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1.
Nutrients ; 15(10)2023 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235824

ABSTRACT

Aging is a biological process with high susceptibility to several infections. This risk increases in older patients in residential care facilities (RCF). Thus, there is a clear demand for developing preventive interventions with new therapeutic compounds that combine efficacy and safety. This could be the case of compounds derived from plants of the genus Allium spp. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of a combination of a garlic and onion extract concentrate standardized in organosulfur compounds derived from propiin on the incidence of respiratory tract infections in elderly patients of RCF. Sixty-five volunteers were selected at random to receive a placebo or a single daily dose of the extract for thirty-six weeks. Different clinical visits were performed to evaluate the main respiratory diseases with an infectious origin, as well as the associated symptoms and their duration. The extract showed a clinical safety profile and significantly reduced the incidence of respiratory infections. Moreover, the treatment decreased the number and duration of the associated symptoms compared with the placebo group. For the first time, we demonstrated the protective effect of Alliaceae extract in respiratory infectious diseases in elderly healthy volunteers, which could be used prophylactically against the most common infectious respiratory diseases.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Garlic , Respiratory Tract Infections , Humans , Aged , Onions , Antioxidants , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Volunteers
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(9)2023 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320397

ABSTRACT

We have previously published research on the anti-viral properties of an alkaloid mixture extracted from Nuphar lutea, the major components of the partially purified mixture found by NMR analysis. These are mostly dimeric sesquiterpene thioalkaloids called thiobinupharidines and thiobinuphlutidines against the negative strand RNA measles virus (MV). We have previously reported that this extract inhibits the MV as well as its ability to downregulate several MV proteins in persistently MV-infected cells, especially the P (phospho)-protein. Based on our observation that the Nuphar extract is effective in vitro against the MV, and the immediate need that the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic created, we tested here the ability of 6,6'-dihydroxythiobinupharidine DTBN, an active small molecule, isolated from the Nuphar lutea extract, on COVID-19. As shown here, DTBN effectively inhibits SARS-CoV-2 production in Vero E6 cells at non-cytotoxic concentrations. The short-term daily administration of DTBN to infected mice delayed the occurrence of severe clinical outcomes, lowered virus levels in the lungs and improved survival with minimal changes in lung histology. The viral load on lungs was significantly reduced in the treated mice. DTBN is a pleiotropic small molecule with multiple targets. Its anti-inflammatory properties affect a variety of pathogens including SARS-CoV-2 as shown here. Its activity appears to target both pathogen specific (as suggested by docking analysis) as well as cellular proteins, such as NF-κB, PKCs, cathepsins and topoisomerase 2, that we have previously identified in our work. Thus, this combined double action of virus inhibition and anti-inflammatory activity may enhance the overall effectivity of DTBN. The promising results from this proof-of-concept in vitro and in vivo preclinical study should encourage future studies to optimize the use of DTBN and/or its molecular derivatives against this and other related viruses.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , COVID-19 , Nuphar , Mice , Animals , SARS-CoV-2 , Nuphar/chemistry , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Alkaloids/therapeutic use , Alkaloids/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Mice, Transgenic
3.
Molecules ; 28(9)2023 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2312359

ABSTRACT

Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is a rich source of polyphenols, including ellagitannins and ellagic acid. The plant is used in traditional medicine, and its purified components can provide anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity and support of host defenses during viral infection and recovery from disease. Current data show that pomegranate polyphenol extract and its ellagitannin components and metabolites exert their beneficial effects by controlling immune cell infiltration, regulating the cytokine secretion and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species production, and by modulating the activity of the NFκB pathway. In vitro, pomegranate extracts and ellagitannins interact with and inhibit the infectivity of a range of viruses, including SARS-CoV-2. In silico docking studies show that ellagitannins bind to several SARS-CoV-2 and human proteins, including a number of proteases. This warrants further exploration of polyphenol-viral and polyphenol-host interactions in in vitro and in vivo studies. Pomegranate extracts, ellagitannins and ellagic acid are promising agents to target the SARS-CoV-2 virus and to restrict the host inflammatory response to viral infections, as well as to supplement the depleted host antioxidant levels during the stage of recovery from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lythraceae , Pomegranate , Humans , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Hydrolyzable Tannins/pharmacology , Ellagic Acid/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Nat Prod ; 86(4): 1061-1073, 2023 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2297701

