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1.
Molecules ; 27(19)2022 Sep 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066270

ABSTRACT

Andrographis paniculata is a well-known Asian medicinal plant with a major phytoconstituent of diterpene lactones, such as andrographolide, 14-deoxyandrographolide, and neoandrographolide. A World Health Organization (WHO) monograph on selected medicinal plants showed that A. paniculata extracts and its major diterpene lactones have promising anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antimalarial, anticancer, antifungal, antibacterial, antioxidant, and hypoglycemic activities. However, these active phytochemicals have poor water solubility and bioavailability when delivered in a conventional dosage form. These biological barriers can be mitigated if the extract or isolated compound are delivered as nanoparticles. This review discusses existing studies and marketed products of A. paniculata in solid, liquid, semi-solid, and gaseous dosage forms, either as an extract or isolated pure compounds, as well as their deficits in reaching maximum bioavailability. The pharmaceutics and pharmacological activity of A. paniculata as a nano-delivery system are also discussed.


Subject(s)
Andrographis , Antimalarials , Diterpenes , Plants, Medicinal , Andrographis/chemistry , Andrographis paniculata , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents , Antioxidants , Diterpenes/chemistry , Hypoglycemic Agents , Lactones , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Water
2.
Front Public Health ; 10: 964741, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065648

ABSTRACT

Arisaema jacquemontii Blume is a highly medicinal and poisonous plant belong to the family Araceae. It is used to treat several deadly diseases, including viral infections. It has antioxidant, anti-cancerous, antimalarial, anti-vermicidal, and antiviral activities. Therefore, five parts of the Arisaema jacquemontii Blume plant, such as leaf, seed, stem, pulp, and rhizome extract, were evaluated for metabolic and in silico characterization of probable compounds using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. A total of 22 compounds were isolated from the methanolic extracts of A. jacquemontii Blume. A selected antiviral COVID-19 protein i.e., protease (6LU7) was docked against the obtained compounds. Different affinities were obtained through various compounds. The best results were shown by three different compounds identified in the rhizome. The maximum binding affinity of these compounds is 8.1 kJ/mol. Molecular docking (MD) indicate that these molecules have the highest binding energies and hydrogen bonding interactions. The binding mode of interaction was discovered to be reasonably effective for counteracting the SARS virus COVID-19. The findings of this study could be extremely useful in the development of more phytochemical-based COVID-19 therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials , Arisaema , COVID-19 , Antioxidants , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Arisaema/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Molecular Docking Simulation , Peptide Hydrolases , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology
3.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol ; 395(12): 1525-1536, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2048210

ABSTRACT

Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f. is nicknamed the 'Miracle plant' or sometimes as the 'Wonder plant'. It is a plant that has been used since ancient times for the innumerable health benefits associated with it. It is one of the important plants that has its use in conventional medicinal treatments. It is a perennial succulent, drought-tolerant member of the family Asphodelaceae. There are scores of properties associated with the plant that help in curing various forms of human ailments. Extracts and gels obtained from plants have been shown to be wonderful healers of different conditions, mainly various skin problems. Also, this plant is popular in the cosmetics industry. The underlying properties of the plant are now mainly associated with the natural phytochemicals present in the plant. Diverse groups of phytoingredients are found in the plant, including various phenolics, amino acids, sugars, vitamins, and different other organic compounds, too. One of the primary ingredients found in the plant is the aloin molecule. It is an anthraquinone derivative and exists as an isomer of Aloin A and Aloin B. Barbaloin belonging to the first group is a glucoside of the aloe-emodin anthrone molecule. Various types of pharmacological properties exhibited by the plant can be attributed to this chemical. Few significant ones are antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-cancer, anti-microbial, and anti-viral, along with their different immunity-boosting actions. Recently, molecular coupling studies have also found the role of these molecules as a potential cure against the ongoing COVID-19 disease. This study comprehensively focuses on the numerous pharmacological actions of the primary compound barbaloin obtained from the Aloe vera plant along with the mechanism of action and the potent application of these natural molecules under various conditions.


