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1.
Mar Drugs ; 19(12)2021 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542656

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is a major human health concern. The pathogen responsible for COVID-19, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), invades its host through the interaction of its spike (S) protein with a host cell receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). In addition to ACE2, heparan sulfate (HS) on the surface of host cells also plays a significant role as a co-receptor. Our previous studies demonstrated that sulfated glycans, such as heparin and fucoidans, show anti-COVID-19 activities. In the current study, rhamnan sulfate (RS), a polysaccharide with a rhamnose backbone from a green seaweed, Monostroma nitidum, was evaluated for binding to the S-protein from SARS-CoV-2 and inhibition of viral infectivity in vitro. The structural characteristics of RS were investigated by determining its monosaccharide composition and performing two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance. RS inhibition of the interaction of heparin, a highly sulfated HS, with the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (from wild type and different mutant variants) was studied using surface plasmon resonance (SPR). In competitive binding studies, the IC50 of RS against the S-protein receptor binding domain (RBD) binding to immobilized heparin was 1.6 ng/mL, which is much lower than the IC50 for heparin (~750 ng/mL). RS showed stronger inhibition than heparin on the S-protein RBD or pseudoviral particles binding to immobilized heparin. Finally, in an in vitro cell-based assay, RS showed strong antiviral activities against wild type SARS-CoV-2 and the delta variant.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Deoxy Sugars/pharmacology , Mannans/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Seaweed , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Aquatic Organisms , Deoxy Sugars/therapeutic use , Humans , Mannans/therapeutic use , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Protein Binding/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/drug effects , Structure-Activity Relationship
2.
J Evid Based Integr Med ; 26: 2515690X211036875, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495800

ABSTRACT

Worldwide, the turmoil of the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic has generated a burst of research efforts in search of effective prevention and treatment modalities. Current recommendations on natural supplements arise from mostly anecdotal evidence in other viral infections and expert opinion, and many clinical trials are ongoing. Here the authors review the evidence and rationale for the use of natural supplements for prevention and treatment of COVID-19, including those with potential benefit and those with potential harms. Specifically, the authors review probiotics, dietary patterns, micronutrients, antioxidants, polyphenols, melatonin, and cannabinoids. Authors critically evaluated and summarized the biomedical literature published in peer-reviewed journals, preprint servers, and current guidelines recommended by expert scientific governing bodies. Ongoing and future trials registered on clinicaltrials.gov were also recorded, appraised, and considered in conjunction with the literature findings. In light of the controversial issues surrounding the manufacturing and marketing of natural supplements and limited scientific evidence available, the authors assessed the available data and present this review to equip clinicians with the necessary information regarding the evidence for and potential harms of usage to promote open discussions with patients who are considering dietary supplements to prevent and treat COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dietary Supplements , Micronutrients/therapeutic use , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Cannabinoids/pharmacology , Cannabinoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Melatonin/pharmacology , Melatonin/therapeutic use , Micronutrients/pharmacology , Niacinamide/pharmacology , Niacinamide/therapeutic use , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Polyphenols/therapeutic use , Probiotics/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 144: 112291, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1466070

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Oxytocin (OXT), a neuropeptide involved in mammal reproductive and prosocial behaviors, has been reported to interact with various stressor-provoked neurobiological changes, including neuroendocrine, neurotransmitter, and inflammatory processes. In view of disturbances in psychosocial relationships due to social isolation and physical distancing measures amid the COVID-19 pandemic, being one of the triggering factors for the recent rise in depression and anxiety, OXT is a potential candidate for a new antidepressant. METHODS: In this present study, we have aimed to investigate the effects of oral administration of Rosmarinus officinalis extract (RE), extracted from distillation residue of rosemary essential oil, on central OXT level in the context of other stress biomarkers and neurotransmitter levels in mice models. Tail suspension test (TST) and elevated plus maze test (EPMT) following LPS injection were employed to assess depressive- and anxiety-like behavior in mice, respectively. FINDINGS: Pretreatment with RE for seven days significantly improved behavior in TST and EPMT. Whole-genome microarray analysis reveals that RE significantly reversed TST stress-induced alterations in gene expressions related to oxytocinergic and neurotransmitter pathways and inflammatory processes. In both models, RE significantly increased central Oxt and Oxtr expressions, as well as OXT protein levels. RE also significantly attenuated stress-induced changes in serum corticosterone, brain and serum BDNF levels, and brain neurotransmitters levels in both models. INTERPRETATION: Altogether, our study is the first to report antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like activities of RE through modulating oxytocinergic system in mice brain and thus highlights the prospects of RE in the treatment of depressive disorders of psychosocial nature.


