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1.
J Neonatal Perinatal Med ; 16(2): 235-237, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240921

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has created a serious health problem in pregnant people. We aimed to address whether vaccination can prevent development of placental disease in SARS-CoV-2 infected mothers. METHODS: We reported the pathology findings obtained from routine histopathological examination of placentas of overall 38 cases. RESULTS: We found low prevalence of placental pathology in vaccinated pregnant people with active SARS-CoV-2 infection in comparison to those unvaccinated cases. CONCLUSION: Based on our findings, SARS-CoV-2 vaccination can prevent development of placental pathological lesions and may lower the risk of serious illness in pregnant people.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy , Humans , Female , Placenta , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Vaccination , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control
2.
Viruses ; 15(5)2023 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234275

ABSTRACT

In 2020, a new coronavirus, called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), emerged in China. SARS-CoV-2 infection has been shown to be highly morbid in pregnant women, being a risk factor for several obstetric conditions leading to increased maternal and neonatal mortality. A few studies since 2020 have shown SARS-CoV-2 maternal-fetal transmission and noted placental abnormalities grouped under the term placentitis. We hypothesized that these placental lesions could be responsible for abnormalities in placental exchange and therefore abnormalities in cardiotocographic monitoring, leading to premature fetal extraction. The objective is to identify the clinical, biochemical, and histological determinants associated with the occurrence of non-reassuring fetal heart rate (NRFHR) outside labor in fetuses of SARS-CoV-2-infected mothers. We conducted a retrospective multicenter case series of the natural history of maternal SARS-CoV-2 infections resulting in fetal delivery outside labor due to NRFHR. Collaboration was sought with the maternity hospitals in the CEGORIF, the APHP and Brussels hospitals. The investigators were contacted by e-mail on three successive occasions over a period of one year. Data from 17 mothers and 17 fetuses were analyzed. Most women had a mild SARS-CoV-2 infection; only two women presented severe infection. No woman was vaccinated. We found a substantial proportion of maternal coagulopathy at birth: elevation of APTT ratio (62%), thrombocytopenia (41%) and liver cytolysis (58.3%). Iatrogenic prematurity was noted in 15 of 17 fetuses, and 100% were born by cesarean delivery due to emergency criteria. One male neonate died on the day of birth due to peripartum asphyxia. Three cases of maternal-fetal transmission were recorded following WHO criteria. Placental analysis in 15 cases revealed eight cases of SARS-CoV-2 placentitis, causing placental insufficiency. In total, 100% of the placentas analyzed showed at least one lesion suggestive of placentitis. SARS-CoV-2 maternal infection during pregnancy is likely to generate neonatal morbidity in relation to placental damage resulting in placental insufficiency. This morbidity may be the consequence of induced prematurity as well as acidosis in the most severe situations. Placental damage occurred in unvaccinated women and in women with no identified risk factor, in contrast to severe maternal clinical forms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Placental Insufficiency , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Infant, Newborn , Female , Pregnancy , Male , Humans , COVID-19/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Pregnant Women , Placental Insufficiency/pathology , Heart Rate, Fetal , Placenta , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(10)2023 May 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243900

ABSTRACT

We are pleased to present this Special Issue of the International Journal of Molecular Sciences, entitled "Physiology and Pathophysiology of Placenta" [...].


Subject(s)
Pelvis , Placenta , Pregnancy , Female , Humans
4.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 23(1): 356, 2023 May 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326871