ABSTRACT

Botanical natural products have been widely consumed for their purported usefulness against COVID-19. Here, six botanical species from multiple sources and 173 isolated natural product compounds were screened for blockade of wild-type (WT) SARS-CoV-2 infection in human 293T epithelial cells overexpressing ACE-2 and TMPRSS2 protease (293TAT). Antiviral activity was demonstrated by an extract from Stephania tetrandra. Extract fractionation, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), antiviral assays, and computational analyses revealed that the alkaloid fraction and purified alkaloids tetrandrine, fangchinoline, and cepharanthine inhibited WT SARS-CoV-2 infection. The alkaloids and alkaloid fraction also inhibited the delta variant of concern but not WT SARS-CoV-2 in VeroAT cells. Membrane permeability assays demonstrate that the alkaloids are biologically available, although fangchinoline showed lower permeability than tetrandrine. At high concentrations, the extract, alkaloid fractions, and pure alkaloids induced phospholipidosis in 293TAT cells and less so in VeroAT cells. Gene expression profiling during virus infection suggested that alkaloid fraction and tetrandrine displayed similar effects on cellular gene expression and pathways, while fangchinoline showed distinct effects on cells. Our study demonstrates a multifaceted approach to systematically investigate the diverse activities conferred by complex botanical mixtures, their cell-context specificity, and their pleiotropic effects on biological systems.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Antineoplastic Agents , Benzylisoquinolines , COVID-19 , Stephania tetrandra , Stephania , Humans , Stephania tetrandra/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Benzylisoquinolines/pharmacology , Benzylisoquinolines/chemistry , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Alkaloids/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Stephania/chemistry
5.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol ; 395(12): 1525-1536, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2272369

ABSTRACT

Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f. is nicknamed the 'Miracle plant' or sometimes as the 'Wonder plant'. It is a plant that has been used since ancient times for the innumerable health benefits associated with it. It is one of the important plants that has its use in conventional medicinal treatments. It is a perennial succulent, drought-tolerant member of the family Asphodelaceae. There are scores of properties associated with the plant that help in curing various forms of human ailments. Extracts and gels obtained from plants have been shown to be wonderful healers of different conditions, mainly various skin problems. Also, this plant is popular in the cosmetics industry. The underlying properties of the plant are now mainly associated with the natural phytochemicals present in the plant. Diverse groups of phytoingredients are found in the plant, including various phenolics, amino acids, sugars, vitamins, and different other organic compounds, too. One of the primary ingredients found in the plant is the aloin molecule. It is an anthraquinone derivative and exists as an isomer of Aloin A and Aloin B. Barbaloin belonging to the first group is a glucoside of the aloe-emodin anthrone molecule. Various types of pharmacological properties exhibited by the plant can be attributed to this chemical. Few significant ones are antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-cancer, anti-microbial, and anti-viral, along with their different immunity-boosting actions. Recently, molecular coupling studies have also found the role of these molecules as a potential cure against the ongoing COVID-19 disease. This study comprehensively focuses on the numerous pharmacological actions of the primary compound barbaloin obtained from the Aloe vera plant along with the mechanism of action and the potent application of these natural molecules under various conditions.


Subject(s)
Aloe , COVID-19 , Humans , Aloe/chemistry , Anthracenes/pharmacology , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry
6.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2022: 9354555, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2258876

ABSTRACT

C. camphora is a renowned traditional Unani medicinal herb and belongs to the family Lauraceae. It has therapeutic applications in various ailments and prophylactic properties to prevent flu-like epidemic symptoms and COVID-19. This comprehensive appraisal is to familiarize the reader with the traditional, broad applications of camphor both in Unani and modern medicine and its effects on bioactive molecules. Electronic databases such as Web of Science, PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Research Gate were searched for bioactive molecules, and preclinical/clinical research and including 59 research and review papers up to 2022 were retrieved. Additionally, 21 classical Unani and English herbal pharmacopeia books with ethnomedicinal properties and therapeutic applications were explored. Oxidative stress significantly impacts aging, obesity, diabetes mellitus, depression, and neurodegenerative diseases. The polyphenolic bioactive compounds such as linalool, borneol, and nerolidol of C. camphora have antioxidant activity and have the potential to remove free radicals. Its other major bioactive molecules are camphor, cineole, limelol, safrole, limonene, alpha-pinene, and cineole with anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anxiolytic, analgesic, immunomodulatory, antihyperlipidemic, and many other pharmacological properties have been established in vitro or in vivo preclinical research. Natural bioactive molecules and their mechanisms of action and applications in diseases have been highlighted, with future prospects, gaps, and priorities that need to be addressed.


