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1.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol ; 194(1): 291-301, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748423

ABSTRACT

Corona virus pandemic outbreak also known as COVID-19 has created an imbalance in this world. Scientists have adopted the use of natural or alternative medicines which are consumed mostly as dietary supplements to boost the immune system as herbal remedies. India is famous for traditional medicinal formulations which includes 'Trikadu'-a combination of three acrids, namely Zingiber officinale, Piper nigrum and Piper longum which have antioxidant properties that boost our immune system hence acting as a strong preventive measure. In this study, AutoDock 4.0 was used to study interaction between the phytocompounds of Trikadu with RNA-dependent polymerase protein and enveloped protein of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Analysis of the results showed that coumarin, coumaperine and bisdemethoxycurcumin showed strong bonding interactions with both the proteins. We can conclude that Trikadu has the potential molecules; hence, it can be incorporated in the diet to boost the immune system as a preventive measure against the virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Phytotherapy , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Antioxidants/isolation & purification , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , Computer Simulation , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/drug effects , Dietary Supplements , Ginger/chemistry , Humans , Immune System/drug effects , India , Ligands , Medicine, Traditional , Molecular Docking Simulation , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Phytochemicals/therapeutic use , Piper/chemistry , Piper nigrum/chemistry , Plant Preparations/isolation & purification , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/drug effects
2.
J Evid Based Integr Med ; 26: 2515690X211020685, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1691167

ABSTRACT

The retrospective cohort study aimed to evaluate the clinical outcomes of Ayurveda treatment exposure as an add-on to conventional care in early stage COVID-19 patients admitted at Samaras COVID care center, Ahmedabad, India. Conventional care included Vitamin-c, Azithromycin, and Paracetamol. Ayurveda formulations used as add-on were Dashamula and Pathyadi decoctions along with Trikatu powder, Sanshamani tablet, AYUSH-64 tablet AND Yastimadhu Ghana tablet for oral administration. Considering Add-on Ayurveda medicines as exposure of interest, patients who received Add-on Ayurveda medicines at least for 7 days were included in the exposed group while those who received only conventional care in unexposed group. Data was collected through record review and telephonic interviews. The outcomes of interest were the development of symptoms, duration of symptomatic phase in those progressing to symptomatic stage and mortality. Total 762 participants were included-[541 (71%) in the exposed group and 221 (29%) in the unexposed. Progression to symptomatic phase did not differ significantly between groups [27.6% in exposed, 24.6% in unexposed, adjusted RR 0.85; 95% CI 0.6-1.2]. The total duration of symptomatic phase among those progressing to the symptomatic stage was significantly decreased in the exposed group (x¯ = 3.66 ± 1.55 days in exposed (n = 133); x¯ = 5.34 ± 3.35 days in unexposed (n = 61), p < 0.001). No mortality was observed in either of the groups. Ayurveda Treatment as adjunctive to conventional care reduced the duration of symptomatic phase in early stage COVID-19 as compared to standalone conventional care. Add-on Ayurveda treatment has promising potential for management of early stage COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acetaminophen/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Medicine, Ayurvedic/methods , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , Antipyretics/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Complementary Therapies/methods , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Treatment Outcome
5.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 283: 114738, 2022 Jan 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1466608