Subject(s)
Anti-Anxiety Agents/therapeutic use , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Oxytocin/metabolism , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Receptors, Oxytocin/metabolism , Rosmarinus , Animals , Anti-Anxiety Agents/isolation & purification , Anti-Anxiety Agents/pharmacology , Antidepressive Agents/isolation & purification , Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology , Anxiety/drug therapy , Anxiety/metabolism , Brain/drug effects , Brain/metabolism , Depression/drug therapy , Depression/metabolism , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Inflammation Mediators/antagonists & inhibitors , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Oxytocin/agonists , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Receptors, Oxytocin/agonists
4.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 1636816, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455769

ABSTRACT

Respiratory inflammation is caused by an air-mediated disease induced by polluted air, smoke, bacteria, and viruses. The COVID-19 pandemic is also a kind of respiratory disease, induced by a virus causing a serious effect on the lungs, bronchioles, and pharynges that results in oxygen deficiency. Extensive research has been conducted to find out the potent natural products that help to prevent, treat, and manage respiratory diseases. Traditionally, wider floras were reported to be used, such as Morus alba, Artemisia indica, Azadirachta indica, Calotropis gigantea, but only some of the potent compounds from some of the plants have been scientifically validated. Plant-derived natural products such as colchicine, zingerone, forsythiaside A, mangiferin, glycyrrhizin, curcumin, and many other compounds are found to have a promising effect on treating and managing respiratory inflammation. In this review, current clinically approved drugs along with the efficacy and side effects have been studied. The study also focuses on the traditional uses of medicinal plants on reducing respiratory complications and their bioactive phytoconstituents. The pharmacological evidence of lowering respiratory complications by plant-derived natural products has been critically studied with detailed mechanism and action. However, the scientific validation of such compounds requires clinical study and evidence on animal and human models to replace modern commercial medicine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Phytochemicals/therapeutic use , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/epidemiology , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry
5.
Complement Ther Med ; 61: 102769, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454111

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Effective treatment for Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) is under intensive research. Nigella sativa oil (NSO) is a herbal medicine with antiviral and immunomodulatory activities, and has been recommended for the treatment of COVID-19. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of NSO treatment in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: All adult patients with mild COVID-19 symptoms presented to King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, were recruited for an open label randomized clinical trial (RCT). They were randomly divided into control or treatment groups, with the latter receiving 500 mg NSO (MARNYS® Cuminmar) twice daily for 10 days. Symptoms were daily monitored via telecommunication. The primary outcome focused on the percentage of patients who recovered (symptom-free for 3 days) within 14-days. The trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT04401202). RESULTS: A total of 173 patients were enrolled for RCT. The average age was 36(±11) years, and 53 % of patients were males. The control and NSO groups included 87 and 86 patients respectively. The percentage of recovered patients in NSO group (54[62 %]) was significantly higher than that in the control group (31[36 %]; p = 0.001). The mean duration to recovery was also shorter for patients receiving NSO (10.7 ± 3.2 days) compared with the control group (12.3 ± 2.8 days); p = 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: NSO supplementation was associated with faster recovery of symptoms than usual care alone for patients with mild COVID-19 infection. These potential therapeutic benefits require further exploration with placebo-controlled, double-blinded studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nigella sativa , Plant Extracts , Adult , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
6.
Molecules ; 25(8)2020 Apr 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450861

