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Molecules ; 27(10)2022 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875716


Nowadays, many individuals, whether healthy or diagnosed with disease, tend to expose themselves to various easily accessible natural products in hopes of benefiting their health and well-being. Mediterranean populations have traditionally used olive oil not only in nutrition but also in cosmetics, including skincare. In this study, the phenolic profile-composed of twelve compounds altogether, including the secoiridoids oleocanthal (OCAL) and oleacein (OCEIN)-of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) from autochthonous cultivars from Croatia was determined using 1H qNMR spectroscopy and HPLC-DAD analysis, and its biological activity was investigated in melanoma cell lines. The EVOO with the highest OCEIN content had the strongest anti-cancer activity in A375 melanoma cells and the least toxic effect on the non-cancerous keratocyte cell line (HaCaT). On the other hand, pure OCAL was shown to be more effective and safer than pure OCEIN. Post-treatment with any of the EVOO phenolic extracts (EVOO-PEs) enhanced the anti-cancer effect of the anti-cancerous drug dacarbazine (DTIC) applied in pre-treatment, while they did not compromise the viability of non-cancerous cells. The metastatic melanoma A375M cell line was almost unresponsive to the EVOO-PEs themselves, as well as to pure OCEIN and OCAL. Our results demonstrate that olive oils and/or their compounds may have a potentially beneficial effect on melanoma treatment. However, their usage can be detrimental or futile, especially in healthy cells, due to inadequately applied concentrations/combinations or the presence of resistant cells.

Iridoids , Melanoma , Dacarbazine , Humans , Iridoids/pharmacology , Melanoma/drug therapy , Olive Oil/chemistry , Plant Oils/chemistry , Plant Oils/pharmacology
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 119-130, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359797


This study investigates the effect of the nanostructure of squalene in the form of microemulsion on COVID-19 patients. In this blinded clinical trial, a comparison was made between the efficacy of squalene treatment and controls. A total of 30 COVID-19 patients admitted to the emergency department, and the infection ward was equally allocated to case (n = 15) and control (n = 15) groups according to their age and underlying diseases. The baseline characteristics of subjects, including age, gender, time of treatment onset, underlying condition, white blood cells count, and lymphocyte count were similar (p < 0.05). Baseline laboratory tests and computed tomography (CT) scans were performed for the study groups. The treatment group received 5 mg of intravenous squalene twice a day and standard treatment for 6 days, while controls received only standard treatment. After 6 days of treatment, clinical and CT scan changes were evaluated and compared in intervention and control groups. The need for oxygen therapy (p = 0.020), 2 days of no fever (p = 0.025), cough alleviation (p = 0.010), and lung high-resolution computed tomography improvement (p = 0.033) were significantly different between cases and controls within 7 days of admission. No adverse effects were observed in the treatment group. Our data suggest that squalene could be considered as a potential treatment for COVID-19, and further studies are required to confirm the results.

COVID-19/drug therapy , Squalene/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Emulsions , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Plant Oils/chemistry , Squalene/administration & dosage , Squalene/adverse effects , Squalene/chemistry , Treatment Outcome
Res Vet Sci ; 137: 44-47, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199055


Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal systemic disease of felids caused by a Coronavirus (CoV) (FIPV). In spite of its clinical relevance and impact on feline health, currently the therapeutic possibilities for treatment of FIP in cats are limited. The emergence of the pandemic Severe Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (CoV) type 2 (SARS-CoV-2), etiological agent of the 2019 Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19), able to infect a broad spectrum of animal species including cats, triggered the interest for the development of novel molecules with antiviral activity for treatment of CoV infections in humans and animals. Essential oils (EOs) have raised significant attention for their antiviral properties integrating and, in some cases, replacing conventional drugs. Thymus vulgaris EO (TEO) has been previously shown to be effective against several RNA viruses including CoVs. In the present study the antiviral efficacy of TEO against FIPV was evaluated in vitro. TEO at 27 µg/ml was able to inhibit virus replication with a significant reduction of 2 log10 TCID50/50 µl. Moreover, virucidal activity was tested using TEO at 27 and 270 µg/ml, over the cytotoxic threshold, determining a reduction of viral titre as high as 3.25 log10 TCID50/50 µl up to 1 h of time contact. These results open several perspectives in terms of future applications and therapeutic possibilities for coronaviruses considering that FIPV infection in cats could be a potential model for the study of antivirals against CoVs.

Coronavirus, Feline/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Thymus Plant/chemistry , Virus Replication/drug effects , Animals , Cats , Cell Line , Humans , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Plant Oils/chemistry