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Stillbirth has been recognized as a possible complication of a SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy, probably due to destructive placental lesions (SARS-CoV-2 placentitis). The aim of this work is to analyse stillbirth and late miscarriage cases in unvaccinated pregnant women infected with SARS-CoV-2 during the first two waves (wild-type period) in Belgium. METHODS: Stillbirths and late miscarriages in our prospective observational nationwide registry of SARS-CoV-2 infected pregnant women (n = 982) were classified by three authors using a modified WHO-UMC classification system for standardized case causality assessment. RESULTS: Our cohort included 982 hospitalised pregnant women infected with SARS-CoV-2, with 23 fetal demises (10 late miscarriages from 12 to 22 weeks of gestational age and 13 stillbirths). The stillbirth rate was 9.5‰ for singleton pregnancies and 83.3‰ for multiple pregnancies, which seems higher than for the background population (respectively 5.6‰ and 13.8‰). The agreement between assessors about the causal relationship with SARS-Cov-2 infection was fair (global weighted kappa value of 0.66). Among these demises, 17.4% (4/23) were "certainly" attributable to SARS-CoV-2 infection, 13.0% (3/23) "probably" and 30.4% (7/23) "possibly". Better agreement in the rating was noticed when pathological examination of the placenta and identification of the virus were available, underlining the importance of a thorough investigation in case of intra-uterine fetal demise. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 causality assessment of late miscarriage and stillbirth cases in our Belgian nationwide case series has shown that half of the fetal losses could be attributable to SARS-CoV-2. We must consider in future epidemic emergencies to rigorously investigate cases of intra-uterine fetal demise and to store placental tissue and other material for future analyses.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Spontaneous , COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Stillbirth , Adolescent , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Abortion, Spontaneous/epidemiology , Belgium/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Fetal Death , Placenta/pathology , Pregnant Women , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stillbirth/epidemiology , Adult
5.
Placenta ; 138: 88-96, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323550

ABSTRACT

The impact of the COVID-19 infection, caused by Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), during the pandemic has been considerably more severe in pregnant women than non-pregnant women. Therefore, a review detailing the morphological alterations and physiological changes associated with COVID-19 during pregnancy and the effect that these changes have on the feto-placental unit is of high priority. This knowledge is crucial for these mothers, their babies and clinicians to ensure a healthy life post-pandemic. Hence, we review the placental morphological changes due to COVID-19 to enhance the general understanding of how pregnant mothers, their placentas and unborn children may have been affected by this pandemic. Based on current literature, we deduced that COVID-19 pregnancies were oxygen deficient, which could further result in other pregnancy-related complications like preeclampsia and IUGR. Therefore, we present an up-to-date review of the COVID-19 pathophysiological implications on the placenta, covering the function of the placenta in COVID-19, the effects of this virus on the placenta, its functions and its link to other gestational complications. Furthermore, we highlight the possible effects of COVID-19 therapeutic interventions on pregnant mothers and their unborn children. Based on the literature, we strongly suggest that consistent surveillance for the mothers and infants from COVID-19 pregnancies be prioritised in the future. Though the pandemic is now in the past, its effects are long-term, necessitating the monitoring of clinical manifestations in the near future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Placenta , SARS-CoV-2 , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(9)2023 Apr 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319054

ABSTRACT

Vertical transmission of rubella virus (RuV) occurs at a high rate during the first trimester of pregnancy. The modes of vertical transmission including the response of trophoblasts to RuV are not well understood. Here, RuV-trophoblast interaction was studied in the BeWo trophoblast cell line. Analysis included early and late time-point kinetics of virus infection rate and the antiviral innate immune response at mRNA and protein level. BeWo characteristics were addressed through metabolic activity by extracellular flux analysis and syncytiotrophoblast formation through incubation with forskolin. We found that RuV infection of BeWo led to profuse type III interferon (IFN) production. Transfecting trophoblast cells with dsRNA analog induced an increase in the production of type I IFN-ß and type III IFNs; however, this did not occur in RuV-infected BeWo trophoblasts. IFN-ß and to a lesser extent type III IFN-λ1 were inhibitory to RuV. While no significant metabolic alteration was detected, RuV infection reduced the cell number in the monolayer culture in comparison to the mock control and resulted in detached and floating cells. Syncytia formation restricted RuV infection. The use of BeWo as a relevant cell culture model for infection of trophoblasts highlights cytopathogenicity in the absence of a type I IFN response as a pathogenic alteration by RuV.