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Viral respiratory infections cause life-threatening diseases in millions of people worldwide every year. Human coronavirus and several picornaviruses are responsible for worldwide epidemic outbreaks, thus representing a heavy burden to their hosts. In the absence of specific treatments for human viral infections, natural products offer an alternative in terms of innovative drug therapies. (2) Methods: We analyzed the antiviral properties of the leaves and stem bark of the mulberry tree (Morus spp.). We compared the antiviral activity of Morus spp. on enveloped and nonenveloped viral pathogens, such as human coronavirus (HCoV 229E) and different members of the Picornaviridae family-human poliovirus 1, human parechovirus 1 and 3, and human echovirus 11. The antiviral activity of 12 water and water-alcohol plant extracts of the leaves and stem bark of three different species of mulberry-Morus alba var. alba, Morus alba var. rosa, and Morus rubra-were evaluated. We also evaluated the antiviral activities of kuwanon G against HCoV-229E. (3) Results: Our results showed that several extracts reduced the viral titer and cytopathogenic effects (CPE). Leaves' water-alcohol extracts exhibited maximum antiviral activity on human coronavirus, while stem bark and leaves' water and water-alcohol extracts were the most effective on picornaviruses. (4) Conclusions: The analysis of the antiviral activities of Morus spp. offer promising applications in antiviral strategies.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus/drug effects , Morus/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Cell Line , Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral/drug effects , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Humans , Mass Spectrometry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Picornaviridae/drug effects , Plant Bark/chemistry , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plant Leaves/chemistry
7.
Virol J ; 17(1): 136, 2020 09 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435256

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronaviruses (CoVs) were long thought to only cause mild respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms in humans but outbreaks of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)-CoV, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)-CoV-1, and the recently identified SARS-CoV-2 have cemented their zoonotic potential and their capacity to cause serious morbidity and mortality, with case fatality rates ranging from 4 to 35%. Currently, no specific prophylaxis or treatment is available for CoV infections. Therefore we investigated the virucidal and antiviral potential of Echinacea purpurea (Echinaforce®) against human coronavirus (HCoV) 229E, highly pathogenic MERS- and SARS-CoVs, as well as the newly identified SARS-CoV-2, in vitro. METHODS: To evaluate the antiviral potential of the extract, we pre-treated virus particles and cells and evaluated remaining infectivity by limited dilution. Furthermore, we exposed cells to the extract after infection to further evaluate its potential as a prophylaxis and treatment against coronaviruses. We also determined the protective effect of Echinaforce® in re-constituted nasal epithelium. RESULTS: In the current study, we found that HCoV-229E was irreversibly inactivated when exposed to Echinaforce® at 3.2 µg/ml IC50. Pre-treatment of cell lines, however, did not inhibit infection with HCoV-229E and post-infection treatment had only a marginal effect on virus propagation at 50 µg/ml. However, we did observe a protective effect in an organotypic respiratory cell culture system by exposing pre-treated respiratory epithelium to droplets of HCoV-229E, imitating a natural infection. The observed virucidal activity of Echinaforce® was not restricted to common cold coronaviruses, as both SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoVs were inactivated at comparable concentrations. Finally, the causative agent of COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2 was also inactivated upon treatment with 50µg/ml Echinaforce®. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that Echinaforce® is virucidal against HCoV-229E, upon direct contact and in an organotypic cell culture model. Furthermore, MERS-CoV and both SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 were inactivated at similar concentrations of the extract. Therefore we hypothesize that Echinacea purpurea preparations, such as Echinaforce®, could be effective as prophylactic treatment for all CoVs due to their structural similarities.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus 229E, Human/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Animals , COVID-19 , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Common Cold/drug therapy , Common Cold/virology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA Viruses/drug effects , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Vero Cells
8.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1399347