Subject(s)
Aloe , COVID-19 , Humans , Aloe/chemistry , Anthracenes/pharmacology , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry
4.
Molecules ; 27(18)2022 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043868

ABSTRACT

Traditionally, Brassica species are widely used in traditional medicine, human food, and animal feed. Recently, special attention has been dedicated to Brassica seeds as source of health-promoting phytochemicals. This review provides a summary of recent research on the Brassica seed phytochemistry, bioactivity, dietary importance, and toxicity by screening the major online scientific database sources and papers published in recent decades by Elsevier, Springer, and John Wiley. The search was conducted covering the period from January 1964 to July 2022. Phytochemically, polyphenols, glucosinolates, and their degradation products were the predominant secondary metabolites in seeds. Different extracts and their purified constituents from seeds of Brassica species have been found to possess a wide range of biological properties including antioxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and neuroprotective activities. These valuable functional properties of Brassica seeds are related to their richness in active compounds responsible for the prevention and treatment of various chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cancer, and COVID-19. Currently, the potential properties of Brassica seeds and their components are the main focus of research, but their toxicity and health risks must also be accounted for.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Brassica , COVID-19 , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Brassica/chemistry , Ethnopharmacology , Glucosinolates , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Seeds
5.
Molecules ; 27(17)2022 Aug 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2033062

ABSTRACT

Malaria is one of the most important infectious diseases worldwide. The causative of the most severe forms of malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, has developed resistances against all the available antimalarial drugs. In the present study, the phytochemical investigation of the green seaweed Halimeda macroloba has afforded two new compounds 1-2, along with 4 known ones 3-6. The structures of the compounds had been confirmed using 1& 2D-NMR and HRESIMS analyses. Extensive machine-learning-supported virtual-screening suggested cytochrome-C enzyme as a potential target for compound 2. Docking, absolute-binding-free-energy (ΔGbinding) and molecular-dynamics-simulation (MDS) of compound 2 revealed the strong binding interaction of this compound with cytochrome-C. In vitro testing for crude extract and isolated compounds revealed the potential in vitro inhibitory activity of both extract and compound 2 against P. falciparum. The crude extract was able to inhibit the parasite growth with an IC50 value of 1.8 ± 0.35 µg/mL. Compound 2 also showed good inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 3.2 ± 0.23 µg/mL. Meanwhile, compound 6 showed moderate inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 19.3 ± 0.51 µg/mL. Accordingly, the scaffold of compound 2 can be considered as a good lead compound for the future development of new antimalarial agents.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials , Malaria, Falciparum , Malaria , Seaweed , Antimalarials/chemistry , Cytochromes , Humans , Malaria/drug therapy , Malaria, Falciparum/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plasmodium falciparum
6.
Mini Rev Med Chem ; 22(17): 2299-2307, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029882

ABSTRACT

Today, finding natural polymers with desirable properties for use in various industries is one of the critical axes of research in the world. Polysaccharides are a group of natural polymers that have various applications in the pharmaceutical industry. The attachment of monosaccharides forms polysaccharides through glycosidic bonds that are widely found in various sources, including plants. Genus Astragalus belongs to the Fabaceae family. Plants belonging to this genus have different polysaccharides. Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) have attracted a great deal of attention among natural polymers because they are non-toxic, biodegradable, and biocompatible. Currently, APS have great drug potential for curing or treating various diseases. Due to the different biological activities of polysaccharides, including Astragalus, this study has investigated the chemical structure of APS, reporting on the antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities as well as stimulation of cytokine secretion by these polysaccharides. Also, in this study, the pharmaceutical approaches of APS compounds, as a natural, new and inexpensive source, have been discussed as suitable candidates for use in pharmaceutical formulations and preparation of new drugs to control COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Astragalus Plant , COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Astragalus Plant/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Polymers , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Molecules ; 27(17)2022 Aug 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023943