Subject(s)
Interferon Type I , Rubella , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Placenta/metabolism , Trophoblasts/metabolism , Rubella/metabolism , Cell Line , Interferon Type I/metabolism
7.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 7374, 2023 05 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318809

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been accompanied by increased prenatal maternal distress (PMD). PMD is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes which may be mediated by the placenta. However, the potential impact of the pandemic on in vivo placental development remains unknown. To examine the impact of the pandemic and PMD on in vivo structural placental development using advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), acquired anatomic images of the placenta from 63 pregnant women without known COVID-19 exposure during the pandemic and 165 pre-pandemic controls. Measures of placental morphometry and texture were extracted. PMD was determined from validated questionnaires. Generalized estimating equations were utilized to compare differences in PMD placental features between COVID-era and pre-pandemic cohorts. Maternal stress and depression scores were significantly higher in the pandemic cohort. Placental volume, thickness, gray level kurtosis, skewness and run length non-uniformity were increased in the pandemic cohort, while placental elongation, mean gray level and long run emphasis were decreased. PMD was a mediator of the association between pandemic status and placental features. Altered in vivo placental structure during the pandemic suggests an underappreciated link between disturbances in maternal environment and perturbed placental development. The long-term impact on offspring is currently under investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Obstetric Labor Complications , Pregnancy Complications , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Placenta/pathology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Pregnant Women , Pregnancy Complications/pathology
8.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 2613, 2023 05 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320051

ABSTRACT

Our earlier work has shown that genomic risk for schizophrenia converges with early life complications in affecting risk for the disorder and sex-biased neurodevelopmental trajectories. Here, we identify specific genes and potential mechanisms that, in placenta, may mediate such outcomes. We performed TWAS in healthy term placentae (N = 147) to derive candidate placental causal genes that we confirmed with SMR; to search for placenta and schizophrenia-specific associations, we performed an analogous analysis in fetal brain (N = 166) and additional placenta TWAS for other disorders/traits. The analyses in the whole sample and stratifying by sex ultimately highlight 139 placenta and schizophrenia-specific risk genes, many being sex-biased; the candidate molecular mechanisms converge on the nutrient-sensing capabilities of placenta and trophoblast invasiveness. These genes also implicate the Coronavirus-pathogenesis pathway and showed increased expression in placentae from a small sample of SARS-CoV-2-positive pregnancies. Investigating placental risk genes for schizophrenia and candidate mechanisms may lead to opportunities for prevention that would not be suggested by study of the brain alone.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Schizophrenia , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Placenta/metabolism , Schizophrenia/genetics , Schizophrenia/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Trophoblasts/metabolism
9.
G Ital Nefrol ; 40(2)2023 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314363

ABSTRACT

Background. Pregnant women are at high risk of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) complications, including acute respiratory distress syndrome. Currently, one of the cornerstones in the treatment of this condition is lung-protective ventilation (LPV) with low tidal volumes. However, the occurrence of hypercapnia may limit this ventilatory strategy. So, different extracorporeal CO2 removal (ECCO2R) procedures have been developed. ECCO2R comprises a variety of techniques, including low-flow and high-flow systems, that may be performed with dedicated devices or combined with continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). Case description. Here, we report a unique case of a pregnant patient affected by COVID-19 who required extracorporeal support for multiorgan failure. While on LPV, because of the concomitant hypercapnia and acute kidney injury, the patient was treated with an ECCO2R membrane inserted in series after a hemofilter in a CRRT platform. This combined treatment reducing hypercapnia allowed LPV maintenance at the same time while providing kidney replacement and ensuring maternal and fetal hemodynamic stability. Adverse effects consisted of minor bleeding episodes due to the anticoagulation required to maintain the extracorporeal circuit patency. The patient's pulmonary and kidney function progressively recovered, permitting the withdrawal of any extracorporeal treatment. At the 25th gestational week, the patient underwent spontaneous premature vaginal delivery because of placental abruption. She gave birth to an 800-gram female baby, who three days later died because of multiorgan failure related to extreme prematurity. Conclusions. This case supports using ECCO2R-CRRT combined treatment as a suitable approach in the management of complex conditions, such as pregnancy, even in the case of severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy , Pregnancy , Humans , Female , Carbon Dioxide , Hypercapnia/therapy , Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy/adverse effects , Extracorporeal Circulation/adverse effects , Extracorporeal Circulation/methods , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Placenta , Renal Replacement Therapy/adverse effects
10.
Blood ; 141(16): 2016-2021, 2023 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2294919