ABSTRACT

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Medicinal importance and potential activity of Siddha herbal formulations have proved over several centuries against a wide range of causative agents as Influenza, Dengue, Chikungunya, and Tuberculosis. The traditional medicine system of Siddha is a valuable therapeutic approach for treating viral respiratory infections like Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and can be effectively employed to target the host response and preventive care to boost the immune system. Kaba Sura Kudineer (KSK), an official polyherbal formulation has been used in Siddha traditional medicine for centuries. However, the role of KSK in regulating inflammation and the underlying molecular mechanisms has remained elusive. AIM OF THE STUDY: The goal of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of KSK using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Raw 264.7 murine macrophage cells were used for this study. The Inflammatory mediators and cytokines were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The NF-κB nulcear translocation and protein expression of iNOS, COX-2 was analyzed with westernblot. RESULTS: KSK supplementation decreased LPS mediated TLR-4 production and secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines including IL-6, TNF-α, COX-2 and PGE-2. Moreover, it inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO) and thereby inhibited the expression of iNOS in the cell. The Western blot analysis further confirmed that KSK strongly prevented the LPS-induced degradation of IκB which is normally required for the activation of NF-κB and hereby suppressed nuclear translocation of NF-κB. The protein expression of iNOS, COX-2 was significantly decreased with the presence of KSK treatment. Results suggested that KSK manipulates its anti-inflammatory effects mainly through blocking the TLR mediated NF-κB signal transduction pathways. CONCLUSIONS: Together, this study has proven that KSK could be a potential therapeutic drug for alleviating excessive inflammation in many inflammation-associated diseases like COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Inflammation/drug therapy , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Macrophages/drug effects , Medicine, Ayurvedic , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Dietary Supplements , Mice , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Phytotherapy , Plant Preparations/pharmacology , RAW 264.7 Cells , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Phytother Res ; 35(8): 4456-4484, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355898

ABSTRACT

Traditional Indian medical practices (Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani, and homeopathy) are a vast reservoir of knowledge about medicinal plants. The promising pharmacological properties of these plants have paved the way for developing therapy against novel Coronavirus (CoV) infection. The current review will summarize published works of literature on the effects of traditional Indian medicinal plants against acute respiratory infection (COVID-19, SARS, Influenza, and Respiratory syncytial virus infection) and registered clinical trials of traditional Indian herbal medicines in COVID-19. The current study aims to comprehensively evaluate the data of traditional Indian medicinal plants to warrant their use in COVID-19 management. PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases were searched along with different clinical trial databases. A total of 22 relevant traditional Indian medicinal plants (35 relevant studies) were included in the current study having potential antiviral properties against virus-induced respiratory illness along with promising immunomodulatory and thrombolytic properties. Further, 36 randomized and nonrandomized registered clinical trials were also included that were aimed at evaluating the efficacy of herbal plants or their formulations in COVID-19 management. The antiviral, immunomodulatory, and thrombolytic activities of the traditional Indian medicinal plants laid down a strong rationale for their use in developing therapies against SARS-CoV-2 infection. The study identified some important potential traditional Indian medicinal herbs such as Ocimum tenuiflorum, Tinospora cordifolia, Achyranthes bidentata, Cinnamomum cassia, Cydonia oblonga, Embelin ribes, Justicia adhatoda, Momordica charantia, Withania somnifera, Zingiber officinale, Camphor, and Kabusura kudineer, which could be used in therapeutic strategies against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Medicine, Ayurvedic , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , Plants, Medicinal , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , India , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
7.
Nephrology (Carlton) ; 26(12): 961-964, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331738

ABSTRACT

Acute interstitial nephritis can result due to exposure to any medication, toxins, infections or malignancy. In the midst of this Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, there has been a race for finding remedies to prevent the spread of and control the complications due to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2. Certain Indian medicinal herb concoctions like kabasura kudineer and nilavembu kudineer are being widely publicized to boost immunity and reduce the risk of developing COVID-19. Little knowledge exists about the adverse effects of these herbal remedies. We report two patients who presented to us with vague complaints following the ingestion of kabasura kudineer and we diagnosed them with acute tubulointerstitial nephritis (ATIN). The temporal relationship of ingestion of these remedies to the development of ATIN calls for vigilance and caution with regular monitoring of renal functions especially in those with chronic kidney disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Medicine, Traditional/adverse effects , Nephritis, Interstitial/chemically induced , Plant Preparations/adverse effects , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use
8.
Phytother Res ; 35(8): 4456-4484, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270486