ABSTRACT

Considering the vast cultural and traditional heritage of the use of aromatic herbs and wildflowers for the treatment of light medical conditions in the Balkans, a comparison of the antioxidant capacity of wildflowers extracts from Herzegovina was studied using both cyclic voltammetry and spectrophotometry. The cyclic voltammograms taken in the potential range between 0 V and 800 mV and scan rate of 100 mV s-1 were used for the quantification of the electrochemical properties of polyphenols present in four aqueous plant extracts. Antioxidant capacity expressed as mmoL of gallic acid equivalents per gram of dried weight of the sample (mmoL GAE g-1 dw) was deduced from the area below the major anodic peaks (Q400 pH 6.0, Q500 pH 4.7, Q600 pH 3.6). The results of electrochemical measurements suggest that the major contributors of antioxidant properties of examined plants are polyphenolic compounds that contain ortho-dihydroxy-phenol or gallate groups. Using Ferric reducing-antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2'-azino-bis spectrophotometric methods (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical cation-scavenging activity (ABTS) additionally determined antioxidant capacity. The FRAP results ranged from 2.9702-9.9418 mmoL Fe/g dw, while the results for ABTS assays expressed as Trolox equivalents (TE) ranged from 14.1842-42.6217 mmoL TE/g dw. The Folin-Ciocalteu procedure was applied to determine the total phenolics content (TP). The TP content expressed as Gallic acid equivalents (GAE) ranged from 6.0343-9.472 mmoL GAE/g dw. The measurements of total flavonoid (TF) and total condensed tannin (TT) contents were also performed to obtain a broader polyphenolic profile of tested plant materials. Origanum vulgare L. scored the highest on each test, with the exception of TT content, followed by the Mentha × piperita L., Artemisia annua L., and Artemisia absinthium L., respectively. The highest TT content, expressed as mg of (-)catechin equivalents per gram of dried weight of sample (mg CE/g dw), was achieved with A. absinthium extract (119.230 mg CE/g dw) followed by O. vulgare (90.384 mg CE/g dw), A. annua (86.538 mg CE/g dw) and M. piperita (69.231 mg CE/g dw), respectively. In addition, a very good correlation between electrochemical and spectroscopic methods was achieved.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Plant Extracts , Antioxidants/chemistry , Flavonoids/chemistry , Gallic Acid/analysis , Humans , Phenols/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Polyphenols/analysis
8.
Molecules ; 27(16)2022 Aug 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023938

ABSTRACT

Herein, we report our success synthesizing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous extracts from the leaves and flowers of Calotropis gigantea growing in the geothermal manifestation Ie Seu-Um, Aceh Besar, Indonesia. C. gigantea aqueous extract can be used as a bio-reductant for Ag+→Ag0 conversion, obtained by 48h incubation of Ag+, and the extract mixture in a dark condition. UV-Vis characterization showed that the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peaks of AgNPs-leaf C. gigantea (AgNPs-LCg) and AgNPs-flower C. gigantea (AgNPs-FCg) appeared in the wavelength range of 410-460 nm. Scanning electron microscopy energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS) revealed the agglomeration and spherical shapes of AgNPs-LCg and AgNPs-FCg with diameters ranging from 87.85 to 256.7 nm. Zeta potentials were observed in the range of -41.8 to -25.1 mV. The Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion assay revealed AgNPs-FCg as the most potent antimicrobial agent with inhibition zones of 12.05 ± 0.58, 11.29 ± 0.45, and 9.02 ± 0.10 mm for Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans, respectively. In conclusion, aqueous extract from the leaves or flowers of Calotropis gigantea may be used in the green synthesis of AgNPs with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Calotropis , Metal Nanoparticles , Acetone/analogs & derivatives , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Escherichia coli , Green Chemistry Technology , Hydrazones , Indonesia , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Silver/chemistry
9.
Molecules ; 27(16)2022 Aug 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023934

ABSTRACT

The flora of Kazakhstan is characterized by its wide variety of different types of medicinal plants, many of which can be used on an industrial scale. The Traditional Kazakh Medicine (TKM) was developed during centuries based on the six elements of ancient Kazakh theory, associating different fields such as pharmacology, anatomy, pathology, immunology and food nursing as well as disease prevention. The endemic Artemisia L. species are potential sources of unique and new natural products and new chemical structures, displaying diverse bioactivities and leading to the development of safe and effective phytomedicines against prevailing diseases in Kazakhstan and the Central Asia region. This review provides an overview of Artemisia species from Central Asia, particularly traditional uses in folk medicine and the recent numerous phytochemical and pharmacological studies. The review is done by the methods of literature searches in well-known scientific websites (Scifinder and Pubmed) and data collection in university libraries. Furthermore, our aim is to search for promising and potentially active Artemisia species candidates, encouraging us to analyze Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), α-glucosidase and bacterial neuraminidase (BNA) inhibition as well as the antioxidant potentials of Artemisia plant extracts, in which endemic species have not been explored for their secondary metabolites and biological activities so far. The main result of the study was that, for the first time, the species Artemisia scopiformis Ledeb. Artemisia albicerata Krasch., Artemisia transiliensis Poljakov, Artemisia schrenkiana Ledeb., Artemisia nitrosa Weber and Artemisia albida Willd. ex Ledeb. due to their special metabolites, showed a high potential for α-glucosidase, PTP1B and BNA inhibition, which is associated with diabetes, obesity and bacterial infections. In addition, we revealed that the methanol extracts of Artemisia were a potent source of polyphenolic compounds. The total polyphenolic contents of Artemisia extracts were correlated with antioxidant potential and varied according to plant origin, the solvent of extraction and the analytical method used. Consequently, oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) may be managed by the dietary intake of current Artemisia species. The antioxidant potentials of the species A. schrenkiana, A. scopaeformis, A. transiliensis and Artemisia scoparia Waldst. & Kitam. were also promising. In conclusion, the examination of details between different Artemisia species in our research has shown that plant materials are good as an antioxidant and eznyme inhibitory functional natural source.