ABSTRACT

Lippia graveolens is a traditional crop and a rich source of bioactive compounds with various properties (e.g., antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, UV defense, anti-glycemic, and cytotoxicity) that is primarily cultivated for essential oil recovery. The isolated bioactive compounds could be useful as additives in the functional food, nutraceuticals, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. Carvacrol, thymol, ß-caryophyllene, and p-cymene are terpene compounds contained in oregano essential oil (OEO); flavonoids such as quercetin O-hexoside, pinocembrin, and galangin are flavonoids found in oregano extracts. Furthermore, thermoresistant compounds that remain in the plant matrix following a thermal process can be priced in terms of the circular economy. By using better and more selective extraction conditions, the bioactive compounds present in Mexican oregano can be studied as potential inhibitors of COVID-19. Also, research on extraction technologies should continue to ensure a higher quality of bioactive compounds while preventing an undesired chemical shift (e.g., hydrolysis). The oregano fractions can be used in the food, health, and agricultural industries.


Subject(s)
Lippia/chemistry , Phytochemicals/therapeutic use , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cosmetics , Dietary Supplements , Functional Food , Humans , Phytochemicals/isolation & purification , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
9.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Sep 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390161

ABSTRACT

Phenolic acids comprise a class of phytochemical compounds that can be extracted from various plant sources and are well known for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. A few of the most common naturally occurring phenolic acids (i.e., caffeic, carnosic, ferulic, gallic, p-coumaric, rosmarinic, vanillic) have been identified as ingredients of edible botanicals (thyme, oregano, rosemary, sage, mint, etc.). Over the last decade, clinical research has focused on a number of in vitro (in human cells) and in vivo (animal) studies aimed at exploring the health protective effects of phenolic acids against the most severe human diseases. In this review paper, the authors first report on the main structural features of phenolic acids, their most important natural sources and their extraction techniques. Subsequently, the main target of this analysis is to provide an overview of the most recent clinical studies on phenolic acids that investigate their health effects against a range of severe pathologic conditions (e.g., cancer, cardiovascular diseases, hepatotoxicity, neurotoxicity, and viral infections-including coronaviruses-based ones).


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Cinnamates/pharmacology , Hydroxybenzoates/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Cinnamates/therapeutic use , Clinical Trials as Topic , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Hydroxybenzoates/therapeutic use , Liver Diseases/diagnosis , Liver Diseases/drug therapy , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Nervous System Diseases/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
10.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 21(1): 141, 2021 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388756

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Herbal remedies of Echinacea purpurea tinctures are widely used today to reduce common cold respiratory tract infections. METHODS: Transcriptome, epigenome and kinome profiling allowed a systems biology level characterisation of genomewide immunomodulatory effects of a standardized Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench extract in THP1 monocytes. RESULTS: Gene expression and DNA methylation analysis revealed that Echinaforce® treatment triggers antiviral innate immunity pathways, involving tonic IFN signaling, activation of pattern recognition receptors, chemotaxis and immunometabolism. Furthermore, phosphopeptide based kinome activity profiling and pharmacological inhibitor experiments with filgotinib confirm a key role for Janus Kinase (JAK)-1 dependent gene expression changes in innate immune signaling. Finally, Echinaforce® treatment induces DNA hypermethylation at intergenic CpG, long/short interspersed nuclear DNA repeat elements (LINE, SINE) or long termininal DNA repeats (LTR). This changes transcription of flanking endogenous retroviral sequences (HERVs), involved in an evolutionary conserved (epi) genomic protective response against viral infections. CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, our results suggest that Echinaforce® phytochemicals strengthen antiviral innate immunity through tonic IFN regulation of pattern recognition and chemokine gene expression and DNA repeat hypermethylated silencing of HERVs in monocytes. These results suggest that immunomodulation by Echinaforce® treatment holds promise to reduce symptoms and duration of infection episodes of common cold corona viruses (CoV), Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)-CoV, and new occurring strains such as SARS-CoV-2, with strongly impaired interferon (IFN) response and weak innate antiviral defense.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Echinacea , Immunologic Factors/pharmacology , Monocytes/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Gene Expression , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Interferons/drug effects , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use
11.
Molecules ; 25(21)2020 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389462

