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1.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0260281, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546951

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a growing need to use green alternative larvicidal control for Aedes larvae compared to chemical insecticides. Substantial reliance on chemical insecticides caused insecticide resistance in mosquito populations. Thus, research for alternate chemical compounds from natural products is necessary to control Aedes larvae. This study explores the analysis of chemical compositions from Areca catechu nut as a potential larvicide for Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae). METHODS: The Areca catechu nut collected from Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia was grounded into powder and used for Soxhlet extraction. The chemical analysis of the extracts and their structures were identified using the GCMS-QP2010 Ultra (Shimadzu) system. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Chemistry WebBook, Standard Reference Database 69 (https://webbook.nist.gov/chemistry/) and PubChem (https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/), the two databases used to retrieve the synonyms, molecular formula, molecular weight, and 2-dimensional (2D) structure of chemical compounds. Next, following WHO procedures for larval bioassays, the extracts were used to asses larvicidal activity against early 4th instar larvae of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. RESULTS: The larvicidal activities were observed against early 4th stage larvae with different concentrations in the range from 200 mg/L to 1600 mg/L. The LC50 and LC95 of Aedes aegypti were 621 mg/L and 2264 mg/L respectively; whereas the LC50 and LC95 of Aedes albopictus were 636 mg/L and 2268 mg/L respectively. Mortality was not observed in the non-target organism test. The analysis using gas chromatography and mass spectrometer recovered several chemical compounds such as Arecaidine, Dodecanoic acid, Methyl tetradecanoate, Tetradecanoic acid , and n-Hexadecanoic acid bioactive components. These chemical constituents were used as additive formulations in pesticides, pest control, insect repellent, and insecticidal agents. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed significant outcomes from the extract of Areca catechu nut and it deserves further investigation in relation to chemical components and larvicidal actions between different species of Aedes mosquitoes. Even though all these findings are fundamental, it may have some interesting potentials to be developed as natural bio-larvicidal products.


Subject(s)
Aedes/drug effects , Areca/chemistry , Insecticides/toxicity , Nuts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/toxicity , Aedes/physiology , Animals , Insect Control , Insect Repellents/chemistry , Insect Repellents/isolation & purification , Insect Repellents/toxicity , Insecticides/chemistry , Insecticides/isolation & purification , Larva/drug effects , Larva/physiology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification
2.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 144: 112291, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1466070

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Oxytocin (OXT), a neuropeptide involved in mammal reproductive and prosocial behaviors, has been reported to interact with various stressor-provoked neurobiological changes, including neuroendocrine, neurotransmitter, and inflammatory processes. In view of disturbances in psychosocial relationships due to social isolation and physical distancing measures amid the COVID-19 pandemic, being one of the triggering factors for the recent rise in depression and anxiety, OXT is a potential candidate for a new antidepressant. METHODS: In this present study, we have aimed to investigate the effects of oral administration of Rosmarinus officinalis extract (RE), extracted from distillation residue of rosemary essential oil, on central OXT level in the context of other stress biomarkers and neurotransmitter levels in mice models. Tail suspension test (TST) and elevated plus maze test (EPMT) following LPS injection were employed to assess depressive- and anxiety-like behavior in mice, respectively. FINDINGS: Pretreatment with RE for seven days significantly improved behavior in TST and EPMT. Whole-genome microarray analysis reveals that RE significantly reversed TST stress-induced alterations in gene expressions related to oxytocinergic and neurotransmitter pathways and inflammatory processes. In both models, RE significantly increased central Oxt and Oxtr expressions, as well as OXT protein levels. RE also significantly attenuated stress-induced changes in serum corticosterone, brain and serum BDNF levels, and brain neurotransmitters levels in both models. INTERPRETATION: Altogether, our study is the first to report antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like activities of RE through modulating oxytocinergic system in mice brain and thus highlights the prospects of RE in the treatment of depressive disorders of psychosocial nature.