Subject(s)
Artemisia , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Artemisia/chemistry , Ethnopharmacology , Humans , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/chemistry , alpha-Glucosidases
10.
Molecules ; 27(15)2022 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1994118

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to determine the variability of several chemical compounds and the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of eight types of berries harvested from two different geographical regions in the same year. The analyses were performed on bilberry, black currant, gooseberry, red currant, raspberry, sea buckthorn, strawberry and sour cherry, which were handpicked during the summer of 2019, in the same periods when they are typically harvested for consumer purposes. Total anthocyanins content (TAC), total flavonoids content (TFC), total polyphenolic compounds (TPC), determination of the Ferric-Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP), determination of the DPPH free radical scavenging assay (RSA), determination of nine phenolic compounds by HPLC-UV assay and antimicrobial activity were determined for undiluted hydroalcoholic extracts of all the studied berries. The results showed that the berries from Romania were richer in antioxidant compounds than the berries from Russia. The TPC content varied between 4.13-22.2 mg GAE/g d.w., TFC between 3.33-8.87 mg QE/g d.w. and TAC between 0.13-3.94 mg/g d.w. The highest variability was determined for TPC. Regarding the antioxidant activity assessed by FRAP assay, values were between 6.02-57.23 µmols TE/g d.w. and values for the RSA method between 18.44-83.81%. From the eight types of berries analyzed, bilberries and raspberries had the highest antioxidant activity considering both regions and both determination methods. Not only the type, but also the environmental and cultivation conditions in which the berries grow, can lead to variations in their chemical composition. The extracted polyphenolic compounds from the studied berries showed antibacterial properties on pathogens, such as Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphyloccocus aureus. The inhibitory action on Salmonella typhi and fungi Candida albicans and Aspegillus niger was absent to very low. The antimicrobial activity of the hydroalcoholic extracts was dependent on the provenance of the berries, too.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Ribes , Vaccinium myrtillus , Anthocyanins/analysis , Anthocyanins/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/analysis , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/chemistry , Flavonoids/analysis , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Fruit/chemistry , Phytochemicals/analysis , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Ribes/chemistry
11.
Curr Top Med Chem ; 22(21): 1736-1749, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987290

ABSTRACT

Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. (OFI) is a plant with numerous beneficial properties known in traditional medicine. It has been a domesticated plant in Latin America, Africa, Mediterranean countries, the Middle East, India and Australia. Nowadays, the research concentrates on natural compounds to lower costs and the possible side effects of synthetic compounds. The use of nutraceuticals, bioactive compounds of vegetable origin with important nutritional values, is encouraged. OFI has shown numerous activities due to its high content of antioxidants, including flavonoids and ascorbate, pigments, carotenoids and betalains, phenolic acids and other phytochemical components, such as biopeptides and soluble fibers. The most important effects of OFI are represented by the activity against acne, arthrosis, dermatosis, diabetes, diarrhea, fever, high blood pressure, prostatitis, rheumatism, stomachache, tumor, wart, allergy, wound, colitis and some viral diseases. Moreover, a promising role has been suggested in inflammatory bowel disease, colitis and metabolic syndrome. The most recent studies addressed the role of OFI in preventing and treating COVID-19 disease. In light of the above, this review summarizes the biological activities and health benefits that this plant may exert.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colitis , Opuntia , Male , Humans , Opuntia/chemistry , Opuntia/metabolism , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Dietary Supplements , Colitis/drug therapy
12.
Chem Biodivers ; 19(9): e202200200, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1981607