ABSTRACT

Zebrafish has been a reliable model system for studying human viral pathologies. SARS-CoV-2 viral infection has become a global chaos, affecting millions of people. There is an urgent need to contain the pandemic and develop reliable therapies. We report the use of a humanized zebrafish model, xeno-transplanted with human lung epithelial cells, A549, for studying the protective effects of a tri-herbal medicine Coronil. At human relevant doses of 12 and 58 µg/kg, Coronil inhibited SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, induced humanized zebrafish mortality, and rescued from behavioral fever. Morphological and cellular abnormalities along with granulocyte and macrophage accumulation in the swim bladder were restored to normal. Skin hemorrhage, renal cell degeneration, and necrosis were also significantly attenuated by Coronil treatment. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) analysis identified ursolic acid, betulinic acid, withanone, withaferine A, withanoside IV-V, cordifolioside A, magnoflorine, rosmarinic acid, and palmatine as phyto-metabolites present in Coronil. In A549 cells, Coronil attenuated the IL-1ß induced IL-6 and TNF-α cytokine secretions, and decreased TNF-α induced NF-κB/AP-1 transcriptional activity. Taken together, we show the disease modifying immunomodulatory properties of Coronil, at human equivalent doses, in rescuing the pathological features induced by the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, suggesting its potential use in SARS-CoV-2 infectivity.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Air Sacs/drug effects , Air Sacs/virology , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Disease Models, Animal , Fever/drug therapy , Fever/etiology , Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Humans , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Kidney/drug effects , Necrosis/pathology , Necrosis/prevention & control , Pandemics , Phytotherapy , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Respiratory Mucosa/transplantation , Transcriptional Activation/drug effects , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Zebrafish
12.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374472

ABSTRACT

This study aims to identify and isolate the secondary metabolites of Zingiber officinale using GC-MS, preparative TLC, and LC-MS/MS methods, to evaluate the inhibitory potency on SARS-CoV-2 3 chymotrypsin-like protease enzyme, as well as to study the molecular interaction and stability by using docking and molecular dynamics simulations. GC-MS analysis suggested for the isolation of terpenoids compounds as major compounds on methanol extract of pseudostems and rhizomes. Isolation and LC-MS/MS analysis identified 5-hydro-7, 8, 2'-trimethoxyflavanone (9), (E)-hexadecyl-ferulate (1), isocyperol (2), N-isobutyl-(2E,4E)-octadecadienamide (3), and nootkatone (4) from the rhizome extract, as well as from the leaves extract with the absence of 9. Three known steroid compounds, i.e., spinasterone (7), spinasterol (8), and 24-methylcholesta-7-en-3ß-on (6), were further identified from the pseudostem extract. Molecular docking showed that steroids compounds 7, 8, and 6 have lower predictive binding energies (MMGBSA) than other metabolites with binding energy of -87.91, -78.11, and -68.80 kcal/mole, respectively. Further characterization on the single isolated compound by NMR showed that 6 was identified and possessed 75% inhibitory activity on SARS-CoV-2 3CL protease enzyme that was slightly different with the positive control GC376 (77%). MD simulations showed the complex stability with compound 6 during 100 ns simulation time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Ginger/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/ultrastructure , Coronavirus Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Coronavirus Protease Inhibitors/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Crystallography, X-Ray , Enzyme Assays , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Pyrrolidines/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Structure-Activity Relationship , Sulfonic Acids/pharmacology
13.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 282: 114574, 2022 Jan 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373117