Subject(s)
Anti-Anxiety Agents/therapeutic use , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Oxytocin/metabolism , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Receptors, Oxytocin/metabolism , Rosmarinus , Animals , Anti-Anxiety Agents/isolation & purification , Anti-Anxiety Agents/pharmacology , Antidepressive Agents/isolation & purification , Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology , Anxiety/drug therapy , Anxiety/metabolism , Brain/drug effects , Brain/metabolism , Depression/drug therapy , Depression/metabolism , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Inflammation Mediators/antagonists & inhibitors , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Oxytocin/agonists , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Receptors, Oxytocin/agonists
3.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1399347

ABSTRACT

Lippia graveolens is a traditional crop and a rich source of bioactive compounds with various properties (e.g., antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, UV defense, anti-glycemic, and cytotoxicity) that is primarily cultivated for essential oil recovery. The isolated bioactive compounds could be useful as additives in the functional food, nutraceuticals, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. Carvacrol, thymol, ß-caryophyllene, and p-cymene are terpene compounds contained in oregano essential oil (OEO); flavonoids such as quercetin O-hexoside, pinocembrin, and galangin are flavonoids found in oregano extracts. Furthermore, thermoresistant compounds that remain in the plant matrix following a thermal process can be priced in terms of the circular economy. By using better and more selective extraction conditions, the bioactive compounds present in Mexican oregano can be studied as potential inhibitors of COVID-19. Also, research on extraction technologies should continue to ensure a higher quality of bioactive compounds while preventing an undesired chemical shift (e.g., hydrolysis). The oregano fractions can be used in the food, health, and agricultural industries.


Subject(s)
Lippia/chemistry , Phytochemicals/therapeutic use , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cosmetics , Dietary Supplements , Functional Food , Humans , Phytochemicals/isolation & purification , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
4.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374472

ABSTRACT

This study aims to identify and isolate the secondary metabolites of Zingiber officinale using GC-MS, preparative TLC, and LC-MS/MS methods, to evaluate the inhibitory potency on SARS-CoV-2 3 chymotrypsin-like protease enzyme, as well as to study the molecular interaction and stability by using docking and molecular dynamics simulations. GC-MS analysis suggested for the isolation of terpenoids compounds as major compounds on methanol extract of pseudostems and rhizomes. Isolation and LC-MS/MS analysis identified 5-hydro-7, 8, 2'-trimethoxyflavanone (9), (E)-hexadecyl-ferulate (1), isocyperol (2), N-isobutyl-(2E,4E)-octadecadienamide (3), and nootkatone (4) from the rhizome extract, as well as from the leaves extract with the absence of 9. Three known steroid compounds, i.e., spinasterone (7), spinasterol (8), and 24-methylcholesta-7-en-3ß-on (6), were further identified from the pseudostem extract. Molecular docking showed that steroids compounds 7, 8, and 6 have lower predictive binding energies (MMGBSA) than other metabolites with binding energy of -87.91, -78.11, and -68.80 kcal/mole, respectively. Further characterization on the single isolated compound by NMR showed that 6 was identified and possessed 75% inhibitory activity on SARS-CoV-2 3CL protease enzyme that was slightly different with the positive control GC376 (77%). MD simulations showed the complex stability with compound 6 during 100 ns simulation time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Ginger/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/ultrastructure , Coronavirus Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Coronavirus Protease Inhibitors/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Crystallography, X-Ray , Enzyme Assays , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Pyrrolidines/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Structure-Activity Relationship , Sulfonic Acids/pharmacology
5.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348676

ABSTRACT

Since severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is producing a large number of infections and deaths globally, the development of supportive and auxiliary treatments is attracting increasing attention. Here, we evaluated SARS-CoV-2-inactivation activity of the polyphenol-rich tea leaf extract TY-1 containing concentrated theaflavins and other virucidal catechins. The TY-1 was mixed with SARS-CoV-2 solution, and its virucidal activity was evaluated. To evaluate the inhibition activity of TY-1 in SARS-CoV-2 infection, TY-1 was co-added with SARS-CoV-2 into cell culture media. After 1 h of incubation, the cell culture medium was replaced, and the cells were further incubated in the absence of TY-1. The viral titers were then evaluated. To evaluate the impacts of TY-1 on viral proteins and genome, TY-1-treated SARS-CoV-2 structural proteins and viral RNA were analyzed using western blotting and real-time RT-PCR, respectively. TY-1 showed time- and concentration-dependent virucidal activity. TY-1 inhibited SARS-CoV-2 infection of cells. The results of western blotting and real-time RT-PCR suggested that TY-1 induced structural change in the S2 subunit of the S protein and viral genome destruction, respectively. Our findings provided basic insights in vitro into the possible value of TY-1 as a virucidal agent, which could enhance the current SARS-CoV-2 control measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Polyphenols/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Tea/chemistry , Animals , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biflavonoids/chemistry , Biflavonoids/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Camellia sinensis/metabolism , Catechin/chemistry , Catechin/pharmacology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Genome, Viral/drug effects , Humans , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Polyphenols/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Vero Cells , Viral Load/drug effects
6.
Inflammopharmacology ; 29(4): 1033-1048, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1336107