Subject(s)
Anti-Anxiety Agents , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Cinnamomum camphora , Analgesics , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Camphor , Ethnopharmacology , Eucalyptol , Hypolipidemic Agents , Limonene , Phytochemicals , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Safrole
7.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1138215, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2278429

ABSTRACT

Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) due to severe acute respiratory coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection leads to life-threatening pneumonia which has been associated with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pathologies. Centuries-old Asian traditional medicines such as Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (WS) and Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers (TC) possess potent immunomodulatory effects and were used by the AYUSH ministry, in India during the COVID-19 pandemic. In the present study, we investigated WS and TC's anti-viral and immunomodulatory efficacy at the human equivalent doses using suitable in vitro and in vivo models. While both WS and TC showed immuno-modulatory potential, WS showed robust protection against loss in body weight, viral load, and pulmonary pathology in the hamster model of SARS-CoV2. In vitro pretreatment of mice and human neutrophils with WS and TC had no adverse effect on PMA, calcium ionophore, and TRLM-induced ROS generation, phagocytosis, bactericidal activity, and NETs formation. Interestingly, WS significantly suppressed the pro-inflammatory cytokines-induced Th1, Th2, and Th17 differentiation. We also used hACE2 transgenic mice to further investigate the efficacy of WS against acute SARS-CoV2 infection. Prophylactic treatment of WS in the hACE2 mice model showed significant protection against body weight loss, inflammation, and the lung viral load. The results obtained indicate that WS promoted the immunosuppressive environment in the hamster and hACE2 transgenic mice models and limited the worsening of the disease by reducing inflammation, suggesting that WS might be useful against other acute viral infections. The present study thus provides pre-clinical efficacy data to demonstrate a robust protective effect of WS against COVID-19 through its broader immunomodulatory activity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tinospora , Withania , Animals , Mice , Humans , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Neutrophils , Pandemics , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Cell Differentiation , Inflammation/drug therapy , Models, Theoretical , Mice, Transgenic
8.
Infect Disord Drug Targets ; 23(4): e230223213955, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2275376

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Some individuals may experience symptoms persisting for many months after the recovery from COVID-19 and patients with Long COVID are managed mainly with symptomatic treatment and supportive care. OBJECTIVE: This review article focuses on the beneficial effects of black seeds (Nigella sativa) in the management of long COVID and persistent COVID symptoms. METHODS: The literature was searched in databases such as LitCOVID, Web of Science, Google Scholar, bioRxiv, medRxiv, Science Direct, EBSCO, Scopus, Embase, and reference lists to identify studies, which evaluated various effects of black seeds (N. sativa) related to signs and symptoms of long COVID. RESULTS: Black seeds (N. sativa) have shown potential anti-COVID, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, antihypertensive, anti-obesity, antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, and antiasthmatic properties in various clinical, animal, in vitro, in vivo, and in silico studies, which would help the patients recovered from COVID to mitigate Long COVID complications. CONCLUSION: Patients experiencing Long COVID may use black seeds (N. sativa) as adjunctive therapy in combination with symptomatic treatment and supportive care to prevent further deterioration and hospitalization. The safety and efficacy of N. sativa in patients with Long-COVID would further be established by future randomized controlled clinical trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nigella sativa , Animals , Humans , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , COVID-19/complications , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Seeds
9.
Environ Res ; 227: 115725, 2023 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2280923