ABSTRACT

Relapsing or occurring de novo autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) during pregnancy or puerperium is a poorly described condition. Here, we report 45 pregnancies in 33 women evaluated at 12 centers from 1997 to 2022. Among the 20 women diagnosed with AIHA before pregnancy, 10 had a relapse. An additional 13 patients developed de novo AIHA during gestation/puerperium (2 patients had AIHA relapse during a second pregnancy). Among 24 hemolytic events, anemia was uniformly severe (median Hb, 6.4 g/dL; range, 3.1-8.7) and required treatment in all cases (96% steroids ± intravenous immunoglobulin, IVIG, 58% transfusions). Response was achieved in all patients and was complete in 65% of the cases. Antithrombotic prophylaxis was administered to 8 patients (33%). After delivery, rituximab was administered to 4 patients, and cyclosporine was added to 1 patient. The rate of maternal complications, including premature rupture of membranes, placental detachment, and preeclampsia, was 15%. Early miscarriages occurred in 13% of the pregnancies. Fetal adverse events (22% of cases) included respiratory distress, fetal growth restriction, preterm birth, AIHA of the newborn, and 2 perinatal deaths. In conclusion, the occurrence of AIHA does not preclude the ability to carry out a healthy pregnancy, provided close monitoring, prompt therapy, and awareness of potential maternal and fetal complications.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune , Premature Birth , Humans , Female , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune/epidemiology , Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune/therapy , Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune/diagnosis , Placenta , Premature Birth/drug therapy , Rituximab/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Postpartum Period
11.
Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM ; 5(7): 100981, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2293634

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 during pregnancy can have serious effects on pregnancy outcomes. The placenta acts as an infection barrier to the fetus and may mediate adverse outcomes. Increased frequency of maternal vascular malperfusion has been detected in the placentas of patients with COVID-19 compared with controls, but little is known about how the timing and severity of infection affect placental pathology. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on placental pathology, specifically whether the timing and severity of COVID-19 affect pathologic findings and associations with perinatal outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: This was a descriptive retrospective cohort study of pregnant people diagnosed with COVID-19 who delivered between April 2020 and September 2021 at 3 university hospitals. Demographic, placental, delivery, and neonatal outcomes were collected through medical record review. The timing of SARS-CoV-2 infection was noted, and the severity of COVID-19 was categorized on the basis of the National Institutes of Health guidelines. The placentas of all patients with positive nasopharyngeal reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction COVID-19 testing were sent for gross and microscopic histopathologic examinations at the time of delivery. Nonblinded pathologists categorized histopathologic lesions according to the Amsterdam criteria. Univariate linear regression and chi-square analyses were used to assess how the timing and severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection affected placental pathologic findings. RESULTS: This study included 131 pregnant patients and 138 placentas, with most patients delivered at the University of California, Los Angeles (n=65), followed by the University of California, San Francisco (n=38) and Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital (n=28). Most patients were diagnosed with COVID-19 in the third trimester of pregnancy (69%), and most infections were mild (60%). There was no specific placental pathologic feature based on the timing or severity of COVID-19. There was a higher frequency of placental features associated with response to infection in the placentas from infections before 20 weeks of gestation than that from infections after 20 weeks of gestation (P=.001). There was no difference in maternal vascular malperfusion by the timing of infection; however, features of severe maternal vascular malperfusion were only found in the placentas of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, not in the placentas of patients with COVID-19 in the first trimester of pregnancy. CONCLUSION: Placentas from patients with COVID-19 showed no specific pathologic feature, regardless of the timing or severity of the disease. There was a higher proportion of placentas from patients with COVID-19-positive tests in earlier gestations with evidence of placental infection-associated features. Future studies should focus on understanding how these placental features in SARS-CoV-2 infections go on to affect pregnancy outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , United States , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Humans , Female , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Placenta/pathology , COVID-19 Testing , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , Pregnancy Outcome
12.
BJOG ; 130(8): 959-967, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2293589

