3, and 4; human parechovirus; human respiratory syncytial virus; human adenovirus; human bocavirus; human parvovirus B19; herpes simplex virus type 1; and varicella-zoster virus) was appreciably reduced among all patients during the COVID-19 pandemic except for that of rhinovirus in children younger than 10 years, which was appreciably increased. COVID-19 has not spread among this age group, suggesting an increased risk of rhinovirus infection in children. CONCLUSIONS: Rhinovirus infections should be continuously monitored to understand their increased risk during the COVID-19 pandemic and viral interference with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Picornaviridae Infections/epidemiology , Rhinovirus/isolation & purification , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Coinfection/diagnosis , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/virology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Picornaviridae Infections/diagnosis , Picornaviridae Infections/virology , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Risk , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/virology , Viruses/isolation & purification
5.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 8(10): 3378-3387.e11, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-773574

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused dramatic changes in daily routines and health care utilization and delivery patterns in the United States. Understanding the influence of these changes and associated public health interventions on asthma care is important to determine effects on patient outcomes and identify measures that will ensure optimal future health care delivery. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify changes in pediatric asthma-related health care utilization, respiratory viral testing, and air pollution during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: For the time period January 17 to May 17, 2015 to 2020, asthma-related encounters and weekly summaries of respiratory viral testing data were extracted from Children's Hospital of Philadelphia electronic health records, and pollution data for 4 criteria air pollutants were extracted from AirNow. Changes in encounter characteristics, viral testing patterns, and air pollution before and after Mar 17, 2020, the date public health interventions to limit viral transmission were enacted in Philadelphia, were assessed and compared with data from 2015 to 2019 as a historical reference. RESULTS: After March 17, 2020, in-person asthma encounters decreased by 87% (outpatient) and 84% (emergency + inpatient). Video telemedicine, which was not previously available, became the most highly used asthma encounter modality (61% of all visits), and telephone encounters increased by 19%. Concurrently, asthma-related systemic steroid prescriptions and frequency of rhinovirus test positivity decreased, although air pollution levels did not substantially change, compared with historical trends. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic in Philadelphia was accompanied by changes in pediatric asthma health care delivery patterns, including reduced admissions and systemic steroid prescriptions. Reduced rhinovirus infections may have contributed to these patterns.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Asthma/drug therapy , Child Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adenovirus Infections, Human/diagnosis , Adenovirus Infections, Human/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data , Asthma/physiopathology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronaviridae Infections/diagnosis , Coronaviridae Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Male , Nitrogen Dioxide , Ozone , Pandemics/prevention & control , Paramyxoviridae Infections/diagnosis , Paramyxoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Particulate Matter , Philadelphia/epidemiology , Picornaviridae Infections/diagnosis , Picornaviridae Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data , Telephone , Videoconferencing
6.
J Breath Res ; 14(4): 041001, 2020 07 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-682126

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the importance of rapid, cost effective, accurate, and non-invasive testing for viral infections. Volatile compounds (VCs) have been suggested for several decades as fulfilling these criteria. However currently very little work has been done in trying to diagnose viral infections using VCs. Much of the work carried out to date involves the differentiation of bacterial and viral sources of infection and often the detection of bacterial and viral co-infection. However, this has usually been done in vitro and very little work has involved the use of human participants. Viruses hijack the host cell metabolism and do not produce their own metabolites so identifying virus specific VCs is at best a challenging task. However, there are proteins and lipids that are potential candidates as markers of viral infection. The current understanding is that host cell glycolysis is upregulated under viral infection to increase the available energy for viral replication. There is some evidence that viral infection leads to the increase of production of fatty acids, alkanes, and alkanes related products. For instance, 2,3-butandione, aldehydes, 2,8-dimethyl-undecane and n-propyl acetate have all been correlated with viral infection. Currently, the literature points to markers of oxidative stress (e.g. nitric oxide, aldehydes etc) being the most useful in the determination of viral infection. The issue, however, is that there are also many other conditions that can lead to oxidative stress markers being produced. In this review a range of (mainly mass spectrometric) methods are discussed for viral detection in breath, including breath condensate. Currently MALDI-ToF-MS is likely to be the preferred method for the identification of viral strains and variants of those strains, however it is limited by its need for the viral strains to have been sequenced and logged in a database.


Subject(s)
Breath Tests/methods , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Aldehydes/metabolism , Animals , Betacoronavirus , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Hepatitis B/metabolism , Humans , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/metabolism , Mass Spectrometry , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/diagnosis , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Pandemics , Picornaviridae Infections/diagnosis , Picornaviridae Infections/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Rotavirus Infections/diagnosis , Rotavirus Infections/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization , Swine , Virus Diseases/metabolism , Viruses
8.
J Med Virol ; 92(4): 408-417, 2020 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2

ABSTRACT

Respiratory tract viral infection caused by viruses or bacteria is one of the most common diseases in human worldwide, while those caused by emerging viruses, such as the novel coronavirus, 2019-nCoV that caused the pneumonia outbreak in Wuhan, China most recently, have posed great threats to global public health. Identification of the causative viral pathogens of respiratory tract viral infections is important to select an appropriate treatment, save people's lives, stop the epidemics, and avoid unnecessary use of antibiotics. Conventional diagnostic tests, such as the assays for rapid detection of antiviral antibodies or viral antigens, are widely used in many clinical laboratories. With the development of modern technologies, new diagnostic strategies, including multiplex nucleic acid amplification and microarray-based assays, are emerging. This review summarizes currently available and novel emerging diagnostic methods for the detection of common respiratory viruses, such as influenza virus, human respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, human adenovirus, and human rhinovirus. Multiplex assays for simultaneous detection of multiple respiratory viruses are also described. It is anticipated that such data will assist researchers and clinicians to develop appropriate diagnostic strategies for timely and effective detection of respiratory virus infections.


Subject(s)
Adenovirus Infections, Human/diagnosis , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Picornaviridae Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Immunoassay , Immunologic Tests , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rhinovirus , Viruses/growth & development , Viruses/isolation & purification
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