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1.
Molecules ; 27(13)2022 Jun 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911485

ABSTRACT

Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) leaves are rich in nutrients and antioxidant compounds that can be consumed to prevent and overcome malnutrition. The water infusion of its leaf is the easiest way to prepare the herbal drink. So far, no information is available on the antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antivirus capacities of this infusion. This study aimed to determine the composition of the bioactive compounds in M. oleifera leaf infusion, measuring for antioxidant and antimutagenic activity, and evaluating any ability to inhibit the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro). The first two objectives were carried out in vitro. The third objective was carried out in silico. The phytochemical analysis of M. oleifera leaf infusion was carried out using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Antioxidant activity was measured as a factor of the presence of the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The antimutagenicity of M. oleifera leaf powder infusion was measured using the plasmid pBR322 (treated free radical). The interaction between bioactive compounds and Mpro of SARS-CoV-2 was analyzed via molecular docking. The totals of phenolic compound and flavonoid compound from M. oleifera leaf infusion were 1.780 ± 5.00 µg gallic acid equivalent/g (µg GAE/g) and 322.91 ± 0.98 µg quercetin equivalent/g (µg QE/g), respectively. The five main bioactive compounds involved in the infusion were detected by LC-MS. Three of these were flavonoid glucosides, namely quercetin 3-O-glucoside, kaempferol 3-O-neohesperidoside, and kaempferol 3-α-L-dirhamnosyl-(1→4)-ß-D-glucopyranoside. The other two compounds were undulatoside A, which belongs to chromone-derived flavonoids, and gentiatibetine, which belongs to alkaloids. The antioxidant activity of M. oleifera leaf infusion was IC50 8.19 ± 0.005 µg/mL, which is stronger than the standard butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) IC50 11.60 ± 0.30 µg/mL. The infusion has an antimutagenic effect and therefore protects against deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage. In silico studies showed that the five main bioactive compounds have an antiviral capacity. There were strong energy bonds between Mpro molecules and gentiatibetine, quercetin, undulatoside A, kaempferol 3-o-neohesperidoside, and quercetin 3-O-glucoside. Their binding energy values are -5.1, -7.5, -7.7, -5.7, and -8.2 kcal/mol, respectively. Their antioxidant activity, ability to maintain DNA integrity, and antimutagenic properties were more potent than the positive controls. It can be concluded that leaf infusion of M. oleifera does provide a promising herbal drink with good antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antivirus capacities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Moringa oleifera , Antioxidants/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/analysis , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , DNA/analysis , Flavonoids/chemistry , Glucosides/analysis , Molecular Docking Simulation , Moringa oleifera/chemistry , Phytochemicals/analysis , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Quercetin/analysis , Quercetin/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 291: 115038, 2022 Jun 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739924