ABSTRACT

Diabetes mellitus is a typical life threatening of disease, which generate due to the dysfunction of ß cells of pancreas. In 2014, WHO stated that 422 million people were infected with DM. The current pattern of management of diabetes included synthetic or plant based oral hypoglycemic drugs and insulin but drug resentence is become a very big issues in antidiabetic therapy. Thus, it's very earnest to discover now medication for this disease. Now the days, it is well acknowledged that diabetic patients are more prone towards covid and related complications. Thus, medical practitioners reformed the methodology of prescribing medication for covid infected antidiabetic therapy and encouraging the medication contains dual pharmacological properties. It is also well know that polyphenols specifically hold a significant role in oxidative stress and reduced the severity of many inflammatory diseases. Cucumis melo has rich history as ethano-pharmacological use in Indian subcontinent. The fruit and seed are well-known for the treatment of various diseases due to the presence of phenolics. Therefore, in this study, the combined mixture of flower and seeds were used for the extraction of polyphenolic rich extract and tested for antidiabetic activity through the antioxidant and in vivo experiments. The antioxidant potential measurement exhibited that the selected plant extract has the significant competence to down-regulate oxidative stress (DPPH scavenging IC50 at 60.7±1.05 µg/mL, ABTS IC50 at 62.15±0.50 µg/mL). Furthermore, the major polyphenolic phyto-compounds derived from the Cucumis melo were used for in silico anticovid activity, docking, and complementarity studies. The anticovid activity prognosis reflected that selected phyto-compounds amentoflavone and vanillic acid have optimal possibility to interact with 3C-like protease and through this moderate anticovid activity can be exhibit. The docking experiments established that the selected compounds have propensity to interact with protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B, 11ß-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase ß-glucuronidase receptor. In vivo experiments showed that 500 mg/kg, Cucumis melo extract ominously amplified body weight, plasma insulin, high-density lipoprotein levels, and biochemical markers. Furthermore, extract significantly downregulate the blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein, and very low-density lipoprotein.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cucumis melo , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Momordica , 11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases , Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Biomarkers , Blood Glucose , Catalase/metabolism , Cholesterol , Cucumis melo/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Glucuronidase , Glutathione Peroxidase/metabolism , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin , Lipoproteins, HDL/therapeutic use , Lipoproteins, LDL/therapeutic use , Momordica/metabolism , Peptide Hydrolases , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 1 , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Triglycerides , Vanillic Acid
13.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 153: 113256, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1936093

ABSTRACT

Punica granatum L (pomegranate) is one of the Mediterranean medicinal plants that has been used for generations in treating ulcers, diarrhea, and male infertility. Increasing evidence has revealed that pomegranate possesses myriads of pharmacological activities such as anti-diabetic, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-malaria, anti-fibrotic, anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, and other effects. Consumption of pomegranate could be used to improve gut microbiota, and therefore prevent obesity and diabetes. The mechanisms of actions of pomegranate, mainly involve nuclear factor-erythroid factor 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. In recent times, in silico molecular docking studies demonstrated that pomegranate extract and or its phytochemicals are potential inhibitors of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) spike protein and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor contact. Also, some clinical trials have indicated that pomegranate can be consumed for alleviation of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic syndrome, dental infections, and menopausal symptoms. To date, active compounds, viz. alkaloids, anthocyanidins, tannins, flavonoids, phenolics, proanthocyanidins, sterols, terpenes, terpenoids, xanthonoids, fatty acids, organic acids, lignans, saccharides, and vitamin C have been isolated from pomegranate. Therefore, the current review article aimed to gather and presents an update on the ethnomedicinal uses, pharmacological activities, phytochemistry, and molecular mechanisms of Punica granatum L. This knowledge is of paramount importance in the future in drug discovery for the development of novel natural drugs for the treatment of various ailments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lythraceae , Pomegranate , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Lythraceae/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Molecules ; 27(13)2022 Jun 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934173