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of maternal Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection on placental histopathological findings in an unselected population and evaluate the potential effect on the fetus, including the possibility of vertical transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). DESIGN: Retrospective cohort comparative study of placental histopathological findings in patients with COVID-19, compared with controls. SETTING: During the COVID-19 pandemic, placentas were studied from women at University College Hospital London who reported and/or tested positive for COVID-19. POPULATION: Of 10 508 deliveries, 369 (3.5%) women had COVID-19 during pregnancy, with placental histopathology available for 244 women. METHODS: Retrospective review of maternal and neonatal characteristics, where placental analysis had been performed. This was compared with available, previously published, histopathological findings from placentas of unselected women. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Frequency of placental histopathological findings and relevant clinical outcomes. RESULTS: Histological abnormalities were reported in 117 of 244 (47.95%) cases, with the most common diagnosis being ascending maternal genital tract infection. There was no statistically significant difference in the frequency of most abnormalities compared with controls. There were four cases of COVID-19 placentitis (1.52%, 95% CI 0.04%-3.00%) and one possible congenital infection, with placental findings of acute maternal genital tract infection. The rate of fetal vascular malperfusion (FVM), at 4.5%, was higher compared with controls (p = 0.00044). CONCLUSIONS: In most cases, placentas from pregnant women infected with SARS-CoV-2 virus do not show a significantly increased frequency of pathology. Evidence for transplacental transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is lacking from this cohort. There is a need for further study into the association between FVM, infection and diabetes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Reproductive Tract Infections , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pandemics , Placenta/blood supply , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Autoimmun Rev ; 22(3): 103259, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2291252

ABSTRACT

Autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARD) can affect women and men during fertile age, therefore reproductive health is a priority issue in rheumatology. Many topics need to be considered during preconception counselling: fertility, the impact of disease-related factors on pregnancy outcomes, the influence of pregnancy on disease activity, the compatibility of medications with pregnancy and breastfeeding. Risk stratification and individualized treatment approach elaborated by a multidisciplinary team minimize the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes (APO). Research has been focused on identifying biomarkers that can be predictive of APO. Specifically, preeclampsia and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy tend to develop more frequently in women with ARD. Placental insufficiency can lead to intrauterine growth restriction and small-for-gestational age newborns. Such APO have been shown to be associated with maternal disease activity in different ARD. Therefore, a key message to be addressed to the woman wishing for a pregnancy and to her family is that treatment with compatible drugs is the best way to ensure maternal and fetal wellbeing. An increasing number of medications have entered the management of ARD, but data about their use in pregnancy and lactation are scarce. More information is needed for most biologic drugs and their biosimilars, and for the so-called small molecules, while there is sufficient evidence to recommend the use of TNF inhibitors if needed for keeping maternal disease under control. Other issues related to the reproductive journey have emerged as "unmet needs", such as sexual dysfunction, contraception, medically assisted reproduction techniques, long-term outcome of children, and they will be addressed in this review paper. Collaborative research has been instrumental to reach current knowledge and the future will bring novel insights thanks to pregnancy registries and prospective studies that have been established in several Countries and to their joint efforts in merging data.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , Biosimilar Pharmaceuticals , Rheumatic Diseases , Male , Child , Pregnancy , Female , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Prospective Studies , Reproductive Health , Placenta , Pregnancy Outcome , Autoimmune Diseases/complications , Autoimmune Diseases/therapy , Rheumatic Diseases/complications , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy
14.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 14: 1092104, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2304401

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy may cause adverse maternal, neonatal and placental outcomes. While tissue hypoxia is often reported in COVID-19 patients, pregnant women with anemia are suspected to be more prone to placental hypoxia-related injuries. Methods: This hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted between August-November 2021, during COVID-19 second wave in India. Term pregnant women (N=212) admitted to hospital for delivery were enrolled consecutively. Since hospital admission mandated negative RT-PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 virus, none had active infection. Data on socio-demography, COVID-19 history, maternal, obstetric, and neonatal outcomes were recorded. Pre-delivery maternal and post-delivery cord blood samples were tested for hematological parameters and SARS-CoV-2 IgG. Placentae were studied for histology. Results: Of 212 women, 122 (58%) were seropositive for SARS-CoV-2 IgG, but none reported COVID-19 history; 134 (63.2%) were anemic. In seropositive women, hemoglobin (p=0.04), total WBC (p=0.009), lymphocytes (p=0.005) and neutrophils (p=0.02) were significantly higher, while ferritin was high, but not significant and neutrophils to lymphocytes (p=0.12) and platelets to lymphocytes ratios (p=0.03) were lower. Neonatal outcomes were similar. All RBC parameters and serum ferritin were significantly lower in anemic mothers but not in cord blood, except RDW that was significantly higher in both, maternal (p=0.007) and cord (p=0.008) blood from seropositive anemic group compared to other groups. Placental histology showed significant increase in villous hypervascularity (p=0.000), dilated villous capillaries (p=0.000), and syncytiotrophoblasts (p=0.02) in seropositive group, typically suggesting placental hypoxia. Maternal anemia was not associated with any histological parameters. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses of placental histopathological adverse outcomes showed strong association with SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity but not with maternal anemia. When adjusted for several covariates, including anemia, SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity emerged as independent risk factor for severe chorangiosis (AOR 8.74, 95% CI 3.51-21.76, p<0.000), dilated blood vessels (AOR 12.74, 95% CI 5.46-29.75, p<0.000), syncytiotrophoblasts (AOR 2.86, 95% CI 1.36-5.99, p=0.005) and villus agglutination (AOR 9.27, 95% CI 3.68-23.32, p<0.000). Conclusion: Asymptomatic COVID-19 during pregnancy seemed to be associated with various abnormal placental histopathologic changes related to placental hypoxia independent of maternal anemia status. Our data supports an independent role of SARS-CoV-2 in causing placental hypoxia in pregnant women.