ABSTRACT

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Red sage (Lantana camara L.) (Verbenaceae) is a widely spread plant that was traditionally used in Brazil, India, Kenya, Thailand, Mexico, Nigeria, Australia and Southeast Asia for treating several ailments including rheumatism and leprosy. Despite its historical role in relieving respiratory diseases, limited studies progressed to the plant's probable inhibition to respiratory viruses especially after the striking spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to investigate the inhibitory activity of different L. camara cultivars to SARS-CoV-2, that was not previously inspected, and clarify their mechanisms of action in the metabolomics viewpoint, and to determine the biomarkers that are related to such activity using UPLC-MS/MS coupled to in vitro-studies and chemometric analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Chemical profiling of different cultivars was accomplished via UPLC-MS/MS. Principle component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projection to latent structures (OPLS) models were built using SIMCA® (multivariate data analysis software). Cytotoxicity and COVID-19 inhibitory activity testing were done followed by TaqMan Real-time RT-PCR (Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction) assay that aimed to study extracts' effects on RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and E-genes expression levels. Detected biomarkers from OPLS analysis were docked into potential targets pockets to investigate their possible interaction patterns using Schrodinger® suite. RESULTS: UPLC-MS/MS analysis of different cultivars yielded 47 metabolites, most of them are triterpenoids and flavonoids. PCA plots revealed that inter-cultivar factor has no pronounced effect on the chemical profiles of extracts except for L. camara, cultivar Drap d'or flowers and leaves extracts as well as for L. camara cv Chelsea gem leaves extract. Among the tested extracts, flowers and leaves extracts of L. camara cv Chelsea gem, flowers extracts of L. camara cv Spreading sunset and L. camara cv Drap d'or showed the highest selectivity indices scoring 12.3, 10.1, 8.6 and 7.8, respectively, indicating their relative high safety and efficacy. Leaves and flowers extracts of L. camara cv Chelsea gem, flowers extracts of L. camara cv Spreading sunset and L. camara cv Drap d'or were the most promising inhibitors to viral plaques exhibiting IC50 values of 3.18, 3.67, 4.18 and 5.01 µg/mL, respectively. This was incremented by OPLS analysis that related their promising COVID-19 inhibitory activities to the presence of twelve biomarkers. Inhibiting the expression of RdRp gene is the major mechanism behind the antiviral activity of most extracts at almost all concentration levels. Molecular docking of the active biomarkers against RdRp revealed that isoverbascoside, luteolin-7,4'-O-diglucoside, camarolic acid and lantoic acid exhibited higher docking scores of -11.378, -10.64, -6.72 and -6.07 kcal/mol, respectively, when compared to remdesivir (-5.75 kcal/mol), thus these four compounds can serve as promising anti-COVID-19 candidates. CONCLUSION: Flowers and leaves extracts of four L. camara cultivars were recognized as rich sources of phytoconstituents possessing anti-COVID-19 activity. Combination of UPLC-MS/MS and chemometrics is a promising approach to detect chemical composition differences among the cultivars and correlate them to COVID-19 inhibitory activities allowing to pinpoint possible biomarkers. Further in-vitro and in-vivo studies are required to verify their activity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lantana , Biomarkers/analysis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Liquid , Lantana/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Plant Extracts/analysis , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662678

ABSTRACT

Cordyline terminalis leaf extract (aqCT) possesses abundant polyphenols and other bioactive compounds, which are encapsulated in gelatin-polyethylene glycol-tyramine (GPT)/alpha-cyclodextrin (α-CD) gels to form the additional functional materials for biomedical applications. In this study, the gel compositions are optimized, and the GPT/α-CD ratios equal to or less than one half for solidification are found. The gelation time varies from 40.7 min to 5.0 h depending on the increase in GPT/α-CD ratios and aqCT amount. The aqCT extract disturbs the hydrogen bonding and host-guest inclusion of GPT/α-CD gel networks, postponing the gelation. Scanning electron microscope observation shows that all gels with or without aqCT possess a microarchitecture and porosity. GPT/α-CD/aqCT gels could release polyphenols from 110 to 350 nmol/mL at the first hour and sustainably from 5.5 to 20.2 nmol/mL for the following hours, which is controlled by feeding the aqCT amount and gel properties. GPT/α-CD/aqCT gels achieved significant antioxidant activity through a 100% scavenging DPPH radical. In addition, all gels are non-cytotoxic with a cell viability more than 85%. Especially, the GPT3.75α-CD10.5aqCT gels with aqCT amount of 3.1-12.5 mg/mL immensely enhanced the cell proliferation of GPT3.75α-CD10.5 gel without extract. These results suggest that the inherent bioactivities of aqCT endowed the resulting GPT/α-CD/aqCT gels with effective antioxidant and high biocompatibility, and natural polyphenols sustainably release a unique platform for a drug delivery system or other biomedical applications.


Subject(s)
Cordyline/chemistry , Dermis/drug effects , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Gels/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Cells, Cultured , Drug Liberation , Gels/administration & dosage , Humans
4.
Molecules ; 25(8)2020 Apr 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450861