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to find the biological propensities of the vegetable plant Pleurospermum candollei by investigating its phytochemical profile and biological activities. Phytochemical analysis was done by spectroscopic methods to investigate the amount of total polyphenols, and biological evaluation was done by the different antioxidant, enzyme inhibitory (tyrosinase, α-amylase, and α-glucosidase), thrombolytic, and antibacterial activities. The highest amount of total phenolic and flavonoid contents was observed in methanolic extract (240.69 ± 2.94 mg GAE/g and 167.59 ± 3.47 mg QE/g); the fractions showed comparatively less quantity (57.02 ± 1.31 to 144.02 ± 2.11 mg GAE/g, and 48.21 ± 0.75 to 96.58 ± 2.30 mg QE/g). The effect of these bioactive contents was also related to biological activities. GCMS analysis led to the identification of bioactive compounds with different biological effects from methanolic extract (antioxidant; 55.07%, antimicrobial; 56.41%), while the identified compounds from the n-hexane fraction with antioxidant properties constituted 67.86%, and those with antimicrobial effects constituted 82.95%; however, the synergetic effect of polyphenols may also have contributed to the highest value of biological activities of methanolic extract. Molecular docking was also performed to understand the relationship of identified secondary metabolites with enzyme-inhibitory activities. The thrombolytic activity was also significant (40.18 ± 1.80 to 57.15 ± 1.10 % clot lysis) in comparison with streptokinase (78.5 ± 1.53 to 82.34 ± 1.25% clot lysis). Methanolic extract also showed good activity against Gram-positive strains of bacteria, and the highest activity was observed against Bacillus subtilis. The findings of this study will improve our knowledge of phytochemistry, and biological activities of P. candollei, which seems to be a ray of hope to design formulations of natural products for the improvement of health and prevention of chronic diseases; however, further research may address the development of novel drugs for use in pharmaceuticals.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Apiaceae , Biological Products , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Biological Products/pharmacology , Methanol/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Polyphenols/pharmacology
15.
Molecules ; 27(13)2022 Jun 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911485

ABSTRACT

Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) leaves are rich in nutrients and antioxidant compounds that can be consumed to prevent and overcome malnutrition. The water infusion of its leaf is the easiest way to prepare the herbal drink. So far, no information is available on the antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antivirus capacities of this infusion. This study aimed to determine the composition of the bioactive compounds in M. oleifera leaf infusion, measuring for antioxidant and antimutagenic activity, and evaluating any ability to inhibit the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro). The first two objectives were carried out in vitro. The third objective was carried out in silico. The phytochemical analysis of M. oleifera leaf infusion was carried out using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Antioxidant activity was measured as a factor of the presence of the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The antimutagenicity of M. oleifera leaf powder infusion was measured using the plasmid pBR322 (treated free radical). The interaction between bioactive compounds and Mpro of SARS-CoV-2 was analyzed via molecular docking. The totals of phenolic compound and flavonoid compound from M. oleifera leaf infusion were 1.780 ± 5.00 µg gallic acid equivalent/g (µg GAE/g) and 322.91 ± 0.98 µg quercetin equivalent/g (µg QE/g), respectively. The five main bioactive compounds involved in the infusion were detected by LC-MS. Three of these were flavonoid glucosides, namely quercetin 3-O-glucoside, kaempferol 3-O-neohesperidoside, and kaempferol 3-α-L-dirhamnosyl-(1→4)-ß-D-glucopyranoside. The other two compounds were undulatoside A, which belongs to chromone-derived flavonoids, and gentiatibetine, which belongs to alkaloids. The antioxidant activity of M. oleifera leaf infusion was IC50 8.19 ± 0.005 µg/mL, which is stronger than the standard butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) IC50 11.60 ± 0.30 µg/mL. The infusion has an antimutagenic effect and therefore protects against deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage. In silico studies showed that the five main bioactive compounds have an antiviral capacity. There were strong energy bonds between Mpro molecules and gentiatibetine, quercetin, undulatoside A, kaempferol 3-o-neohesperidoside, and quercetin 3-O-glucoside. Their binding energy values are -5.1, -7.5, -7.7, -5.7, and -8.2 kcal/mol, respectively. Their antioxidant activity, ability to maintain DNA integrity, and antimutagenic properties were more potent than the positive controls. It can be concluded that leaf infusion of M. oleifera does provide a promising herbal drink with good antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antivirus capacities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Moringa oleifera , Antioxidants/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/analysis , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , DNA/analysis , Flavonoids/chemistry , Glucosides/analysis , Molecular Docking Simulation , Moringa oleifera/chemistry , Phytochemicals/analysis , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Quercetin/analysis , Quercetin/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Cells ; 11(10)2022 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903275