ABSTRACT

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Gekko gecko is used as a traditional medicine for various diseases including respiratory disorders in northeast Asian countries, mainly Korea, Japan, and China. AIM OF THE STUDY: Allergic asthma is a chronic respiratory disease caused by an inappropriate immune response. Due to the recent spread of coronavirus disease 2019, interest in the treatment of pulmonary disorders has rapidly increased. In this study, we investigated the anti-asthmatic effects of G. gecko extract (GGE) using an established mouse model of ovalbumin-induced asthma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To evaluate the anti-asthmatic effects of GGE, we evaluated histological changes and the responses of inflammatory mediators related to allergic airway inflammation. Furthermore, we investigated the regulatory effects of GGE on type 2 helper T (Th2) cell activation. RESULTS: Administration of GGE attenuated asthmatic phenotypes, including inflammatory cell infiltration, mucus production, and expression of Th2 cytokines. Furthermore, GGE treatment reduced Th2 cell activation and differentiation. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that GGE alleviates allergic airway inflammation by regulating Th2 cell activation and differentiation.


Subject(s)
Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Asthma/drug therapy , Medicine, East Asian Traditional , Mucus/metabolism , Ovalbumin , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Animals , Asthma/chemically induced , Asthma/pathology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , COVID-19 , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Flow Cytometry , Immunoglobulin E/immunology , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Pandemics , Th2 Cells/drug effects , Th2 Cells/immunology , Tryptamines/pharmacology
14.
J Evid Based Integr Med ; 26: 2515690X211036875, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356989

ABSTRACT

Worldwide, the turmoil of the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic has generated a burst of research efforts in search of effective prevention and treatment modalities. Current recommendations on natural supplements arise from mostly anecdotal evidence in other viral infections and expert opinion, and many clinical trials are ongoing. Here the authors review the evidence and rationale for the use of natural supplements for prevention and treatment of COVID-19, including those with potential benefit and those with potential harms. Specifically, the authors review probiotics, dietary patterns, micronutrients, antioxidants, polyphenols, melatonin, and cannabinoids. Authors critically evaluated and summarized the biomedical literature published in peer-reviewed journals, preprint servers, and current guidelines recommended by expert scientific governing bodies. Ongoing and future trials registered on clinicaltrials.gov were also recorded, appraised, and considered in conjunction with the literature findings. In light of the controversial issues surrounding the manufacturing and marketing of natural supplements and limited scientific evidence available, the authors assessed the available data and present this review to equip clinicians with the necessary information regarding the evidence for and potential harms of usage to promote open discussions with patients who are considering dietary supplements to prevent and treat COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dietary Supplements , Micronutrients/therapeutic use , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Cannabinoids/pharmacology , Cannabinoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Melatonin/pharmacology , Melatonin/therapeutic use , Micronutrients/pharmacology , Niacinamide/pharmacology , Niacinamide/therapeutic use , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Polyphenols/therapeutic use , Probiotics/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Inflammopharmacology ; 29(4): 1033-1048, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1336107