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Viral respiratory infections cause life-threatening diseases in millions of people worldwide every year. Human coronavirus and several picornaviruses are responsible for worldwide epidemic outbreaks, thus representing a heavy burden to their hosts. In the absence of specific treatments for human viral infections, natural products offer an alternative in terms of innovative drug therapies. (2) Methods: We analyzed the antiviral properties of the leaves and stem bark of the mulberry tree (Morus spp.). We compared the antiviral activity of Morus spp. on enveloped and nonenveloped viral pathogens, such as human coronavirus (HCoV 229E) and different members of the Picornaviridae family-human poliovirus 1, human parechovirus 1 and 3, and human echovirus 11. The antiviral activity of 12 water and water-alcohol plant extracts of the leaves and stem bark of three different species of mulberry-Morus alba var. alba, Morus alba var. rosa, and Morus rubra-were evaluated. We also evaluated the antiviral activities of kuwanon G against HCoV-229E. (3) Results: Our results showed that several extracts reduced the viral titer and cytopathogenic effects (CPE). Leaves' water-alcohol extracts exhibited maximum antiviral activity on human coronavirus, while stem bark and leaves' water and water-alcohol extracts were the most effective on picornaviruses. (4) Conclusions: The analysis of the antiviral activities of Morus spp. offer promising applications in antiviral strategies.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus/drug effects , Morus/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Cell Line , Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral/drug effects , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Humans , Mass Spectrometry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Picornaviridae/drug effects , Plant Bark/chemistry , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plant Leaves/chemistry
5.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 122(9): 670-679, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1380031

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Predominant molecules in Peganum harmala leaves were detected using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Based on the results of this analysis, most alkaloids, flavonoids and triterpenoids in found P. harmala was compiled from the literature in order to develop and lead the production of effective inhibitor drugs for ACE2, main protease, and RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) proteins of SARS-CoV-2 virus, which is today's most contagious and deadly disease. AIM: By comparing FDA-approved drugs used in the treatment of COVID-19, we aimed to determine whether the molecules in P. harmala are effective against SARS CoV-2 in silico. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: P. harmala molecules were selected as drug candidates from the PubChem web tool. Afterwards, molecular docking calculations of these inhibitor molecules were made with Maestro Molecular modeling program by Schrödinger. The comparison of molecules with high inhibitory activities with FDA-approved drugs was made. With molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM-PBSA) calculations, docking calculations of molecules that have high inhibitory activity, were tried to be verified by calculations in the range of 0-100 nanoseconds (Tab. 4, Fig. 6, Ref. 53).


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Peganum , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Alkaloids/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Peganum/chemistry , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/chemistry
6.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376914

ABSTRACT

Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L. (HR)) leaf powders are the underutilized, promising resource of valuable compounds. Genotype and processing methods are key factors in the preparation of homogenous, stable, and quantified ingredients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phenolic, triterpenic, antioxidant profiles, carotenoid and chlorophyll content, and chromatic characteristics of convection-dried and freeze-dried HR leaf powders obtained from ten different female cultivars, namely 'Avgustinka', 'Botaniceskaja Liubitelskaja', 'Botaniceskaja', 'Hibrid Percika', 'Julia', 'Nivelena', 'Otradnaja', 'Podarok Sadu', 'Trofimovskaja', and 'Vorobjovskaja'. The chromatic characteristics were determined using the CIELAB scale. The phytochemical profiles were determined using HPLC-PDA (high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector) analysis; spectrophotometric assays and antioxidant activities were investigated using ABTS (2,2'-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) and FRAP (ferric ion reducing antioxidant power) assays. The sea buckthorn leaf powders had a yellowish-green appearance. The drying mode had a significant impact on the total antioxidant activity, chlorophyll content, and chromatic characteristics of the samples; the freeze-dried samples were superior in antioxidant activity, chlorophyll, carotenoid content, and chromatic profile, compared to convection-dried leaf powder samples. The determined triterpenic and phenolic profiles strongly depend on the cultivar, and the drying technique had no impact on qualitative and quantitative composition. Catechin, epigallocatechin, procyanidin B3, ursolic acid, α-amyrin, and ß-sitosterol could be used as quantitative markers in the phenolic and triterpenic profiles. The cultivars 'Avgustinka', 'Nivelena', and 'Botaniceskaja' were superior to other tested cultivars, with the phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Desiccation , Hippophae/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Powders
7.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1289028

ABSTRACT

Vitis vinifera represents an important and renowned source of compounds with significant biological activity. Wines and winery bioproducts, such as grape pomace, skins, and seeds, are rich in bioactive compounds against a wide range of human pathogens, including bacteria, fungi, and viruses. However, little is known about the biological properties of vine leaves. The aim of this study was the evaluation of phenolic composition and antiviral activity of Vitis vinifera leaf extract against two human viruses: the Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and the pandemic and currently widespread severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). About 40 phenolic compounds were identified in the extract by HPLC-MS/MS analysis: most of them were quercetin derivatives, others included derivatives of luteolin, kaempferol, apigenin, isorhamnetin, myricetin, chrysoeriol, biochanin, isookanin, and scutellarein. Leaf extract was able to inhibit both HSV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 replication in the early stages of infection by directly blocking the proteins enriched on the viral surface, at a very low concentration of 10 µg/mL. These results are very promising and highlight how natural extracts could be used in the design of antiviral drugs and the development of future vaccines.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Herpesvirus 1, Human/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Vitis/chemistry , A549 Cells , Animals , Biological Products/analysis , Biological Products/pharmacology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Humans , MCF-7 Cells , Phenols/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/analysis , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Vero Cells
8.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282533

