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1.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 12 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580422

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant women can lead to placental damage and transplacental infection transfer, and intrauterine fetal demise is an unpredictable event. CASE STUDY: A 32-year-old patient in her 38th week of pregnancy reported loss of fetal movements. She overcame mild COVID-19 with positive PCR test 22 days before. A histology of the placenta showed deposition of intervillous fibrinoid, lympho-histiocytic infiltration, scant neutrophils, clumping of villi, and extant infarctions. Immunohistochemistry identified focal SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid and spike protein in the syncytiotrophoblast and isolated in situ hybridization of the virus' RNA. Low ACE2 and TMPRSS2 contrasted with strong basigin/CD147 and PDL-1 positivity in the trophoblast. An autopsy of the fetus showed no morphological abnormalities except for lung interstitial infiltrate, with prevalent CD8-positive T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization proved the presence of countless dispersed SARS-CoV-2-infected epithelial and endothelial cells in the lung tissue. The potential virus-receptor protein ACE2, TMPRSS2, and CD147 expression was too low to be detected. CONCLUSION: Over three weeks' persistence of trophoblast viral infection lead to extensive intervillous fibrinoid depositions and placental infarctions. High CD147 expression might serve as the dominant receptor for the virus, and PDL-1 could limit maternal immunity in placental tissue virus clearance. The presented case indicates that the SARS-CoV-2 infection-induced changes in the placenta lead to ischemia and consecutive demise of the fetus. The infection of the fetus was without significant impact on its death. This rare complication of pregnancy can appear independently to the severity of COVID-19's clinical course in the pregnant mother.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Placenta/pathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Stillbirth , Adult , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , B-Lymphocytes , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/diagnosis , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Female , Fetus/pathology , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Placenta/virology , Placenta Diseases/pathology , Placenta Diseases/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Endopeptidases , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Trophoblasts
2.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572671

ABSTRACT

Neonatal COVID-19 is rare and mainly results from postnatal transmission. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), however, can infect the placenta and compromise its function. We present two cases of decreased fetal movements and abnormal fetal heart rhythm 5 days after mild maternal COVID-19, requiring emergency caesarean section at 29 + 3 and 32 + 1 weeks of gestation, and leading to brain injury. Placental examination revealed extensive and multifocal chronic intervillositis, with intense cytoplasmic positivity for SARS-CoV-2 spike antibody and SARS-CoV-2 detection by RT-qPCR. Vertical transmission was confirmed in one case, and both neonates developed extensive cystic peri-ventricular leukomalacia.


Subject(s)
Brain Injuries/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Placenta/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Adult , Brain Injuries/pathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Cesarean Section , Female , Fetal Movement , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Leukomalacia, Periventricular/etiology , Leukomalacia, Periventricular/pathology , Placenta/pathology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
3.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6788-6793, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1562395

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to report a case of mild novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in a pregnant woman with probable viremia, as reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing of endometrial and placental swabs for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was positive. A 26-year-old multigravida at 35 weeks 2 days of gestation, who had extensive thigh and abdominal cellulitis, tested SARS-CoV-2 positive by RT-PCR performed on samples from the endometrium and maternal side of the placenta. However, other samples (amniotic fluid, fetal side of the placenta, umbilical cord, maternal vagina, and neonatal nasopharynx) tested negative for SARS-CoV-2. This is one of the rare reports of probable SARS-CoV-2 viremia with the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the endometrium and placenta, but not leading to vertical transmission and neonatal infection. Because knowledge about transplacental transmission and results is very limited, we conclude that more RT-PCR tests on placental and cord blood samples are needed in order to safely make definite conclusions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Fetus/virology , Placenta/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viremia/virology , Adult , Female , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women
4.
Placenta ; 117: 187-193, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550030