ABSTRACT

Traditional Indian medical practices (Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani, and homeopathy) are a vast reservoir of knowledge about medicinal plants. The promising pharmacological properties of these plants have paved the way for developing therapy against novel Coronavirus (CoV) infection. The current review will summarize published works of literature on the effects of traditional Indian medicinal plants against acute respiratory infection (COVID-19, SARS, Influenza, and Respiratory syncytial virus infection) and registered clinical trials of traditional Indian herbal medicines in COVID-19. The current study aims to comprehensively evaluate the data of traditional Indian medicinal plants to warrant their use in COVID-19 management. PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases were searched along with different clinical trial databases. A total of 22 relevant traditional Indian medicinal plants (35 relevant studies) were included in the current study having potential antiviral properties against virus-induced respiratory illness along with promising immunomodulatory and thrombolytic properties. Further, 36 randomized and nonrandomized registered clinical trials were also included that were aimed at evaluating the efficacy of herbal plants or their formulations in COVID-19 management. The antiviral, immunomodulatory, and thrombolytic activities of the traditional Indian medicinal plants laid down a strong rationale for their use in developing therapies against SARS-CoV-2 infection. The study identified some important potential traditional Indian medicinal herbs such as Ocimum tenuiflorum, Tinospora cordifolia, Achyranthes bidentata, Cinnamomum cassia, Cydonia oblonga, Embelin ribes, Justicia adhatoda, Momordica charantia, Withania somnifera, Zingiber officinale, Camphor, and Kabusura kudineer, which could be used in therapeutic strategies against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Medicine, Ayurvedic , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , Plants, Medicinal , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , India , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
9.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 254(2): 71-80, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262562

ABSTRACT

Olfactory disorders are one of the characteristic symptoms of the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19), which causes infection and inflammation of the upper and lower respiratory tract. To our knowledge, there are no treatments for COVID-19-related olfactory disorder. Here, we report five olfactory disorder cases in COVID-19, treated using the Japanese traditional (Kampo) medicine, kakkontokasenkyushin'i. We treated five patients with mild COVID-19 at an isolation facility using Kampo medicine, depending on their symptoms. Patients with the olfactory disorder presented with a blocked nose, nasal discharge or taste impairment. Physical examination using Kampo medicine showed similar findings, such as a red tongue with red spots and sublingual vein congestion, which presented as blood stasis and inflammation; thus, we prescribed the Kampo medicine, kakkontokasenkyushin'i. After administration, the numeric rating scale scores of the smell impairment improved within 3 days from 9 to 3 in case 1, from 10 to 0 in case 2, from 9 to 0 in case 3, from 5 to 0 in case 4, and from 9 to 0 within 5 days in case 5. Following the treatment, other common cold symptoms were also alleviated. Kakkontokasenkyushin'i can be used for treating nasal congestion, rhinitis, and inflammation in the nasal mucosa. The olfactory disorder in COVID-19 has been reportedly associated with inflammation and congestion, especially in the olfactory bulb and olfactory cleft. Kakkontokasenkyushin'i may be one of the treatment alternatives for the olfactory disorder with rhinitis in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Medicine, Kampo/methods , Olfaction Disorders/drug therapy , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/administration & dosage , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Female , Humans , Japan , Male , Olfaction Disorders/complications , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Plant Preparations/chemistry , Plant Preparations/pharmacology , Rhinitis/complications , Rhinitis/drug therapy , Rhinitis/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Smell/drug effects , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
10.
Front Immunol ; 12: 637553, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247858