ABSTRACT

Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive disease that progresses in a relatively symptom-free manner; thus, is difficult to detect and treat. Essential oil is reported to exhibit pharmacological properties, besides its common and well-known function as aromatherapy. Therefore, this study herein aimed to investigate the anti-proliferative effect of essential oil extracted from leaves of Garcinia atroviridis (EO-L) against PANC-1 human pancreatic cancer cell line. The cell growth inhibitory concentration at 50% (IC50) and selective index (SI) values of EO-L analyses were determined as 78 µg/mL and 1.23, respectively. Combination index (CI) analysis revealed moderate synergism (CI values of 0.36 to 0.75) between EO-L and 2 deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG) treatments. The treatments of PANC-1 cells with EO-L, 2-DG and EOL+2DG showed evidence of depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential, cell growth arrest and apoptosis. The molecular mechanism causing the anti-proliferative effect between EO-L and 2-DG is potentially through pronounced up-regulation of P53 (4.40-fold), HIF1α (1.92-fold), HK2 (2.88-fold) and down-regulation of CYP3A5 (0.11-fold), as supported by quantitative mRNA expression analysis. Collectively, the current data suggest that the combination of two anti-proliferative agents, EO-L and 2-DG, can potentially be explored as therapeutic treatments and as potentiating agents to conventional therapy against human pancreatic cancer.


Subject(s)
Deoxyglucose/pharmacology , Garcinia/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Pancreatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cell Line , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Drug Synergism , Humans , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial , Pancreatic Neoplasms/metabolism , Pancreatic Neoplasms/pathology , Plant Leaves/chemistry
9.
Fitoterapia ; 152: 104909, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1203052

ABSTRACT

3-Chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro) is a virally encoded main proteinase that is pivotal for the viral replication across a broad spectrum of coronaviruses. This study aims to discover the naturally occurring SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro inhibitors from herbal constituents, as well as to investigate the inhibitory mechanism of the newly identified efficacious SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro inhibitors. Following screening of the inhibitory potentials of eighty herbal products against SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro, Ginkgo biloba leaves extract (GBLE) was found with the most potent SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro inhibition activity (IC50 = 6.68 µg/mL). Inhibition assays demonstrated that the ginkgolic acids (GAs) and the bioflavones isolated from GBLE displayed relatively strong SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro inhibition activities (IC50 < 10 µM). Among all tested constituents, GA C15:0, GA C17:1 and sciadopitysin displayed potent 3CLpro inhibition activities, with IC50 values of less than 2 µM. Further inhibition kinetic studies and docking simulations clearly demonstrated that two GAs and sciadopitysin strongly inhibit SARS-CoV-2 3CLprovia a reversible and mixed inhibition manner. Collectively, this study found that both GBLE and the major constituents in this herbal product exhibit strong SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro inhibition activities, which offer several promising leading compounds for developing novel anti-COVID-19 medications via targeting on 3CLpro.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Ginkgo biloba/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biflavonoids/pharmacology , Biflavonoids/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Flavones/pharmacology , Flavones/therapeutic use , Humans , Molecular Structure , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plant Leaves/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Salicylates/pharmacology , Salicylates/therapeutic use
10.
Molecules ; 26(8)2021 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1178366