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Recent evidence supports the - rare - occurrence of vertical transplacental SARS-CoV-2 transmission. We previously determined that placental expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the SARS-CoV-2 receptor, and associated viral cell entry regulators is upregulated by hypoxia. In the present study, we utilized a clinically relevant model of SARS-CoV-2-associated chronic histiocytic intervillositis/massive perivillous fibrin deposition (CHIV/MPFVD) to test the hypothesis that placental hypoxia may facilitate placental SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: We performed a comparative immunohistochemical and/or RNAscope in-situ hybridization analysis of carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX, hypoxia marker), ACE2 and SARS-CoV-2 expression in free-floating versus fibrin-encased chorionic villi in a 20-weeks' gestation placenta with SARS-CoV-2-associated CHIV/MPVFD. RESULTS: The levels of CAIX and ACE2 immunoreactivity were significantly higher in trophoblastic cells of fibrin-encased villi than in those of free-floating villi, consistent with hypoxia-induced ACE2 upregulation. SARS-CoV-2 showed a similar preferential localization to trophoblastic cells of fibrin-encased villi. DISCUSSION: The localization of SARS-CoV-2 to hypoxic, fibrin-encased villi in this placenta with CHIV/MPVFD suggests placental infection and, therefore, transplacental SARS-CoV-2 transmission may be promoted by hypoxic conditions, mediated by ACE2 and similar hypoxia-sensitive viral cell entry mechanisms. Understanding of a causative link between placental hypoxia and SARS-CoV-2 transmittability may potentially lead to the development of alternative strategies for prevention of intrauterine COVID-19 transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Fibrin/analysis , Hypoxia/virology , Placenta/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/analysis , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Carbonic Anhydrase IX/analysis , Chorionic Villi/enzymology , Chorionic Villi/virology , Female , Gestational Age , Histiocytes/pathology , Humans , Hypoxia/pathology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Necrosis/virology , Placenta/chemistry , Placenta/pathology , Pregnancy , Stillbirth , Trophoblasts/enzymology , Trophoblasts/virology
5.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 760, 2021 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511731

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infection with SARS-CoV-2 during pregnancy can lead to a severe condition in the patient, which is challenging for obstetricians and anaesthesiologists. Upon severe COVID-19 and a lack of improvement after multidrug therapy and mechanical ventilation, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is introduced as the last option. Such treatment is critical in women with very preterm pregnancy when each additional day of the intrauterine stay is vital for the survival of the newborn. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a 38-year-old woman at 27 weeks of gestation treated with multidrug therapy and ECMO. The woman was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with increasing fever, cough and dyspnoea. The course of the pregnancy was uncomplicated. She was otherwise healthy. At admission, she presented with severe dyspnoea, with oxygen saturation (SpO2) of 95% on passive oxygenation, heart rate of 145/min, and blood pressure of 145/90. After confirmation of SARS-CoV-2 infection, she received steroids, remdesivir and convalescent plasma therapy. The foetus was in good condition. No signs of an intrauterine infection were visible. Due to tachypnea of 40/min and SpO2 of 90%, the woman was intubated and mechanically ventilated. Due to circulatory failure, the prothrombotic activity of the coagulation system, further saturation worsening, and poor control of sedation, she was qualified for veno-venous ECMO. An elective caesarean section was performed at 29 weeks on ECMO treatment in the ICU. A preterm female newborn was delivered with an Apgar score of 7 and a birth weight of 1440 g. The newborn had no laboratory or clinical evidence of COVID-19. The placenta showed the following pathological changes: large subchorionic haematoma, maternal vascular malperfusion, marginal cord insertion, and chorangioma. CONCLUSIONS: This case presents the successful use of ECMO in a pregnant woman with acute respiratory distress syndrome in the course of severe COVID-19. Further research is required to explain the aetiology of placental disorders (e.g., maternal vascular malperfusion lesions or thrombotic influence of COVID-19). ECMO treatment in pregnant women remains challenging; thus, it should be used with caution. Long-term assessment may help to evaluate the safety of the ECMO procedure in pregnant women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Placenta/pathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cesarean Section , Female , Humans , Placenta/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Trimester, Second , Treatment Outcome
6.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 145(11): 1328-1340, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485410