ABSTRACT

The viral diseases encouraged scientific community to evaluate the natural antiviral bioactive components rather than protease inhibitors, harmful organic molecules or nucleic acid analogues. For this purpose, medicinal plants have been gaining tremendous importance in the field of attenuating the various kinds of infectious and non-infectious diseases. Most of the commonly used medicines contains the bioactive components/phytoconstituents that are generally extracted from medicinal plants. Moreover, the medicinal plants offer many advantages for the recovery applications of infectious disease especially in viral infections including HIV-1, HIV-2, Enterovirus, Japanese Encephalitis Virus, Hepatitis B virus, Herpes Virus, Respiratory syncytial virus, Chandipura virus and Influenza A/H1N1. Considering the lack of acceptable drug candidates and the growing antimicrobial resistance to existing drug molecules for many emerging viral diseases, medicinal plants may offer best platform to develop sustainable/efficient/economic alternatives against viral infections. In this regard, for exploring and analyzing large volume of scientific data, bibliometric analysis was done using VOS Viewer shedding light on the emerging areas in the field of medicinal plants and their antiviral activity. This review covers most of the plant species that have some novel bioactive compound like gnidicin, gniditrin, rutin, apigenin, quercetin, kaempferol, curcumin, tannin and oleuropin which showed high efficacy to inhibit the several disease causing virus and their mechanism of action in HIV, Covid-19, HBV and RSV were discussed. Moreover, it also delves the in-depth mechanism of medicinal with challenges and future prospective. Therefore, this work delves the key role of environment in the biological field.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Plants, Medicinal , Virus Diseases , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 71(12): 4890-4900, 2023 Mar 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287215

ABSTRACT

Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum J. Presl) bark and its extracts are popular ingredients added to food and supplement products. It has various health effects, including potentially reducing the risk of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). In our study, the bioactives in cinnamon water and ethanol extracts were chemically identified, and their potential in suppressing SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) binding, reducing ACE2 availability, and scavenging free radicals was investigated. Twenty-seven and twenty-three compounds were tentatively identified in cinnamon water and ethanol extracts, respectively. Seven compounds, including saccharumoside C, two emodin-glucuronide isomers, two physcion-glucuronide isomers, and two type-A proanthocyanidin hexamers, were first reported in cinnamon. Cinnamon water and ethanol extracts suppressed the binding of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein to ACE2 and inhibited ACE2 activity in a dose-dependent manner. Cinnamon ethanol extract had total phenolic content of 36.67 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g and free radical scavenging activities against HO• and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation (ABTS•+) of 1688.85 and 882.88 µmol Trolox equivalents (TE)/g, which were significantly higher than those of the water extract at 24.12 mg GAE/g and 583.12 and 210.36 µmol TE/g. The free radical scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH•) of cinnamon ethanol extract was lower than that of the water extract. The present study provides new evidence that cinnamon reduces the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Humans , Cinnamomum zeylanicum , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Glucuronides , SARS-CoV-2 , Free Radicals , Gallic Acid , Ethanol/chemistry , Water/chemistry , Protein Binding
11.
PLoS One ; 18(3): e0282729, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2262648

ABSTRACT

The leaves of Azadirachta indica L. and Melia azedarach L., belonging to Meliaceae family, have been shown to have medicinal benefits and are extensively employed in traditional folk medicine. Herein, HPLC analysis of the ethyl acetate fraction of the total methanolic extract emphasized the enrichment of both A. indica L., and M. azedarach L. leaves extracts with phenolic and flavonoids composites, respectively. Besides, 4 limonoids and 2 flavonoids were isolated using column chromatography. By assessing the in vitro antiviral activities of both total leaves extracts against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), it was found that A. indica L. and M. azedarach L. have robust anti-SARS-CoV-2 activities at low half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 8.451 and 6.922 µg/mL, respectively. Due to the high safety of A. indica L. and M. azedarach L. extracts with half-maximal cytotoxic concentrations (CC50) of 446.2 and 351.4 µg/ml, respectively, both displayed extraordinary selectivity indices (SI>50). A. indica L. and M. azedarach L. leaves extracts could induce antibacterial activities against both Gram-negative and positive bacterial strains. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of A. indica L. and M. azedarach L. leaves extracts varied from 25 to 100 mg/mL within 30 min contact time towards the tested bacteria. Our findings confirm the broad-spectrum medicinal value of A. indica L. and M. azedarach L. leaves extracts. Finally, additional in vivo investigations are highly recommended to confirm the anti-COVID-19 and antimicrobial activities of both plant extracts.