ABSTRACT

Plants have been extensively studied since ancient times and numerous important chemical constituents with tremendous therapeutic potential are identified. Attacks of microorganisms including viruses and bacteria can be counteracted with an efficient immune system and therefore, stimulation of body's defense mechanism against infections has been proven to be an effective approach. Polysaccharides, terpenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids, glycosides, and lactones are the important phytochemicals, reported to be primarily responsible for immunomodulation activity of the plants. These phytochemicals may act as lead molecules for the development of safe and effective immunomodulators as potential remedies for the prevention and cure of viral diseases. Natural products are known to primarily modulate the immune system in nonspecific ways. A number of plant-based principles have been identified and isolated with potential immunomodulation activity which justify their use in traditional folklore medicine and can form the basis of further specified research. The aim of the current review is to describe and highlight the immunomodulation potential of certain plants along with their bioactive chemical constituents. Relevant literatures of recent years were searched from commonly employed scientific databases on the basis of their ethnopharmacological use. Most of the plants displaying considerable immunomodulation activity are summarized along with their possible mechanisms. These discussions shall hopefully elicit the attention of researchers and encourage further studies on these plant-based immunomodulation products as potential therapy for the management of infectious diseases, including viral ones such as COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Biological Products/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Complementary Therapies/methods , Phytotherapy/methods , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Animals , Humans , Immunomodulation , Plants, Medicinal , Terpenes/therapeutic use
11.
Phytother Res ; 35(4): 1925-1938, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1173847

ABSTRACT

Arisen in China, COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-II) is a novel coronavirus that has been expanding fast worldwide. Till now, no definite remedial drug or vaccine has been identified for COVID-19 treatment. Still, for a majority of infected patients, supportive therapy is the cornerstone of the management plan. To the importance of managing the COVID-19 pandemic, this article proposed to collecting capable medicinal plants and bioactive components in both treat and supportive therapy of this novel viral infection. Clinical points in the pathogenesis, symptoms, and complications of COVID-19 were considered. The effective plants and bioactives that may play a role in supportive therapy/management of COVID-19 were searched, collected through the "Scopus" database and listed in three sections. Numerous medicinal plants such as Citrus Spp., Camellia sinensis, and Glycyrrhiza glabra can interference with COVID-19 pathogenesis via inhibition of virus replication and entry to its host cells. Also, some anti-inflammatory herbal medicine such as Andrographis paniculata, Citrus spp., and Cuminum cyminum can relieve fever and cough in COVID-19 patients. Medicinal plants such as G. glabra, Thymus vulgaris, Allium sativum, Althea officinalis, and Panax ginseng may modulate the immune system and possess prevention and supportive therapy. However, more clinical data are required to confirm these hypotheses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Phytotherapy , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Cough/drug therapy , Cough/virology , Fever/drug therapy , Fever/virology , Humans , Pandemics , Virus Replication/drug effects
12.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 17(1): 26, 2021 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175331

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Medicinal plants are the fundamental unit of traditional medicine system in Nepal. Nepalese people are rich in traditional medicine especially in folk medicine (ethnomedicine), and this system is gaining much attention after 1995. The use of medicinal plants has increased during the COVID-19 pandemic as a private behavior (not under the control of government). A lot of misinterpretations of the use of medicinal plants to treat or prevent COVID-19 have been spreading throughout Nepal which need to be managed proactively. In this context, a research was needed to document medicinal plants used, their priority of use in society, their cultivation status, and the source of information people follow to use them. This study aimed to document the present status of medicinal plant use and make important suggestion to the concerned authorities. METHODS: This study used a web-based survey to collect primary data related to medicinal plants used during COVID-19. A total of 774 respondents took part in the survey. The study calculated the relative frequencies of citation (RFC) for the recorded medicinal plants. The relationship between plants recorded and different covariates (age, gender education, occupation, living place, and treatment methods) was assessed using Kruskal-Wallis test and Wilcoxon test. The relationship between the information sources people follow and the respondent characteristics was assessed using chi-square test. RESULTS: The study found that the use of medicinal plants has increased during COVID-19 and most of the respondents recommended medicinal plants to prevent COVID-19. This study recorded a total of 60 plants belonging to 36 families. The leaves of the plants were the most frequently used. The Zingiber officinale was the most cited species with the frequency of citation 0.398. Most of the people (45.61%) were getting medicinal plants from their home garden. The medicinal plants recorded were significantly associated with the education level, location of home, primary treatment mode, gender, and age class. The information source of plants was significantly associated with the education, gender, method of treatment, occupation, living with family, and location of home during the lockdown caused by COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: People were using more medicinal plants during COVID-19 claiming that they can prevent or cure COVID-19. This should be taken seriously by concerned authorities. The authorities should test the validity of these medicinal plants and control the flow of false information spread through research and awareness programs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , Plants, Medicinal , Adult , Aged , Ethnopharmacology , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Male , Medicine, Traditional , Middle Aged , Nepal , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
13.
Phytother Res ; 35(7): 3792-3798, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1151975