Subject(s)
Anemia , COVID-19 , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Female , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Placenta , Pregnant Women , Cross-Sectional Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers , Anemia/epidemiology , Anemia/etiology , Antibodies, Viral
15.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 19(1): 2196912, 2023 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2301932

ABSTRACT

The objective is to evaluate the effectiveness of placental transfer of maternally derived SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies after the vaccination of pregnant women with heterologous CoronaVac-ChAdOx1. Thirty pregnant women were vaccinated with CoronaVac as the first dose, followed by ChAdOx1 3 weeks later. The antibody levels in the maternal blood and in the umbilical cord blood at the time of delivery were determined. The results showed that the vaccination effectively increased antibody levels in both mothers and newborns. The antibody levels in the mothers were strongly correlated with those in the newborns (P < .001). The high levels of passive immunity in the newborns were achieved when the first and second doses of vaccination were given more than 40 and 20 d before delivery, respectively. After 1 month of the second dose, the immune levels seemed to decline in the mothers but increase in the newborns. The antibody levels in the newborns appear to be higher than those in the mothers in cases of delivery after 20 d of the second dose (1419 ± 699 vs 1222 ± 593 BAU/L; p < .05). In conclusion, heterologous CoronaVac-ChAdOx1-S schedule can increase antibody levels in a short time during pregnancy. Also, the regimen effectively increases immunity in the newborns. The antibody levels in the newborns appear to be higher than that in the mothers in most cases, if receiving the second dose more than 3 weeks before delivery. Therefore, the regimen should be considered as an effective regimen for pregnant women, especially in settings where mRNA vaccine is not available.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Humans , Female , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Placenta , Antibodies, Viral , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19
16.
Turk Patoloji Derg ; 38(2): 167, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305752
17.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 66(2): 301-306, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2297558

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus 2019 infection (COVID 19) is an ongoing pandemic caused by pathogenic RNA viruses called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-COV-2). It has affected people of all ages, with high morbidity and mortality among the elderly and immunocompromised population. Limited information is available on the effects of COVID-19 infection on pregnancy. Aim: To describe the histopathological changes in the placental tissue of SARS-CoV-2 infected term mothers with no comorbidities and to correlate with neonatal outcome. Materials and Methods: This observational study was conducted in the Department of Pathology, KMCH institute of health sciences and research, Coimbatore from May 1, 2020 to November 30, 2020 for 6 months. Placental tissues of all COVID-19-positive term mothers with no comorbidities were included in this study. Histopathological examination of placentae was carried out and clinical data of mothers and newborn babies were obtained from medical records. Results: Histopathological examination of 64 placental tissue of COVID-19 mothers showed predominantly the features of fetal vascular malperfusion like stem villi vasculature thrombus, villous congestion, and avascular villi. No significant correlation was obtained in comparison with parity and symptomatic status of the mothers. However, histopathological changes were more prominent among symptomatic patients. The newborn babies born to these mothers showed no adverse outcome. Conclusion: This study concluded that though COVID-19 infection in normal term pregnant women was associated with increased prevalence of features of fetal vascular malperfusion, there was no significant morbidity in the health status of both COVID-19 mothers and their neonates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Infant, Newborn , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Aged , COVID-19/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Placenta/pathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis
18.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(12): 100849, 2022 12 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2278940