Subject(s)
Azadirachta , COVID-19 , Melia azedarach , SARS-CoV-2 , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Bacteria , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/analysis , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Flavonoids/analysis
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(5)2023 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2254926

ABSTRACT

Plant roots, due to a high content of natural antioxidants for many years, have been used in herbal medicine. It has been documented that the extract of Baikal skullcap (Scutellaria baicalensis) has hepatoprotective, calming, antiallergic, and anti-inflammatory properties. Flavonoid compounds found in the extract, including baicalein, have strong antiradical activity, which improves overall health and increases feelings of well-being. Plant-derived bioactive compounds with antioxidant activity have for a long time been used as an alternative source of medicines to treat oxidative stress-related diseases. In this review, we summarized the latest reports on one of the most important aglycones with respect to the pharmacological activity and high content in Baikal skullcap, which is 5,6,7-trihydroxyflavone (baicalein).


Subject(s)
Flavanones , Scutellaria baicalensis , Humans , Flavanones/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Plant Roots
13.
Chin J Integr Med ; 29(6): 549-555, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2248370

ABSTRACT

Tinospora cordifolia (Guduchi or Gurjo), a herbaceous vine or climbing deciduous shrub, is consider as an important medicine in the Ayurvedic system of medication, which is available in India, China, Myanmar, Bangladesh and Srilanka. Menispermaceae is the family of this compound. T. cordifolia have a variety of properties to treat various ailments such as fevers, jaundice, diabetes, dysentery, urinary infections, and skin diseases. This compound has been subjected to many chemicals, pharmacological, pre-clinical, or clinical investigations and some new therapeutic potential effects have been indicated. This review aims to summarize the critical information concerning in areas of chemical constituents, chemical structure, and pharmacokinetic activities such as anti-diabetic, anticancer, immune-modulatory, antivirus (especially in silico study about COVID-19), antioxidant, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective and its effect on cardiovascular and neurological disorders as well as rheumatoid arthritis. This traditional herb needs more experimental study on the clinical, pre-clinical study, and clinical efficacy of these compounds for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 and needs large-scale clinical studies to prove the clinical efficacy of this compound, especially in stress-related diseases and other neuronal disorders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tinospora , Humans , Tinospora/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/chemistry
14.
Food Microbiol ; 113: 104251, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2254119

ABSTRACT

The viability of SARS-CoV-2 on food surfaces and its propagation through the food chain has been discussed by several stakeholders, as it may represent a serious public health problem, bringing new challenges to the food system. This work shows for the first time that edible films can be used against SARS-CoV-2. Sodium alginate-based films containing gallic acid, geraniol, and green tea extract were evaluated in terms of their antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2. The results showed that all these films have strong in vitro antiviral activity against this virus. However, a higher concentration of the active compound (1.25%) is needed for the film containing gallic acid to achieve similar results to those obtained for lower concentrations of geraniol and green tea extract (0.313%). Furthermore, critical concentrations of the active compounds in the films were used to evaluate their stability during storage. Results showed that gallic acid-loaded films lose their activity from the second week of storage, while films with geraniol and green tea extract only show a drop in activity after four weeks. These results highlight the possibility of using edible films and coatings as antiviral materials on food surfaces or food contact materials, which may help to reduce the spreading of viruses through the food chain.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Edible Films , Humans , Alginates , Food Packaging/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Antioxidants , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Tea , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Gallic Acid/pharmacology
15.
Molecules ; 28(1)2022 Dec 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2238606