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer (BC) is the leading cause of death worldwide. The severity of BC strictly depends on the molecular subtype. The less aggressive hormone-positive subtype is treated with adjuvant endocrine therapy (AET), which causes both physical and psychological side effects. This condition strongly impacts the adherence and persistence of AET among oncologic patients. Moreover, viral infections also constitute a serious problem for public health. Despite their efficacy, antiviral agents present several therapeutic limits. Accordingly, in the present work, we investigated the antitumor and antiviral activities of Orobanche crenata Forssk. (O. crenata), a parasitic plant, endemic to the Mediterranean basin, traditionally known for its beneficial properties for human health. METHODS: The MTT assay was carried out to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of O. crenata leaf extract (OCLE) on human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and the primary HFF-1 cell line. The lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) assay was performed on MCF-7 cells to analyze necrotic cell death. The antioxidant effect of OCLE was evaluated by intracellular determination of the reactive oxygen species and thiol groups, by DPPH and ABTS assays. The antiviral activity of OCLE was determined against Poliovirus 1, Echovirus 9, Human respiratory syncytial virus, Adenovirus type 2 and type 5, Coxsackievirus B1 (CoxB1) and B3 (CoxB3), Herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2), and ß-Coronavirus by the plaque reduction assay. RESULTS: The extract, after 24 h of incubation, did not affect MDA-MB-231 and HFF-1 cell viability. However, at the same time point, it showed a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on MCF-7 cells, with an increase in LDH release. OCLE exhibited free radical scavenging activity and significantly increased non-protein thiol levels in MCF-7 cells. OCLE effectively inhibited HSV-1, HSV-2, CoxB1, and CoxB3 replication. CONCLUSIONS: The overall results showed an interesting inhibitory effect of OCLE on both MCF-7 cell survival and viral replication.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Herpesvirus 1, Human , Orobanche , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Female , Herpesvirus 1, Human/physiology , Humans , MCF-7 Cells , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Sulfhydryl Compounds/pharmacology , Virus Replication , beta-Aminoethyl Isothiourea/pharmacology , beta-Aminoethyl Isothiourea/therapeutic use
17.
Molecules ; 27(11)2022 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1892926

ABSTRACT

Withania aristata (Aiton) Pauquy, a medicinal plant endemic to North African Sahara, is widely employed in traditional herbal pharmacotherapy. In the present study, the chemical composition, antioxidant, antibacterial, and antifungal potencies of extract from the roots of Withania aristata (Aiton) Pauquy (RWA) against drug-resistant microbes were investigated. Briefly, RWA was obtained by maceration with hydro-ethanol and its compounds were identified by use of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The antioxidant activity of RWA was determined by use of ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). The evaluation of the antimicrobial potential of RWA was performed against drug-resistant pathogenic microbial strains of clinical importance by use of the disc diffusion agar and microdilution assays. Seven compounds were identified in RWA according to HPLC analysis, including cichoric acid, caffeic acid, apigenin, epicatechin, luteolin, quercetin, and p-catechic acid. RWA had excellent antioxidant potency with calculated values of 14.0 ± 0.8 µg/mL (DPPH), 0.37 ± 0.08 mg/mL (FRAP), 760 ± 10 mg AAE/g (TAC), and 81.4% (ß-carotene). RWA demonstrated good antibacterial potential against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, with inhibition zone diameters ranging from 15.24 ± 1.31 to 19.51 ± 0.74 mm, while all antibiotics used as drug references were infective, except for Oxacillin against S. aureus. Results of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay against bacteria showed that RWA had MIC values ranging from 2.13 to 4.83 mg/mL compared to drug references, which had values ranging from 0.031 ± 0.003 to 0.064 ± 0.009 mg/mL. Similarly, respectable antifungal potency was recorded against the fungal strains with inhibition zone diameters ranging from 25.65 ± 1.14 to 29.00 ± 1.51 mm compared to Fluconazole, used as a drug reference, which had values ranging from 31.69 ± 1.92 to 37.74 ± 1.34 mg/mL. Results of MIC assays against fungi showed that RWA had MIC values ranging from 2.84 ± 0.61 to 5.71 ± 0.54 mg/mL compared to drug references, which had values ranging from 2.52 ± 0.03 to 3.21 ± 0.04 mg/mL. According to these outcomes, RWA is considered a promising source of chemical compounds with potent biological properties that can be beneficial as natural antioxidants and formulate a valuable weapon in the fight against a broad spectrum of pathogenic microbes.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Withania , Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Staphylococcus aureus , Withania/chemistry
18.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e259525, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855095