ABSTRACT

The recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a global threat for healthcare management and the economic system, and effective treatments against the pathogenic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus responsible for this disease have not yet progressed beyond the developmental phases. As drug refinement and vaccine progression require enormously broad investments of time, alternative strategies are urgently needed. In this study, we examined phytochemicals extracted from Avicennia officinalis and evaluated their potential effects against the main protease of SARS-CoV-2. The antioxidant activities of A. officinalis leaf and fruit extracts at 150 µg/mL were 95.97% and 92.48%, respectively. Furthermore, both extracts displayed low cytotoxicity levels against Artemia salina. The gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis confirmed the identifies of 75 phytochemicals from both extracts, and four potent compounds, triacontane, hexacosane, methyl linoleate, and methyl palminoleate, had binding free energy values of -6.75, -6.7, -6.3, and -6.3 Kcal/mol, respectively, in complexes with the SARS-CoV-2 main protease. The active residues Cys145, Met165, Glu166, Gln189, and Arg188 in the main protease formed non-bonded interactions with the screened compounds. The root-mean-square difference (RMSD), root-mean-square fluctuations (RMSF), radius of gyration (Rg), solvent-accessible surface area (SASA), and hydrogen bond data from a molecular dynamics simulation study confirmed the docked complexes' binding rigidity in the atomistic simulated environment. However, this study's findings require in vitro and in vivo validation to ensure the possible inhibitory effects and pharmacological efficacy of the identified compounds.


Subject(s)
Avicennia/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Phytochemicals/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Antioxidants/chemistry , Antioxidants/metabolism , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Avicennia/metabolism , Binding Sites , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Fruit/chemistry , Fruit/metabolism , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Phenylethyl Alcohol/chemistry , Phenylethyl Alcohol/metabolism , Phenylethyl Alcohol/therapeutic use , Phenylpropionates/chemistry , Phenylpropionates/metabolism , Phenylpropionates/therapeutic use , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Phytochemicals/metabolism , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Plant Leaves/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Matrix Proteins/chemistry , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism
11.
Molecules ; 25(22)2020 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-917015

ABSTRACT

Flavonoids are phytochemical compounds present in many plants, fruits, vegetables, and leaves, with potential applications in medicinal chemistry. Flavonoids possess a number of medicinal benefits, including anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral properties. They also have neuroprotective and cardio-protective effects. These biological activities depend upon the type of flavonoid, its (possible) mode of action, and its bioavailability. These cost-effective medicinal components have significant biological activities, and their effectiveness has been proved for a variety of diseases. The most recent work is focused on their isolation, synthesis of their analogs, and their effects on human health using a variety of techniques and animal models. Thousands of flavonoids have been successfully isolated, and this number increases steadily. We have therefore made an effort to summarize the isolated flavonoids with useful activities in order to gain a better understanding of their effects on human health.


Subject(s)
Flavonoids/chemistry , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Alzheimer Disease/prevention & control , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Antimalarials/chemistry , Antimalarials/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cardiovascular System/drug effects , Flavonoids/economics , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/chemistry , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Mice , Nervous System/drug effects , Neurons/drug effects , Neuroprotective Agents/chemistry , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Plants/chemistry , Polyphenols/chemistry , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Quercetin/chemistry , Quercetin/pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Rats, Wistar , Stroke/drug therapy , Stroke/prevention & control
12.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 274: 114016, 2021 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1131489

ABSTRACT

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Artemisia annua L. has been used for millennia in Southeast Asia to treat "fever". Many infectious microbial and viral diseases have been shown to respond to A. annua and communities around the world use the plant as a medicinal tea, especially for treating malaria. AIM OF THE STUDY: SARS-CoV-2 (the cause of Covid-19) globally has infected and killed millions of people. Because of the broad-spectrum antiviral activity of artemisinin that includes blockade of SARS-CoV-1, we queried whether A. annua suppressed SARS-CoV-2. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using Vero E6 and Calu-3 cells, we measured anti SARS-CoV-2 activity against fully infectious virus of dried leaf extracts of seven cultivars of A. annua sourced from four continents. IC50s were calculated and defined as the concentrations that inhibited viral replication by 50%; CC50s were also calculated and defined as the concentrations that kill 50% of cells. RESULTS: Hot-water leaf extracts based on artemisinin, total flavonoids, or dry leaf mass showed antiviral activity with IC50 values of 0.1-8.7 µM, 0.01-0.14 µg, and 23.4-57.4 µg, respectively. Antiviral efficacy did not correlate with artemisinin or total flavonoid contents of the extracts. One dried leaf sample was >12 years old, yet its hot-water extract was still found to be active. The UK and South African variants, B1.1.7 and B1.351, were similarly inhibited. While all hot water extracts were effective, concentrations of artemisinin and total flavonoids varied by nearly 100-fold in the extracts. Artemisinin alone showed an estimated IC50 of about 70 µM, and the clinically used artemisinin derivatives artesunate, artemether, and dihydroartemisinin were ineffective or cytotoxic at elevated micromolar concentrations. In contrast, the antimalarial drug amodiaquine had an IC50 = 5.8 µM. Extracts had minimal effects on infection of Vero E6 or Calu-3 cells by a reporter virus pseudotyped by the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. There was no cytotoxicity within an order of magnitude above the antiviral IC90 values. CONCLUSIONS: A. annua extracts inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection, and the active component(s) in the extracts is likely something besides artemisinin or a combination of components that block virus infection at a step downstream of virus entry. Further studies will determine in vivo efficacy to assess whether A. annua might provide a cost-effective therapeutic to treat SARS-CoV-2 infections.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Artemisia annua/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects , Animals , Artemisinins/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Cell Line, Tumor , Chlorocebus aethiops , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Humans , Plant Leaves/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vero Cells
13.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 225: 110061, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-828109