ABSTRACT

The most severe cases of COVID-19, and the highest rates of death, are among the elderly. There is an urgent need to search for an agent to treat the disease and control its progression. Boswellia serrata is traditionally used to treat chronic inflammatory diseases of the lung. This review aims to highlight currently published research that has shown evidence of potential therapeutic effects of boswellic acids (BA) and B. serrata extract against COVID-19 and associated conditions. We reviewed the published information up to March 2021. Studies were collected through a search of online electronic databases (academic libraries such as PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Egyptian Knowledge Bank). Several recent studies reported that BAs and B. serrata extract are safe agents and have multiple beneficial activities in treating similar symptoms experienced by patients with COVID-19. Because of the low oral bioavailability and improvement of buccal/oral cavity hygiene, traditional use by chewing B. serrata gum may be more beneficial than oral use. It is the cheapest option for a lot of poorer people. The promising effect of B. serrata and BA can be attributed to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, cardioprotective, anti-platelet aggregation, antibacterial, antifungal, and broad antiviral activity. B. serrata and BA act by multiple mechanisms. The most common mechanism may be through direct interaction with IκB kinases and inhibiting nuclear factor-κB-regulated gene expression. However, the most recent mechanism proposed that BA not only inhibited the formation of classical 5-lipoxygenase products but also produced anti-inflammatory LOX-isoform-selective modulators. In conclusion a small to moderate dose B. serrata extract may be useful in the enhancing adaptive immune response in mild to moderate symptoms of COVID-19. However, large doses of BA may be beneficial in suppressing uncontrolled activation of the innate immune response. More clinical results are required to determine with certainty whether there is sufficient evidence of the benefits against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Boswellia , COVID-19/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Triterpenes/therapeutic use , Aged , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/isolation & purification , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Humans , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Triterpenes/isolation & purification
16.
Molecules ; 25(19)2020 Sep 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305727

ABSTRACT

Artemisia vulgaris L. (common mugwort) is a species with great importance in the history of medicine and was called the "mother of herbs" in the Middle Ages. It is a common herbaceous plant that exhibits high morphological and phytochemical variability depending on the location where it occurs. This species is well known almost all over the world. Its herb-Artemisiae vulgaris herba-is used as a raw material due to the presence of essential oil, flavonoids, and sesquiterpenoids lactones and their associated biological activities. The European Pharmacopoeia has listed this species as a potential homeopathic raw material. Moreover, this species has been used in traditional Chinese, Hindu, and European medicine to regulate the functioning of the gastrointestinal system and treat various gynecological diseases. The general aim of this review was to analyze the progress of phytochemical and pharmacological as well as professional scientific studies focusing on A. vulgaris. Thus far, numerous authors have confirmed the beneficial properties of A. vulgaris herb extracts, including their antioxidant, hepatoprotective, antispasmolytic, antinociceptive, estrogenic, cytotoxic, antibacterial, and antifungal effects. In addition, several works have reviewed the use of this species in the production of cosmetics and its role as a valuable spice in the food industry. Furthermore, biotechnological micropropagation of A. vulgaris has been analyzed.


Subject(s)
Artemisia/chemistry , Plant Extracts , History of Medicine , Medicine, Traditional , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use
17.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295894

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a key entry point of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus known to induce Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We have recently outlined a concept to reduce ACE2 expression by the administration of glycyrrhizin, a component of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract, via its inhibitory activity on 11beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11betaHSD2) and resulting activation of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). We hypothesized that in organs such as the ileum, which co-express 11betaHSD2, MR and ACE2, the expression of ACE2 would be suppressed. We studied organ tissues from an experiment originally designed to address the effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract on stress response. Male Sprague Dawley rats were left undisturbed or exposed to chronic mild stress for five weeks. For the last two weeks, animals continued with a placebo diet or received a diet containing extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra root at a dose of 150 mg/kg of body weight/day. Quantitative PCR measurements showed a significant decrease in gene expression of ACE2 in the small intestine of rats fed with diet containing Glycyrrhiza glabra extract. This effect was independent of the stress condition and failed to be observed in non-target tissues, namely the heart and the brain cortex. In the small intestine we also confirmed the reduction of ACE2 at the protein level. Present findings provide evidence to support the hypothesis that Glycyrrhiza glabra extract may reduce an entry point of SARS-CoV-2. Whether this phenomenon, when confirmed in additional studies, is linked to the susceptibility of cells to the virus requires further studies.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dietary Supplements , Glycyrrhiza , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Protein Biosynthesis/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Glycyrrhizic Acid/administration & dosage , Glycyrrhizic Acid/therapeutic use , Male , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
18.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288959