ABSTRACT

This systematic review integrates the data available in the literature regarding the biological activities of the extracts of endophytic fungi isolated from Annona muricata and their secondary metabolites. The search was performed using four electronic databases, and studies' quality was evaluated using an adapted assessment tool. The initial database search yielded 436 results; ten studies were selected for inclusion. The leaf was the most studied part of the plant (in nine studies); Periconia sp. was the most tested fungus (n = 4); the most evaluated biological activity was anticancer (n = 6), followed by antiviral (n = 3). Antibacterial, antifungal, and antioxidant activities were also tested. Terpenoids or terpenoid hybrid compounds were the most abundant chemical metabolites. Phenolic compounds, esters, alkaloids, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, aromatic compounds, and peptides were also reported. The selected studies highlighted the biotechnological potentiality of the endophytic fungi extracts from A. muricata. Consequently, it can be considered a promising source of biological compounds with antioxidant effects and active against different microorganisms and cancer cells. Further research is needed involving different plant tissues, other microorganisms, such as SARS-CoV-2, and different cancer cells.


Subject(s)
Annona , COVID-19 , Annona/chemistry , Annona/microbiology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Fungi , Humans , Plant Extracts/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Terpenes
19.
Food Chem ; 391: 133240, 2022 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851115

ABSTRACT

The effects of commercial enzymes (pectinases, cellulases, beta-1-3-glucanases, and pectin lyases) on the recovery of anthocyanins and polyphenols from blackcurrant press cake were studied considering two solid:solvent ratios (1:10 and 1:4 w/v). ß-glucanase enabled the recovery of the highest total phenolic content - 1142 mg/100 g, and the extraction of anthocyanins was similar using all enzymes (∼400 mg/100 g). The use of cellulases and pectinases enhanced the extraction of antioxidants (DPPH - 1080 mg/100 g; CUPRAC - 3697 mg/100 g). The freeze-dried extracts presented antioxidant potential (CUPRAC, DPPH), which was associated with their biological effects in different systems: antiviral activity against both non-enveloped viruses (enterovirus coxsackievirus A-9) and enveloped coronaviruses (HCoV-OC43), and cytotoxicity towards cancer cells (A549 and HCT8). No cytotoxic effects on normal human lung fibroblast (IMR90) were observed, and no anti-inflammatory activity was detected in lipopolysaccharides-treated murine immortalised microglial cells.


Subject(s)
Cellulases , Ribes , Animals , Anthocyanins/chemistry , Anthocyanins/pharmacology , Antioxidants/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Humans , Mice , Phenols/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Ribes/chemistry
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(9)2022 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809909

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Pelargonium sidoides extracts and lactoferrin are two important natural, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral agents, which can interfere with the early stages of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation approaches have been applied to check for the occurrence of interactions of the Pelargonium sidoides compounds with lactoferrin and with SARS-CoV-2 components. (2) Methods: Computational methods have been applied to confirm the hypothesis of a direct interaction between PEL compounds and the lactoferrin protein and between Pelargonium sidoides compounds and SARS-CoV-2 Spike, 3CLPro, RdRp proteins, and membrane. Selected high-score complexes were structurally investigated through classical molecular dynamics simulation, while the interaction energies were evaluated using the molecular mechanics energies combined with generalized Born and surface area continuum solvation method. (3) Results: Computational analyses suggested that Pelargonium sidoides extracts can interact with lactoferrin without altering its structural and dynamical properties. Furthermore, Pelargonium sidoides compounds should have the ability to interfere with the Spike glycoprotein, the 3CLPro, and the lipid membrane, probably affecting the functional properties of the proteins inserted in the double layer. (4) Conclusion: Our findings suggest that Pelargonium sidoides may interfere with the mechanism of infection of SARS-CoV-2, especially in the early stages.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pelargonium , Humans , Lactoferrin , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pelargonium/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2
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