ABSTRACT

The most severe cases of COVID-19, and the highest rates of death, are among the elderly. There is an urgent need to search for an agent to treat the disease and control its progression. Boswellia serrata is traditionally used to treat chronic inflammatory diseases of the lung. This review aims to highlight currently published research that has shown evidence of potential therapeutic effects of boswellic acids (BA) and B. serrata extract against COVID-19 and associated conditions. We reviewed the published information up to March 2021. Studies were collected through a search of online electronic databases (academic libraries such as PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Egyptian Knowledge Bank). Several recent studies reported that BAs and B. serrata extract are safe agents and have multiple beneficial activities in treating similar symptoms experienced by patients with COVID-19. Because of the low oral bioavailability and improvement of buccal/oral cavity hygiene, traditional use by chewing B. serrata gum may be more beneficial than oral use. It is the cheapest option for a lot of poorer people. The promising effect of B. serrata and BA can be attributed to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, cardioprotective, anti-platelet aggregation, antibacterial, antifungal, and broad antiviral activity. B. serrata and BA act by multiple mechanisms. The most common mechanism may be through direct interaction with IκB kinases and inhibiting nuclear factor-κB-regulated gene expression. However, the most recent mechanism proposed that BA not only inhibited the formation of classical 5-lipoxygenase products but also produced anti-inflammatory LOX-isoform-selective modulators. In conclusion a small to moderate dose B. serrata extract may be useful in the enhancing adaptive immune response in mild to moderate symptoms of COVID-19. However, large doses of BA may be beneficial in suppressing uncontrolled activation of the innate immune response. More clinical results are required to determine with certainty whether there is sufficient evidence of the benefits against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Boswellia , COVID-19/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Triterpenes/therapeutic use , Aged , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/isolation & purification , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Humans , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Triterpenes/isolation & purification
7.
J Mol Model ; 27(8): 221, 2021 Jul 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300483

ABSTRACT

Natural products have served human life as medications for centuries. During the outbreak of COVID-19, a number of naturally derived compounds and extracts have been tested or used as potential remedies against COVID-19. Tetradenia riparia extract is one of the plant extracts that have been deployed and claimed to manage and control COVID-19 by some communities in Tanzania and other African countries. The active compounds isolated from T. riparia are known to possess various biological properties including antimalarial and antiviral. However, the underlying mechanism of the active compounds against SARS-CoV-2 remains unknown. Results in the present work have been interpreted from the view point of computational methods including molecular dynamics, free energy methods, and metadynamics to establish the related mechanism of action. Among the constituents of T. riparia studied, luteolin inhibited viral cell entry and was thermodynamically stable. The title compound exhibit residence time and unbinding kinetics of 68.86 ms and 0.014 /ms, respectively. The findings suggest that luteolin could be potent blocker of SARS-CoV-2 cell entry. The study shades lights towards identification of bioactive constituents from T. riparia against COVID-19, and thus bioassay can be carried out to further validate such observations.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Luteolin/pharmacology , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Binding Sites , COVID-19/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Kinetics , Lamiaceae/chemistry , Luteolin/isolation & purification , Luteolin/metabolism , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/metabolism , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(41): 11434-11448, 2020 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301138

ABSTRACT

The dried fruits of Amomum tsao-ko were first revealed to have hypoglycemic effects on db/db mice at a concentration of 200 mg/kg. In order to clarify the antidiabetic constituents, 19 new flavanol-fatty alcohol hybrids, tsaokoflavanols A-S (1-19), were isolated and determined by extensive spectroscopic data and ECD calculations. Most of the compounds showed α-glucosidase and PTP1B dual inhibition, among which 1, 2, 6, 11, and 18 exhibited obvious activity against α-glucosidase with IC50 values of 5.2-9.0 µM, 20-35 times stronger than that of acarbose (IC50, 180.0 µM); meanwhile, 6, 10-12, and 19 were PTP1B/TCPTP-selective inhibitors with IC50 values of 56.4-80.4 µM, 2-4 times stronger than that of suramin sodium (IC50, 200.5 µM). Enzyme kinetics study indicated that compounds 1, 2, 6, and 11 were α-glucosidase and PTP1B mixed-type inhibitors with Ki values of 13.0, 11.7, 2.9, and 5.3 µM and 142.3, 88.9, 39.2, and 40.8 µM, respectively. Docking simulations proved the importance of hemiacetal hydroxy, the orientation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl, and the length of alkyl in binding with α-glucosidase and PTP1B.