ABSTRACT

Our previous study demonstrated that ginseng stem-leaf saponins (GSLS) in combination with selenium (GSLS-Se) have adjuvant effect on the live vaccine of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) in intraocular-and-intranasal immunization in chickens. The present study was to investigate the potential molecular mechanisms involved in the immunomodulation of GSLS-Se on the Harderian gland (HG). It was found that the window allowing animals susceptible to infections due to low antibody titers became smaller or even completely closed because of increased NDV-specific HI titers when NDV vaccine and GSLS-Se were coadministered for immunization at early life in chickens. In addition, NDV-specific sIgA and the numbers of IgG+, IgA+, IgM+ plasma cells were significantly more in GSLS-Se group than the control in the HGs. Transcriptome analysis of HGs identified 1184 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between GSLS-Se treated and non-treated groups. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analyses identified 42 significantly enriched GO terms and 13 canonical immune pathways. These findings indicated that GSLS-Se might exert immunomodulatory effects through influencing the antioxidant regulation and modulating the activity of immune related enzymes. Besides, Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway might be involved primarily in the immunomodulation. Therefore, enhanced antibody responses in GSLS-Se group may be attributed to the immunomodulatory effects of GSLS-Se on the immune-related gene profile expressed in the immunocompetent cells of the HGs.


Subject(s)
Harderian Gland/drug effects , Immunologic Factors/administration & dosage , Newcastle Disease/prevention & control , Panax/chemistry , Saponins/administration & dosage , Selenium/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , Adjuvants, Immunologic/chemistry , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Chickens , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Newcastle Disease/immunology , Newcastle disease virus , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Saponins/immunology , Selenium/immunology , Vaccines, Attenuated/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Attenuated/immunology , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage
14.
Toxins (Basel) ; 12(9)2020 09 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-789508

ABSTRACT

The deadly pandemic named COVID-19, caused by a new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), emerged in 2019 and is still spreading globally at a dangerous pace. As of today, there are no proven vaccines, therapies, or even strategies to fight off this virus. Here, we describe the in silico docking results of a novel broad range anti-infective fusion protein RTAM-PAP1 against the various key proteins of SARS-CoV-2 using the latest protein-ligand docking software. RTAM-PAP1 was compared against the SARS-CoV-2 B38 antibody, ricin A chain, a pokeweed antiviral protein from leaves, and the lectin griffithsin using the special CoDockPP COVID-19 version. These experiments revealed novel binding mechanisms of RTAM-PAP1 with a high affinity to numerous SARS-CoV-2 key proteins. RTAM-PAP1 was further characterized in a preliminary toxicity study in mice and was found to be a potential therapeutic candidate. These findings might lead to the discovery of novel SARS-CoV-2 targets and therapeutic protein structures with outstanding functions.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Protein Binding/drug effects , Ribosome Inactivating Proteins, Type 1/chemistry , Ribosome Inactivating Proteins, Type 1/therapeutic use , Ricin/therapeutic use , Animals , COVID-19 , Computer Simulation , Humans , Mice , Models, Animal , Pandemics , Phytolacca americana/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Ribosome Inactivating Proteins, Type 1/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Food Funct ; 11(4): 3516-3526, 2020 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-726012