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) occurred in Wuhan, China, with a rapid increase in cases worldwide. Until now, among several drugs tested, none demonstrated sufficient efficacy for its etiological treatment. Greater celandine (Chelidonium majus L.) is a well-known medicinal plant, traditionally indicated for digestive disorders and topically to remove warts. This study, performed at private offices in São Paulo and Aracaju (Brazil), describes 20 consecutive COVID-19 outpatients treated with greater celandine and their clinical evolution. The patients, aged 14-71 years (median of 41 years), were treated with Chelidonium majus 10% mother tincture, 20-30 drops three times a day for 3-12 days (median of 5 days). Clinical features were assessed during the treatment and at least until 1 week after its end. These cases were considered mild, as most COVID-19 cases. The symptoms were mainly fever, fatigue, cough, sore throat, coryza, anosmia, ageusia, and headache. Ten patients had comorbidities, such as hypertension, diabetes, and overweight. Complete or almost complete clinical improvement occurred within 1-9 days of treatment (median of 3 days). There were no adverse events. This casuistry, although small, may inspire other researchers to continue investigating Chelidonium majus as a healing treatment for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chelidonium , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Brazil , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chelidonium/chemistry , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Young Adult
14.
J Immunoassay Immunochem ; 41(6): 976-999, 2020 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1124732

ABSTRACT

At present, specific therapies for COVID-19 are not well established, being certain only that the immune system plays a decisive role in the initiation and progression of the disease. Plants have given and continue to give compounds with great efficiency and low toxicity, some of them being a starting point for extremely effective synthetic substances. Although herbal remedies are used mainly for preventive purposes, there are also guidelines issued by some countries that indicate the use of traditional remedies for different stages of COVID-19 disease.Europe has a long and strong tradition of using medicinal plants for therapeutic purposes, but clinical trials for this type of approach are scarce, compared to Asia. In this regard, a bridge between tradition and science, would have a strong impact on the capacity for prevention and treatment of COVID-19. The paper reviews compounds of plant origin that have previously proven effective in counteracting some coronaviruses but also some of their major effects - direct action on virus replicative apparatus (viral entry or replication, action on the viral enzymatic system), collateral action of natural compounds on the immune system and also the contribution of herbal medicine as vaccine adjuvants are tackled.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Clinical Trials as Topic , Europe , Humans , Immune System/drug effects , Lectins/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Phenols/chemistry , Phytotherapy , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Saponins/chemistry , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
15.
OMICS ; 24(12): 685-687, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117408

ABSTRACT

As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is impacting on the entire planet, field notes from resource-limited settings are increasingly relevant, both instrumentally and normatively, due to codependency of world populations in the struggle against the pandemic. Yemen is an apt and timely example to illustrate the social and political determinants of planetary health and the ways in which they impact on health care and dignity of people in times of crisis as well as during elective medical care. Importantly, many local communities have deep knowledge of various plant resources that can be evaluated with guidance of the omics systems science. The planetary society would be well poised to build resilience against future pandemics and ecological crises by harnessing local and global expertise in plant omics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Global Health , Herbal Medicine/methods , Humans , Planets , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Yemen/epidemiology
16.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 272: 113952, 2021 May 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087047