ABSTRACT

Direct in vivo investigation of human placenta trophoblast's susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 is challenging. Here we report that human trophoblast stem cells (hTSCs) and their derivatives are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection, which reveals heterogeneity in hTSC cultures. Early syncytiotrophoblasts (eSTBs) generated from hTSCs have enriched transcriptomic features of peri-implantation trophoblasts, express high levels of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and are productively infected by SARS-CoV-2 and its Delta and Omicron variants to produce virions. Antiviral drugs suppress SARS-CoV-2 replication in eSTBs and antagonize the virus-induced blockage of STB maturation. Although less susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection, trophoblast organoids originating from hTSCs show detectable viral replication reminiscent of the uncommon placental infection. These findings implicate possible risk of COVID-19 infection in peri-implantation embryos, which may go unnoticed. Stem cell-derived human trophoblasts such as eSTBs can potentially provide unlimited amounts of normal and genome-edited cells and facilitate coronavirus research and antiviral discovery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Humans , Female , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Trophoblasts , Placenta , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology
19.
Rev Med Virol ; 33(3): e2434, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2277488

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy is associated with adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes, but no systematic synthesis of evidence on COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy against these outcomes has been undertaken. Thus, we aimed to assess the collective evidence on the effects of COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy on maternal and neonatal outcomes. PubMed/MEDLINE, CENTRAL, and EMBASE were systematically searched for articles published up to 1 November 2022. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to calculate pooled effects size and 95% confidence interval (CI). We evaluated 30 studies involving 862,272 individuals (308,428 vaccinated and 553,844 unvaccinated). Overall pooled analyses in pregnant women during pregnancy showed reduced risks of SARS-CoV-2 infection by 60% (41%-73%), COVID-19 hospitalisation during pregnancy by 53% (31%-69%), and COVID-19 intensive care unit (ICU) admission by 82% (12%-99%). Neonates of vaccinated women were 1.78 folds more likely to acquire SARS-CoV-2 infection during the first 2, 4 and 6 months of life during the Omicron period. The risk of stillbirth was reduced by 45% (17%-63%) in association with vaccination (vs. no vaccination) in pregnancy. A decrease of 15% (3%-25%), 33% (14%-48%), and 33% (17%-46%) in the odds of preterm births before 37, 32 and 28 weeks' gestation were associated with vaccination (vs. no vaccination) in pregnancy, respectively. The risk of neonatal ICU admission was significantly lower by 20% following COVID-19 vaccination in pregnancy (16%-24%). There was no evidence of a higher risk of adverse outcomes including miscarriage, gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension, cardiac problems, oligohydramnios, polyhydramnios, unassisted vaginal delivery, cesarean delivery, postpartum haemorrhage, gestational age at delivery, placental abruption, Apgar score at 5 min below 7, low birthweight (<2500 g), very low birthweight (<1500 g), small for gestational age, and neonatal foetal abnormalities. COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy is safe and highly effective in preventing maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy, without increasing the risk of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes, and is associated with a reduction in stillbirth, preterm births, and neonatal ICU admission. Importantly, maternal vaccination did not reduce the risk of neonatal SARS-CoV-2 infection during the first 6 months of life during the Omicron period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth , Infant, Newborn , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Stillbirth/epidemiology , Premature Birth/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , Placenta , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnancy Outcome
20.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 17(1): 23-36, 2023 01 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2277131

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was declared a global pandemic in March 2020 by the World Health Organization (WHO). By February 2022, the disease had infected more than 500 million people globally. COVID-19 frequently manifests as pneumonia and mortality is mainly caused by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Previous studies have reported that pregnant women are at a higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and complications can happen due to alterations in the immune response, respiratory physiology, hypercoagulable state, and placental pathology. Clinicians face the challenge of selecting the proper treatment for pregnant patients with different physiological characteristics compared with the non-pregnant population. Furthermore, drug safety for both the patient and the fetus should also be considered. Efforts to prevent COVID-19, including prioritizing vaccination for pregnant women, are essential to break the chain of COVID-19 transmission in the pregnant population. This review aims to summarize the current literature regarding the effect of COVID-19 in pregnant women, its clinical manifestations, treatment, complications, and prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Placenta
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