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT.­: SARS-CoV-2 can undergo maternal-fetal transmission, heightening interest in the placental pathology findings from this infection. Transplacental SARS-CoV-2 transmission is typically accompanied by chronic histiocytic intervillositis together with necrosis and positivity of syncytiotrophoblast for SARS-CoV-2. Hofbauer cells are placental macrophages that have been involved in viral diseases, including HIV and Zika virus, but their involvement in SARS-CoV-2 is unknown. OBJECTIVE.­: To determine whether SARS-CoV-2 can extend beyond the syncytiotrophoblast to enter Hofbauer cells, endothelium, and other villous stromal cells in infected placentas of liveborn and stillborn infants. DESIGN.­: Case-based retrospective analysis by 29 perinatal and molecular pathology specialists of placental findings from a preselected cohort of 22 SARS-CoV-2-infected placentas delivered to pregnant women testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 from 7 countries. Molecular pathology methods were used to investigate viral involvement of Hofbauer cells, villous capillary endothelium, syncytiotrophoblast, and other fetal-derived cells. RESULTS.­: Chronic histiocytic intervillositis and trophoblast necrosis were present in all 22 placentas (100%). SARS-CoV-2 was identified in Hofbauer cells from 4 of 22 placentas (18.2%). Villous capillary endothelial staining was positive in 2 of 22 cases (9.1%), both of which also had viral positivity in Hofbauer cells. Syncytiotrophoblast staining occurred in 21 of 22 placentas (95.5%). Hofbauer cell hyperplasia was present in 3 of 22 placentas (13.6%). In the 7 cases having documented transplacental infection of the fetus, 2 (28.6%) occurred in placentas with Hofbauer cell staining positive for SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSIONS.­: SARS-CoV-2 can extend beyond the trophoblast into the villous stroma, involving Hofbauer cells and capillary endothelial cells, in a small number of infected placentas. Most cases of SARS-CoV-2 transplacental fetal infection occur without Hofbauer cell involvement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Macrophages/virology , Placenta/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Cell Proliferation , Endothelium/pathology , Endothelium/virology , Female , Humans , Hyperplasia/pathology , Hyperplasia/virology , Infant, Newborn , Macrophages/pathology , Macrophages/physiology , Male , Placenta/pathology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Stillbirth , Trophoblasts/pathology , Trophoblasts/virology
7.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1868(1): 166285, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1460712

ABSTRACT

During pregnancy, a series of physiological changes are determined at the molecular, cellular and macroscopic level that make the mother and fetus more susceptible to certain viral and bacterial infections, especially the infections in this and the companion review. Particular situations increase susceptibility to infection in neonates. The enhanced susceptibility to certain infections increases the risk of developing particular diseases that can progress to become morbidly severe. For example, during the current pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, epidemiological studies have established that pregnant women with COVID-19 disease are more likely to be hospitalized. However, the risk for intensive care unit admission and mechanical ventilation is not increased compared with nonpregnant women. Although much remains unknown with this particular infection, the elevated risk of progression during pregnancy towards more severe manifestations of COVID-19 disease is not associated with an increased risk of death. In addition, the epidemiological data available in neonates suggest that their risk of acquiring COVID-19 is low compared with infants (<12 months of age). However, they might be at higher risk for progression to severe COVID-19 disease compared with older children. The data on clinical presentation and disease severity among neonates are limited and based on case reports and small case series. It is well documented the importance of the Zika virus infection as the main cause of several congenital anomalies and birth defects such as microcephaly, and also adverse pregnancy outcomes. Mycoplasma infections also increase adverse pregnancy outcomes. This review will focus on the molecular, pathophysiological and biophysical characteristics of the mother/placental-fetal/neonatal interactions and the possible mechanisms of these pathogens (SARS-CoV-2, ZIKV, and Mycoplasmas) for promoting disease at this level.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/transmission , Mycoplasma Infections/etiology , Mycoplasma Infections/transmission , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Zika Virus Infection/etiology , Zika Virus Infection/transmission , Biomarkers , Breast Feeding/adverse effects , Disease Susceptibility , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Maternal-Fetal Exchange , Mycoplasma , Placenta/immunology , Placenta/metabolism , Placenta/microbiology , Placenta/virology , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Zika Virus
8.
Front Immunol ; 12: 743022, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450814