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic, as well as the more general global increase in viral diseases, has led researchers to look to the plant kingdom as a potential source for antiviral compounds. Since ancient times, herbal medicines have been extensively applied in the treatment and prevention of various infectious diseases in different traditional systems. The purpose of this review is to highlight the potential antiviral activity of plant compounds as effective and reliable agents against viral infections, especially by viruses from the coronavirus group. Various antiviral mechanisms shown by crude plant extracts and plant-derived bioactive compounds are discussed. The understanding of the action mechanisms of complex plant extract and isolated plant-derived compounds will help pave the way towards the combat of this life-threatening disease. Further, molecular docking studies, in silico analyses of extracted compounds, and future prospects are included. The in vitro production of antiviral chemical compounds from plants using molecular pharming is also considered. Notably, hairy root cultures represent a promising and sustainable way to obtain a range of biologically active compounds that may be applied in the development of novel antiviral agents.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/immunology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Computer Simulation , Humans , Molecular Farming/methods , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/immunology , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plants, Medicinal/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication/drug effects
19.
J Sep Sci ; 44(16): 3146-3157, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260558

ABSTRACT

Divya-Swasari-Vati is a calcium containing polyherbal ayurvedic medicine prescribed for the lung-related ailments observed in the current pandemic of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 infections. The formulation is a unique quintessential blend of nine herbs cited in Ayurvedic texts for chronic cough and lung infection. Analytical standardization of herbal medicines is the pressing need of the hour to ascertain the quality compliance. This persuaded us to develop a simple, rapid, and selective high-performance thin-layer chromatographic method for Divya-Swasari-Vati quality standardization. The developed method was validated for the quantification of marker components, gallic acid, cinnamic acid, piperine, eugenol and glycyrrhizin, against reference standards in five different batches of Divya-Swasari-Vati. The analytes were identified by visualization at 254 nm, and by matching their retention factor with authentic standards. The developed method was validated as per the guidelines recommended by the International Council for Harmonization for parameters like, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, accuracy, and precision. Therefore, the developed novel high-performance thin-layer chromatographic process could be employed for rapid standardization of Divya-Swasari-Vati and other related herbal formulation, which would aid in quality manufacturing and product development.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids/analysis , Benzodioxoles/analysis , Cinnamates/analysis , Eugenol/analysis , Gallic Acid/analysis , Glycyrrhizic Acid/analysis , Piperidines/analysis , Plant Extracts/analysis , Polyunsaturated Alkamides/analysis , Alkaloids/therapeutic use , Benzodioxoles/therapeutic use , Chromatography, Thin Layer , Cinnamates/therapeutic use , Eugenol/therapeutic use , Gallic Acid/therapeutic use , Glycyrrhizic Acid/therapeutic use , Humans , Lung Diseases/drug therapy , Medicine, Ayurvedic , Molecular Structure , Piperidines/therapeutic use , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Polyunsaturated Alkamides/therapeutic use
20.
Chin J Nat Med ; 19(6): 473-480, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258508

ABSTRACT

Huashi Baidu prescription (HSBDF), recommended in the Guideline for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Pneumonia (On Trials, the Seventh Edition), was clinically used to treat severe corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with cough, blood-stained sputum, inhibited defecation, red tongue etc. symptoms. This study was aimed to elucidate and profile the knowledge on its chemical constituents and the potential anti-inflammatory effect in vitro. In the study, the chemical constituents in extract of HSBDF were characterized by UPLC-Q-TOF/MS in both negative and positive modes, and the pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) to determine the effects of HSBDF in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. The results showed that a total of 217 chemical constituents were tentativedly characterized in HSBDF. Moreover, HSBDF could alleviate the expression levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in the cell models, indicating that the antiviral effects of HSBDF might be associated with regulation of the inflammatory cytokines production in RAW264.7 cells. We hope that the results could be served as the basic data for further study of HSBDF on anti-COVID-19 effect.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Plant Extracts/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use
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