ABSTRACT

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic, progressive lung disease with few successful treatments, and is strongly associated with cigarette smoking (CS). Since the novel coronavirus has spread worldwide seriously, there is growing concern that patients who have chronic respiratory conditions like COPD can easily be infected and are more prone to having severe illness and even mortality because of lung dysfunction. Loquat leaves have long been used as an important material for both pharmaceutical and functional applications in the treatment of lung disease in Asia, especially in China and Japan. Total flavonoids (TF), the main active components derived from loquat leaves, showed remarkable anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. However, their protective activity against CS-induced COPD airway inflammation and oxidative stress and its underlying mechanism still remain not well-understood. The present study uses a CS-induced mouse model to estimate the morphological changes in lung tissue. The results demonstrated that TF suppressed the histological changes in the lungs of CS-challenged mice, as evidenced by reduced generation of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-1ß, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), nitric oxide (NO), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and diminished the protein expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1). Moreover, TF also inhibited phosphorylation of IKK, IκB and NFκB and increased p-Akt. Interestingly, TF could inhibit CS-induced oxidative stress in the lungs of COPD mice. TF treatment significantly inhibited the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD). In addition, TF markedly downregulated TRPV1 and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) and upregulated the expression of SOD-2, while the p-JNK level was observed to be inhibited in COPD mice. Taken together, our findings showed that the protective effect and putative mechanism of the action of TF resulted in the inhibition of inflammation and oxidative stress through the regulation of TRPV1 and the related signal pathway in lung tissues. It suggested that TF derived from loquat leaves could be considered to be an alternative or a new functional material and used for the treatment of CS-induced COPD.


Subject(s)
Cigarette Smoking/adverse effects , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/administration & dosage , Eriobotrya/chemistry , Flavonoids/administration & dosage , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/drug therapy , TRPV Cation Channels/immunology , Animals , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1/genetics , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1/immunology , Humans , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-6/immunology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/etiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/immunology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Smoke/adverse effects , Superoxide Dismutase/genetics , Superoxide Dismutase/immunology , TRPV Cation Channels/genetics
16.
Biomolecules ; 10(3)2020 02 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-13514

ABSTRACT

Strobilanthes cusia (Nees) Kuntze is a Chinese herbal medicine used in the treatment of respiratory virus infections. The methanol extract of S. cusia leaf contains chemical components such as ß-sitosterol, indirubin, tryptanthrin, betulin, indigodole A, and indigodole B that have diverse biological activities. However, the antiviral action of S. cusia leaf and its components against human coronavirus remains to be elucidated. Human coronavirus NL63 infection is frequent among immunocompromised individuals, young children, and in the elderly. This study investigated the anti-Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) activity of the methanol extract of S. cusia leaf and its major components. The methanol extract of S. cusia leaf effectively inhibited the cytopathic effect (CPE) and virus yield (IC50 = 0.64 µg/mL) in HCoV-NL63-infected cells. Moreover, this extract potently inhibited the HCoV-NL63 infection in a concentration-dependent manner. Among the six components identified in the methanol extract of S. cusia leaf, tryptanthrin and indigodole B (5aR-ethyltryptanthrin) exhibited potent antiviral activity in reducing the CPE and progeny virus production. The IC50 values against virus yield were 1.52 µM and 2.60 µM for tryptanthrin and indigodole B, respectively. Different modes of time-of-addition/removal assay indicated that tryptanthrin prevented the early and late stages of HCoV-NL63 replication, particularly by blocking viral RNA genome synthesis and papain-like protease 2 activity. Notably, tryptanthrin (IC50 = 0.06 µM) and indigodole B (IC50 = 2.09 µM) exhibited strong virucidal activity as well. This study identified tryptanthrin as the key active component of S. cusia leaf methanol extract that acted against HCoV-NL63 in a cell-type independent manner. The results specify that tryptanthrin possesses antiviral potential against HCoV-NL63 infection.


Subject(s)
Acanthaceae/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus NL63, Human/physiology , Quinazolines/pharmacology , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Acanthaceae/metabolism , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus NL63, Human/isolation & purification , Humans , Macaca mulatta , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Quinazolines/chemistry , Quinazolines/isolation & purification , Quinazolines/therapeutic use
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