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a global pandemic. The virus primarily affects the lungs where it induces respiratory distress syndrome ranging from mild to acute, however, there is a growing body of evidence supporting its negative effects on other system organs that also carry the ACE2 receptor, such as the placenta. The majority of newborns delivered from SARS-CoV-2 positive mothers test negative following delivery, suggesting that there are protective mechanisms within the placenta. There appears to be a higher incidence of pregnancy-related complications in SARS-CoV-2 positive mothers, such as miscarriage, restricted fetal growth, or still-birth. In this review, we discuss the pathobiology of COVID-19 maternal infection and the potential adverse effects associated with viral infection, and the possibility of transplacental transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Placenta/pathology , Placenta/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Abortion, Spontaneous/virology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Female , Fetal Growth Retardation/virology , Humans , Maternal-Fetal Exchange/physiology , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Stillbirth
9.
Diagn Pathol ; 16(1): 88, 2021 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448245

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19, the disease caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, is a severe systemic thrombotic syndrome that emerged in 2019, with an ensuing pandemic. To evaluate the impact of this disease on placental tissue and perinatal outcome, histological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural analyses of placental tissue were performed for five cases of pregnant women with COVID-19. CASE REPORTS: All five pregnant women in this series developed COVID-19 in late pregnancy. Two patients experienced respiratory distress, and computed tomography revealed signs of pneumonia, with bilateral involvement, multiple lobular and subsegmental areas of consolidation and ground-glass opacities. Histological studies of placental tissue revealed the presence of slight signs of maternal vascular underperfusion (MVUs) or foetal vascular underperfusion (FVUs) lesions and mild inflammatory lesions. CD15 immunoreactivity in the placental tissue was low in all cases, demonstrating that in these cases there was not severe foetal hypoxia/asphyxia risk for newborns or distal vascular immaturity. In all cases examined, ultrastructural analyses showed spherical-like coronavirus particles with an electron intermediate-density core as well as projections from the surface as spike-like structures in the syncytiotrophoblasts. At term, all of the women delivered newborns who were negative for SARS-CoV-2 by nasopharyngeal testing in their first day of life. All newborns were exclusively breastfed and were discharged on the 3rd day of life. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, placental patterns in pregnancy due to COVID-19 in the late stage of gestation indicate no evidence of vertical trans-placental SARS-CoV-2 transmission or a significant impact on the perinatal outcome of newborns, in both mild and more severe cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pandemics , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Placenta/diagnostic imaging , Placenta/pathology , Placenta/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Trophoblasts/pathology , Trophoblasts/virology
11.
J Med Virol ; 93(10): 5864-5872, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432419

ABSTRACT

The aim was to investigate the association of the delivery mode and vertical transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) through the samples of vaginal secretions, placenta, cord blood, or amniotic fluid as well as the neonatal outcomes. This cross-sectional study presents an analysis of prospectively gathered data collected at a single tertiary hospital. Sixty-three pregnant women with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) participated in the study. Vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 was analyzed with reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests and blood tests for immunoglobulin G (IgG)-immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies. All patients were in the mild or moderate category for COVID-19. Only one placental sample and two of the vaginal secretion samples were positive for SARS-CoV-2. Except for one, all positive samples were obtained from patients who gave birth by cesarean. All cord blood and amniotic fluid samples were negative for SARS-CoV-2. Two newborns were screened positive for COVID-19 IgG-IgM within 24 h after delivery, but the RT-PCR tests were negative. A positive RT-PCR result was detected in a neof a mother whose placenta, cord blood, amniotic fluid, and vaginal secretions samples were negative. He died due to pulmonary hemorrhage on the 11th day of life. In conclusion, we demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 can be detectable in the placenta or vaginal secretions of pregnant women. Detection of the virus in the placenta or vaginal secretions may not be associated with neonatal infection. Vaginal delivery may not increase the incidence of neonatal infection, and cesarean may not prevent vertical transmission. The decision regarding the mode of delivery should be based on obstetric indications and COVID-19 severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cesarean Section , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/diagnosis , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/epidemiology , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/virology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Male , Placenta/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy Outcome , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Tertiary Care Centers , Vagina/virology , Young Adult
12.
Viruses ; 13(9)2021 09 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430983