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has caused more than 596 million infections and 6 million fatalities globally. Looking for urgent medication for prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation is obligatory. Plant extracts and green synthesized nanoparticles have numerous biological activities, including antiviral activity. HPLC analysis of C. dirnum L. leaf extract showed that catechin, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid, and syringic acid were the most major compounds, with concentrations of 1425.16, 1004.68, 207.46, and 158.95 µg/g, respectively. Zinc nanoparticles were biosynthesized using zinc acetate and C. dirnum extract. TEM analysis revealed that the particle size of ZnO-NPs varied between 3.406 and 4.857 nm. An XRD study showed the existence of hexagonal crystals of ZnO-NPs with an average size of 12.11 nm. Both ZnO-NPs (IC50 = 7.01 and CC50 = 145.77) and C. dirnum L. extract (IC50 = 61.15 and CC50 = 145.87 µg/mL) showed antiviral activity against HCOV-229E, but their combination (IC50 = 2.41 and CC50 = 179.23) showed higher activity than both. Molecular docking was used to investigate the affinity of some metabolites against the HCOV-229E main protease. Chlorogenic acid, solanidine, and catchin showed high affinity (-7.13, -6.95, and -6.52), compared to the ligand MDP (-5.66 Kcal/mol). Cestrum dinurum extract and ZnO-NPs combination should be subjected to further studies to be used as an antiviral drug.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cestrum , Metal Nanoparticles , Nanoparticles , Zinc Oxide , Humans , Zinc Oxide/chemistry , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation , Zinc , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
16.
Arch Virol ; 165(9): 1935-1945, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2236874

ABSTRACT

Plants are a rich source of new antiviral, pharmacologically active agents. The naturally occurring plant alkaloid berberine (BBR) is one of the phytochemicals with a broad range of biological activity, including anticancer, anti-inflammatory and antiviral activity. BBR targets different steps in the viral life cycle and is thus a good candidate for use in novel antiviral drugs and therapies. It has been shown that BBR reduces virus replication and targets specific interactions between the virus and its host. BBR intercalates into DNA and inhibits DNA synthesis and reverse transcriptase activity. It inhibits replication of herpes simplex virus (HSV), human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), human papillomavirus (HPV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This isoquinoline alkaloid has the ability to regulate the MEK-ERK, AMPK/mTOR, and NF-κB signaling pathways, which are necessary for viral replication. Furthermore, it has been reported that BBR supports the host immune response, thus leading to viral clearance. In this short review, we focus on the most recent studies on the antiviral properties of berberine and its derivatives, which might be promising agents to be considered in future studies in the fight against the current pandemic SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Berberine/pharmacology , Viruses/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Berberine/chemistry , Humans , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Virus Diseases/virology , Virus Replication/drug effects , Viruses/genetics , Viruses/growth & development
17.
Phytomedicine ; 112: 154708, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2232019

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees has demonstrated potential for treating infections caused by coronaviruses. However, no antiviral activity of andrographolide or A. paniculata extracts against human coronavirus organ culture 43 (HCoV-OC43) has been reported. PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the anti-HCoV-OC43 effect of andrographolide and A. paniculata as well as the correlation between andrographolide concentration and the anti-HCoV-OC43 activity of A. paniculata extracts. METHODS: This study evaluated and compared the in vitro anti-HCoV-OC43 activities of various A. paniculata extracts and andrographolide. To obtain A. paniculata extracts with different concentrations of andrographolide and its components, methanol and deep eutectic solvents (DES) were used to extract the aerial parts of A. paniculata. Andrographolide content was determined using UV-HPLC, and antiviral activity was assessed in HCT-8 colon cells. RESULTS: The methanol and five acidic DES (containing malic acid or citric acid) extracts of A. paniculata exerted anti-HCoV-OC43 activity. Antiviral activity had a moderately strong positive linear relationship (r = 0.7938) with andrographolide content. Although the methanol extract contained the highest andrographolide content (2.34 mg/ml), its anti-HCoV-OC43 activity was lower than that of the DES extracts containing lower andrographolide concentrations (0.92-1.46 mg/ml). CONCLUSION: Methanol and the five acidic DES extracts of A. paniculata exhibited anti-HCoV-OC43 activity. However, the in vitro antiviral activity of A. paniculata extracts did not have a very strong positive linear relationship (r < 0.8) with andrographolide concentration in the extract. As a result, when comparing A. paniculata extracts, the anti-HCoV-OC43 test could provide a different result from the andrographolide concentration determination.