Subject(s)
Amomum/chemistry , Fatty Alcohols/chemistry , Flavanones/chemistry , Glycoside Hydrolase Inhibitors/chemistry , Hypoglycemic Agents/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 1/antagonists & inhibitors , Fatty Alcohols/isolation & purification , Flavanones/isolation & purification , Fruit/chemistry , Glycoside Hydrolase Inhibitors/isolation & purification , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 1/chemistry , alpha-Glucosidases/chemistry
9.
Pharm Biol ; 59(1): 696-703, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263613

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: COVID-19 is a novel coronavirus that causes a severe infection in the respiratory system. Nigella sativa L. (Ranunculaceae) is an annual flowering plant used traditionally as a natural food supplement and multipurpose medicinal agent. OBJECTIVE: The possible beneficial effects of N. sativa, and its constituent, thymoquinone (TQ) on COVID-19 were reviewed. METHODS: The key words including, COVID-19, N. sativa, thymoquinone, antiviral effects, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects in different databases such as Web of Science (ISI), PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar were searched from 1990 up to February 2021. RESULTS: The current literature review showed that N. sativa and TQ reduced the level of pro-inflammatory mediators including, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-12, while enhancing IFN-γ. Nigella sativa and TQ increased the serum levels of IgG1 and IgG2a, and improved pulmonary function tests in restrictive respiratory disorders. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary data of molecular docking, animal, and clinical studies propose N. sativa and TQ might have beneficial effects on the treatment or control of COVID-19 due to antiviral, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties as well as bronchodilatory effects. The efficacy of N. sativa and TQ on infected patients with COVID-19 in randomize clinical trials will be suggested.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Benzoquinones/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Nigella sativa , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Benzoquinones/isolation & purification , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Immune System/drug effects , Immune System/immunology , Immune System/metabolism , Immune System/virology , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Lung/drug effects , Lung/immunology , Lung/metabolism , Lung/virology , Nigella sativa/chemistry , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
10.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 15: 2059-2089, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231276

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: One of the most common types of male infertility is recognized as oligoasthenozoospermia (OA), characterized by low sperm count and quality in males. As a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Cuscutae Semen-Mori Fructus coupled-herbs (CSMFCH) has been known to act a curative effect on OA for thousands of years. Nevertheless, the substantial basis and molecular mechanism of CSMFCH in treating OA remain elusive. METHODS: Herein, an integrated approach, including network pharmacology, molecular docking, and experiment validation, was utilized to reveal the new candidate active component and mechanism of CSMFCH in treating OA. RESULTS: The results show that kaempferol is the most significant bioactive component of CSMFCH on OA. The mechanism and targets of CSMFCH against OA are relevant to hormone regulation, oxidant stress, and reproductive promotion. In order to validate network pharmacology results, molecular docking and experiment validation were conducted. In detail, molecular docking was employed to verify the strong binding interactions between kaempferol and the core targets. UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-MS was used to identify kaempferol in the CSMFCH extract. In vitro and in vivo experiments further proved CSMFCH and kaempferol could enhance the mouse Leydig (TM3) and mouse Sertoli (TM4) cell viability, improve the male reproductive organ weights, sperm quality, and decrease testis tissue damage in the OA mouse model induced by CP. CONCLUSION: Our results not only identify the new candidate active component of CSMFCH in treating OA but also provide new insights into the mechanisms of CSMFCH against OA.


Subject(s)
Asthenozoospermia/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Molecular Docking Simulation , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Animals , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Disease Models, Animal , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/isolation & purification , Fruit/chemistry , Male , Mass Spectrometry , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Mice , Mice, Inbred Strains , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification
11.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 150: 112075, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196708

ABSTRACT

Medicinal or herbal plants are widely used for their many favourable properties and are generally safe without any side effects. Saponins are sugar conjugated natural compounds which possess a multitude of biological activities such as medicinal properties, antimicrobial activity, antiviral activity, etc. Saponin production is a part of the normal growth and development process in a lot of plants and plant extracts such as liquorice and ginseng which are exploited as potential drug sources. Herbal compounds have shown a great potential against a wide variety of infectious agents, including viruses such as the SARS-CoV; these are all-natural products and do not show any adverse side effects. This article reviews the various aspects of saponin biosynthesis and extraction, the need for their integration into more mainstream medicinal therapies and how they could be potentially useful in treating viral diseases such as COVID-19, HIV, HSV, rotavirus etc. The literature presents a close review on the saponin efficacy in targeting mentioned viral diseases that occupy a high mortality rate worldwide. This manuscript indicates the role of saponins as a source of dynamic plant based anti-viral remedies and their various methods for extraction from different sources.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Saponins/isolation & purification , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , HIV/drug effects , Molecular Structure , Orthomyxoviridae/drug effects , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Saponins/biosynthesis , Saponins/chemistry , Saponins/pharmacology
12.
Respir Res ; 22(1): 99, 2021 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169963