ABSTRACT

(1) This study aimed to evaluate characteristics, perinatal outcomes, and placental pathology of pregnant women with or without SARS-CoV-2 infection in the context of maternal PCR cycle threshold (CT) values. (2) This was a retrospective case-control study in a third-level health center in Mexico City with universal screening by RT-qPCR. The association of COVID-19 manifestations, preeclampsia, and preterm birth with maternal variables and CT values were assessed by logistic regression models and decision trees. (3) Accordingly, 828 and 298 women had a negative and positive test, respectively. Of those positive, only 2.6% of them presented mild to moderate symptoms. Clinical characteristics between both groups of women were similar. No associations between CT values were found for maternal features, such as pre-gestational BMI, age, and symptomatology. A significantly higher percentage of placental fibrinoid was seen with women with low CTs (<25; p < 0.01). Regarding perinatal outcomes, preeclampsia was found to be significantly associated with symptomatology but not with risk factors or CT values (p < 0.01, aOR = 14.72). Moreover, 88.9% of women diagnosed with COVID-19 at <35 gestational weeks and symptomatic developed preeclampsia. (4) The data support strong guidance for pregnancies with SARS-CoV-2 infection, in particular preeclampsia and placental pathology, which need further investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adult , Biopsy , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Placenta/pathology , Placenta/virology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Outcome , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
13.
Placenta ; 115: 37-44, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401783

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The reported effects of SARS-CoV-2 on pregnancy outcomes are conflicting; studies frequently overlook the placenta, which is critical for the health of the mother and infant(s). This study aimed to determine the effect of pandemic stress ± SARS CoV-2 infection on placental histopathology. METHODS: Women were recruited in Canada (n = 69); France (n = 21) or in the UK (n = 25), between March and October 2020. Historic controls (N = 20) were also included. Placenta and fetal membrane samples were collected rapidly after delivery and were fixed and stained for histopathological analysis. Maternal demographical data and obstetric outcomes were recorded. RESULTS: Over 80% of the placentas from SARS-CoV-2+ pregnancies had histopathological abnormalities: predominantly structural (71-86%) or inflammatory (9-22%), depending on geographical location. Excessive fibrin was seen in all sites, whereas deciduitis (Canada), calcifications (UK), agglutinations and chorangiosis (France) predominated in different locations. The frequency of abnormalities was significantly higher than in SARS-CoV-2 negative women (50%, p < 0.05). Demographic and obstetric data were similar in the SARS-CoV-2+ women across all sites - characterised by predominantly Black/Middle Eastern women, and women with elevated body mass index. DISCUSSION: Overall, the frequency of placental abnormalities is increased in SARS-CoV-2+ women, but the incidence of placental abnormalities is also higher in SARS-CoV-2- women that gave birth during the pandemic, which highlights the importance of appropriate control groups to ascertain the roles of pandemic stress and SARS-CoV-2 infection on the placenta and pregnancy outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Placenta Diseases/etiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Stress, Psychological/complications , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Canada/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Male , Maternal-Fetal Relations/psychology , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Placenta/pathology , Placenta/virology , Placenta Diseases/epidemiology , Placenta Diseases/pathology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/psychology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome/psychology , Psychological Distress , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Stress, Psychological/pathology , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Young Adult
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389393

ABSTRACT

As most recently demonstrated by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, congenital and perinatal infections are of significant concern to the pregnant population as compared to the general population. These outcomes can range from no apparent impact all the way to spontaneous abortion or fetal infection with long term developmental consequences. While some pathogens have developed mechanisms to cross the placenta and directly infect the fetus, other pathogens lead to an upregulation in maternal or placental inflammation that can indirectly cause harm. The placenta is a temporary, yet critical organ that serves multiple important functions during gestation including facilitation of fetal nutrition, oxygenation, and prevention of fetal infection in utero. Here, we review trophoblast cell immunology and the molecular mechanisms utilized to protect the fetus from infection. Lastly, we discuss consequences in the placenta when these protections fail and the histopathologic result following infection.


Subject(s)
Immunity , Placenta/immunology , Placenta/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Virus Diseases/immunology , Viruses/immunology , Female , Fetus/immunology , Fetus/virology , Humans , Placenta/pathology , Pregnancy , Trophoblasts/immunology , Trophoblasts/virology
17.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 9(5): 636-639, 2020 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387930

ABSTRACT

Little is known about the effects of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on pregnant mothers and their infants. Moreover, there is no definitive evidence that SARS CoV- 2 can be vertically transmitted from an infected mother to the unborn fetus.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Placenta/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , In Situ Hybridization , Infant, Newborn , Nasopharynx/virology , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1867(12): 166248, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1372892