Subject(s)
Andrographis , Coronavirus , Diterpenes , Humans , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Solvents , Andrographis paniculata , Deep Eutectic Solvents , Methanol , Organ Culture Techniques , Diterpenes/pharmacology
18.
J Pharm Pharmacol ; 75(3): 301-327, 2023 Mar 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2228863

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Increasing literature data have suggested that the genus Polygonum L. possesses pharmacologically important plant secondary metabolites. These bioactive compounds are implicated as effective agents in preclinical and clinical practice due to their pharmacological effects such as anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antidiabetic, antiaging, neuroprotective or immunomodulatory properties among many others. However, elaborate pharmacological and clinical data concerning the bioavailability, tissue distribution pattern, dosage and pharmacokinetic profiles of these compounds are still scanty. KEY FINDINGS: The major bioactive compounds implicated in the therapeutic effects of Polygonum genus include phenolic and flavonoid compounds, anthraquinones and stilbenes, such as quercetin, resveratrol, polydatin and others, and could serve as potential drug leads or as adjuvant agents. Data from in-silico network pharmacology and computational molecular docking studies are also highly helpful in identifying the possible drug target of pathogens or host cell machinery. SUMMARY: We provide an up-to-date overview of the data from pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetic profiles and preclinical (in-vitro and in-vivo) investigations and the available clinical data on some of the therapeutically important compounds of genus Polygonum L. and their medical interventions, including combating the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clinical Medicine , Polygonum , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pandemics , Plant Extracts/pharmacology
19.
Virol J ; 19(1): 87, 2022 05 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1923550

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The new coronavirus (COVID-19) has been transmitted exponentially. Numerous studies have been performed in recent years that have shown the inhibitory effect of plant extracts or plant-derived compounds on the coronavirus family. In this study, we want to use systematic review and meta-analysis to answer the question, which herbal compound has been more effective? MAIN BODY: The present study is based on the guidelines for conducting meta-analyzes. An extensive search was conducted in the electronic database, and based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, articles were selected and data screening was done. Quality control of articles was performed. Data analysis was carried out in STATA software. CONCLUSION: Due to the variety of study methods, definitive conclusions are not possible. However, in this study, we attempted to gather all the available evidence on the effect of plant compounds on SARS-COV-2 to be used for the development and use of promising antiviral agents against this virus and other coronaviruses. Trypthantrin, Sambucus extract, S. cusia extract, Boceprevir and Indigole B, dioica agglutinin urtica had a good effect on reducing the virus titer. Also among the compounds that had the greatest effect on virus inhibition, Saikosaponins B2, SaikosaponinsD, SaikosaponinsA and Phillyrin, had an acceptable selectivity index greater than 10. Andrographolide showed the highest selectivity index on SARS-COV-2. Our study confirmed insufficient data to support alkaloid compounds against SARS-COV-2, and the small number of studies that used alkaloid compounds was a limitation. It is recommended to investigate the effect of more alkaloid compounds against Corona virus.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Phytomedicine ; 78: 153296, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267880

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has extensively and rapidly spread in the world, causing an outbreak of acute infectious pneumonia. However, no specific antiviral drugs or vaccines can be used. Phillyrin (KD-1), a representative ingredient of Forsythia suspensa, possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and antiviral activities. However, little is known about the antiviral abilities and mechanism of KD-1 against SARS-CoV-2 and human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E). PURPOSE: The study was designed to investigate the antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities of KD-1 against the novel SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E and its potential effect in regulating host immune response in vitro. METHODS: The antiviral activities of KD-1 against SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E were assessed in Vero E6 cells using cytopathic effect and plaque-reduction assay. Proinflammatory cytokine expression levels upon infection with SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E infection in Huh-7 cells were measured by real-time quantitative PCR assays. Western blot assay was used to determine the protein expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65, p-NF-κB p65, IκBα, and p-IκBα in Huh-7 cells, which are the key targets of the NF-κB pathway. RESULTS: KD-1 could significantly inhibit SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E replication in vitro. KD-1 could also markedly reduce the production of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1ß, MCP-1, and IP-10) at the mRNA levels. Moreover, KD-1 could significantly reduce the protein expression of p-NF-κB p65, NF-κB p65, and p-IκBα, while increasing the expression of IκBα in Huh-7 cells. CONCLUSIONS: KD-1 could significantly inhibit virus proliferation in vitro, the up-regulated expression of proinflammatory cytokines induced by SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E by regulating the activity of the NF-кB signaling pathway. Our findings indicated that KD-1 protected against virus attack and can thus be used as a novel strategy for controlling the coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus 229E, Human/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections , Glucosides/pharmacology , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Animals , COVID-19 , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/metabolism , Forsythia/chemistry , Humans , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
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