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pneumonia has been associated with severe acute hypoxia, sepsis-like states, thrombosis and chronic sequelae including persisting hypoxia and fibrosis. The molecular hypoxia response pathway has been associated with such pathologies and our recent observations on anti-hypoxic and anti-inflammatory effects of whole aqueous extract of Adhatoda Vasica (AV) prompted us to explore its effects on relevant preclinical mouse models. METHODS: In this study, we tested the effect of whole aqueous extract of AV, in murine models of bleomycin induced pulmonary fibrosis, Cecum Ligation and Puncture (CLP) induced sepsis, and siRNA induced hypoxia-thrombosis phenotype. The effect on lung of AV treated naïve mice was also studied at transcriptome level. We also determined if the extract may have any effect on SARS-CoV2 replication. RESULTS: Oral administration AV extract attenuates increased airway inflammation, levels of transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1), IL-6, HIF-1α and improves the overall survival rates of mice in the models of pulmonary fibrosis and sepsis and rescues the siRNA induced inflammation and associated blood coagulation phenotypes in mice. We observed downregulation of hypoxia, inflammation, TGF-ß1, and angiogenesis genes and upregulation of adaptive immunity-related genes in the lung transcriptome. AV treatment also reduced the viral load in Vero cells infected with SARS-CoV2. CONCLUSION: Our results provide a scientific rationale for this ayurvedic herbal medicine in ameliorating the hypoxia-hyperinflammation features and highlights the repurposing potential of AV in COVID-19-like conditions.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning , Hypoxia/drug therapy , Justicia , Lung/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Pneumonia/prevention & control , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Sepsis/drug therapy , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/isolation & purification , Bleomycin , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cecum/microbiology , Cecum/surgery , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Hypoxia/genetics , Hypoxia/metabolism , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/genetics , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/metabolism , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-Proline Dioxygenases/genetics , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-Proline Dioxygenases/metabolism , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Justicia/chemistry , Ligation , Lung/metabolism , Lung/microbiology , Lung/pathology , Male , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Pneumonia/genetics , Pneumonia/metabolism , Pneumonia/microbiology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/chemically induced , Pulmonary Fibrosis/genetics , Pulmonary Fibrosis/metabolism , RNA Interference , RNA, Small Interfering/genetics , RNA, Small Interfering/metabolism , Sepsis/genetics , Sepsis/metabolism , Sepsis/microbiology , Transcriptome
13.
Vascul Pharmacol ; 138: 106856, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1144979

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, a global-pandemic binds human-lung-ACE2. ACE2 causes vasodilatation. ACE2 works in balance with ACE1. The vaso-status maintains blood-pressure/vascular-health which is demolished in Covid-19 manifesting aldosterone/salt-deregulations/inflammations/endothelial-dysfunctions/hyper-hypo- tension, sepsis/hypovolemic-shock and vessel-thrombosis/coagulations. Here, nigellidine, an indazole-alkaloid was analyzed by molecular-docking for binding to different Angiotensin-binding-proteins (enzymes, ACE1(6en5)/ACE2(4aph)/receptors, AT1(6os1)/AT2(5xjm)) and COVID-19 spike-glycoprotein(6vsb). Nigellidine strongly binds to the spike-protein at the hinge-region/active-site-opening which may hamper proper-binding of nCoV2-ACE2 surface. Nigellidine effectively binds in the Angiotensin- II binding-site/entry-pocket (-7.54 kcal/mol, -211.76, Atomic-Contact-Energy; ACE-value) of ACE2 (Ki 8.68 and 8.3 µmol) in comparison to known-binder EGCG (-4.53) and Theaflavin-di-gallate (-2.85). Nigellidine showed strong-binding (Ki, 50.93 µmol/binding-energy -5.48 kcal/mol) to mono/multi-meric ACE1. Moreover, it binds Angiotensin-receptors, AT1/AT2 (Ki, 42.79/14.22 µmol, binding-energy, -5.96/-6.61 kcal/mol) at active-sites, respectively. This article reports the novel binding of nigellidine and subsequent blockage of angiotensin-binding proteins. The ACEs-blocking could restore Angiotensin-level, restrict vaso-turbulence in Covid patients and receptor-blocking might stop inflammatory/vascular impairment. Nigellidine may slowdown the vaso-fluctuations due to Angiotensin-deregulations in Covid patients. Angiotensin II-ACE2 binding (ACE-value -294.81) is more favorable than nigellidine-ACE2. Conversely, nigellidine-ACE1 binding-energy/Ki is lower than nigellidine-ACE2 values indicating a balanced-state between constriction-dilatation. Moreover, nigellidine binds to the viral-spike, closer-proximity to its ACE2 binding-domain. Taken together, Covid patients/elderly-patients, comorbid-patients (with hypertensive/diabetic/cardiac/renal-impairment, counting >80% of non-survivors) could be greatly benefited.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Nigella sativa , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Plant Extracts/metabolism , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/metabolism , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Comorbidity , Computer Simulation/trends , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation/methods , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Protein Binding/physiology , Protein Structure, Secondary , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/chemistry , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
14.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol ; 22(7): 906-919, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-704197