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has infected nearly 178 million people and claimed the lives of over 3.8 million in less than 15 months. This has prompted a flurry of research studies into the mechanisms and effects of SARS-CoV-2 viral infection in humans. However, studies examining the effects of COVID-19 in pregnant women, their placentae and their babies remain limited. Furthermore, reports of safety and efficacy of vaccines for SARS-CoV-2 in pregnancy are limited. This review concisely summarises the case studies and research on COVID-19 in pregnancy, to date. It also reviews the mechanism of infection with SARS-CoV-2, and its reliance and effects upon the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Overall, the data suggest that infection during pregnancy can be dangerous at any time, but this risk to both the mother and fetus, as well as placental damage, increases during the third trimester. The possibility of vertical transmission, which is explored in this review, remains contentious. However, maternal infection with SARS-CoV-2 can increase risk of miscarriage, preterm birth and stillbirth, which is likely due to damage to the placenta.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Fetus/immunology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Female , Fetus/virology , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Placenta/metabolism , Placenta/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
19.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 08 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367928

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although the risk for transplacental transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is rare, placental infections with adverse functional consequences have been reported. This study aims to analyse histological placental findings in pregnancies complicated by SARS-CoV-2 infection and investigate its correlation with clinical symptoms and perinatal outcomes. We want to determine which pregnancies are at-risk to prevent adverse pregnancy outcomes related to COVID-19 in the future. METHODS: A prospective, longitudinal, multicentre, cohort study. All pregnant women presenting between April 2020 and March 2021 with a nasopharyngeal RT-PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were included. Around delivery, maternal, foetal and placental PCR samples were collected. Placental pathology was correlated with clinical maternal characteristics of COVID-19. RESULTS: Thirty-six patients were included, 33 singleton pregnancies (n = 33, 92%) and three twin pregnancies (n = 3, 8%). Twenty-four (62%) placentas showed at least one abnormality. Four placentas (4/39, 10%) showed placental staining positive for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 accompanied by a unique combination of diffuse, severe inflammatory placental changes with massive perivillous fibrin depositions, necrosis of syncytiotrophoblast, diffuse chronic intervillositis, and a specific, unprecedented CD20+ B-cell infiltration. This SARS-CoV-2 placental signature seems to correlate with foetal distress (75% vs. 15.6%, p = 0.007) but not with the severity of maternal COVID-19 disease. CONCLUSION: We describe a unique placental signature in pregnant patients with COVID-19, which has not been reported in a historical cohort. We show that the foetal environment can be seriously compromised by disruption of placental function due to local, devastating SARS-CoV-2 infection. Maternal clinical symptoms did not predict the severity of the SARS-CoV-2-related placental signature, resulting in a lack of adequate identification of maternal criteria for pregnancies at risk. Close foetal monitoring and pregnancy termination in case of foetal distress can prevent adverse pregnancy outcomes due to COVID-19 related placental disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Placenta Diseases/pathology , Placenta/pathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , Adult , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Fetal Distress/physiopathology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Placenta/physiopathology , Placenta/virology , Placenta Diseases/physiopathology , Placenta Diseases/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/physiopathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy Outcome , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Trophoblasts/pathology
20.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1867(12): 166244, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356140

ABSTRACT

The placenta provides a significant physical and physiological barrier to prevent fetal infection during pregnancy. Nevertheless, it is at times breached by pathogens and leads to vertical transmission of infection from mother to fetus. This review will focus specifically on the Zika flavivirus, the HIV retrovirus and the emerging SARS-CoV2 coronavirus, which have affected pregnant women and their offspring in recent epidemics. In particular, we will address how viral infections affect the immune response at the maternal-fetal interface and how the placental barrier is physically breached and discuss the consequences of infection on various aspects of placental function to support fetal growth and development. Improved understanding of how the placenta responds to viral infections will lay the foundation for developing therapeutics to these and emergent viruses, to minimise the harms of infection to the offspring.


Subject(s)
Placenta/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Virus Diseases/physiopathology , COVID-19/metabolism , Female , Fetus/virology , HIV Infections/metabolism , HIV-1/pathogenicity , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Placenta/metabolism , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Zika Virus/pathogenicity , Zika Virus Infection/metabolism
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