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV 2 is a novel virus strain of Coronavirus, reported in China in late December 2019. Its highly contagious nature in humans has prompted WHO to designate the ongoing pandemic as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. At this moment, there is no specific treatment and the therapeutic strategies to deal with the infection are only supportive, with prevention aimed at reducing community transmission. A permanent solution for the pandemic, which has brought the world economy to the edge of collapse, is the need of the hour. This situation has brought intense research in traditional systems of medicine. Indian Traditional System, Ayurveda, has a clear concept of the cause and treatment of pandemics. Through this review, information on the potential antiviral traditional medicines along with their immunomodulatory pathways are discussed. We have covered the seven most important Indian traditional plants with antiviral properties: Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (family: Solanaceae), Tinospora cordifolia (Thunb.) Miers (family: Menispermaceae), Phyllanthus emblica L. (family: Euphorbiaceae), Asparagus racemosus L. (family: Liliaceae), Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (family: Fabaceae), Ocimum sanctum L. (family: Lamiaceae) and Azadirachta indica A. Juss (family: Meliaceae) in this review. An attempt is also made to bring into limelight the importance of dietary polyphenol, Quercetin, which is a potential drug candidate in the making against the SARS-CoV2 virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Medicine, Ayurvedic/methods , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plants, Medicinal , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , India/epidemiology , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Tinospora , Withania
15.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol ; 22(4): 444-450, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-630363

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of the present review is to provide basic knowledge regarding the treatment of Coronavirus via medicinal plants. Coronavirus (COVID-19, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV) as a viral pneumonia causative agent, has infected thousands of people in China and worldwide. Currently, there is no specific medicine or vaccine available that can treat or prevent this virus and this has posed a severe threat to human health; therefore, there is an urgent need to develop a novel drug or anticoronavirus vaccine. However, natural compounds to treat coronaviruses are the most effective alternative and complementary therapies due to their diverse range of biological and therapeutic properties. METHODS: We performed an open-ended, English restricted search of Scopus database, Web of Science, and Pubmed for all available literature from Jan-March, 2020, using terms related to phytochemical compounds, medicinal plants and coronavirus. RESULTS: The view on anti-coronavirus (anti-CoV) activity in the plant-derived phytochemicals and medicinal plants gives a strong base to develop a novel treatment employing these compounds for coronavirus. Various phytochemicals and medicinal plant extracts have been revised and are considered as potential anti-CoV agents for effective control of the virus and future drug development. Herein, we discuss some important plants (Scutellaria baicalensis, Psorothamnus arborescens, Glycyrrhiza radix, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Lycoris radiate, Phyllanthus emblica, Camellia sinensis, Hyptis atrorubens Poit, Fraxinus sieboldiana, Erigeron breviscapus, Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium, Amaranthus tricolor, Phaseolus vulgaris, Rheum palmatum, Curcuma longa and Myrica cerifera) that have emerged to have broad-spectrum antiviral activity. CONCLUSION: Nigella sativa has potent anti-SARS-CoV activity and it might be a useful source for developing novel antiviral therapies for coronavirus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Phytochemicals/therapeutic use , Plants, Medicinal , SARS Virus/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Alkaloids/isolation & purification , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Alkaloids/therapeutic use , Animals , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Curcuma , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Nigella sativa , Phytochemicals/isolation & purification , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Scutellaria baicalensis
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