ABSTRACT

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: There are plant species used in the Mexican traditional medicine for the empirical treatment of anxiety and depression. AIM OF THE STUDY: This work assessed the prevalence of self-medication with medicinal plants and the prevalence of the concomitant use of prescribed psychiatric drugs and medicinal plants for treating symptoms associated with anxiety and depression during the Covid-19 lockdown in Mexico. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The suspected adverse reactions associated with drug-herb interactions were assessed. The factors associated with self-medication, the concomitant use of herb-drug combinations, and the presence of adverse reactions due their combined use is also reported. The study was descriptive and cross-sectional using an online questionnaire conducted among population with symptoms associated with anxiety and depression (n = 2100) from seven states of central-western Mexico. RESULTS: The prevalence of the use of herbs (61.9%) and the concomitant use of drug-herb combinations (25.3%) were associated with being diagnosed with mental illness [OR:2.195 (1.655-2.912)] and the use of psychiatric medications [OR:307.994 (178.609-531.107)], respectively. The presence of adverse reactions (n = 104) by the concomitant use of drug-herb combinations was associated with being unemployed [p = 0.004, OR: 3.017 (1.404-6.486)]. CONCLUSION: Health professionals should be aware if their patients concomitantly use medicinal plants and psychiatric drugs. Public health campaigns should promote the possible adverse reactions that might produce the concomitant use of drug-herb combinations for mental illnesses.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/drug therapy , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/drug therapy , Pandemics , Plant Preparations/adverse effects , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Drug Interactions , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/drug therapy , Mental Disorders/psychology , Mexico/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Plants, Medicinal , Prevalence , Psychotropic Drugs/adverse effects , Psychotropic Drugs/therapeutic use , Self Care , Surveys and Questionnaires , Unemployment/psychology , Young Adult
17.
Pharmacol Res ; 166: 105472, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084633

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has now rapidly spread around the world, causing an outbreak of acute infectious pneumonia. To develop effective and safe therapies for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 has become the major global public health concern. Traditional medicine (TM)/herbal medicines (HMs) have been used to treat multiple epidemics in human history, which brings hope for the fight against COVID-19 in some areas. For example, in China, India, and South Korea with traditional medication history and theory, the governments issued a series of guidelines to support TM/HMs in the medication of COVID-19. In contrast, other countries e.g. North American and European governments are typically silent on these practices, unless to warn of possible harm and overselling. Such difference is due to the discrepancy in culture, history and philosophical views of health care and medication, as well as unharmonized policies and standards in the regulation and legalization of TM/HMs among different areas. Herein, we reviewed the responses and scientific researches from seven selected countries on the policies and legalization of TM/HMs to treat COVID-19, and also analyzed the major challenges and concerns to utilize the traditional knowledge and resource.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Complementary Therapies/legislation & jurisprudence , Drug Approval/legislation & jurisprudence , Global Health/legislation & jurisprudence , Medicine, Traditional , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , Healthcare Disparities/legislation & jurisprudence , Humans , Policy Making
18.
Trials ; 22(1): 130, 2021 Feb 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084076

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The primary objectives of the study are to determine the effectiveness of the Kaba Sura Kudineer (KSK) & Nilavembu Kudineer (NVK) along with standard Allopathy Treatment to compared with Placebo (Decaffeinated Tea) with standard Allopathy Treatment in the management of Symptomatic COVID 19 patients and also in reduction of Hospital Stay Time & Changes in Immunological (IL6) and Bio Chemical Markers (Ferritin, CRP, D-Dimer and LDH). The secondary objectives are to evaluate the safety of the trial medicines and their effects in the reduce the risks of the disease. In addition, to document the profile of Symptomatic COVID 19 patients as per Siddha Principles. TRIAL DESIGN: A Double Blinded, Three arm, Single Centre, Placebo Controlled, Exploratory and comparative Randomized Controlled Trial PARTICIPANTS: Patients who were admitted to the COVID Care Centre at Govt. Institute of Medical Sciences. Noida in India will be recruited. These will be patients with Mild and Moderate symptoms with laboratory confirmed COVID 19 (RT - PCR Tested Positive) aged 18-65, willing and consenting to participate. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Arm I: Decaffeinated Tea (Placebo - similar in taste and appearance to the other Two Decoctions), 60 Ml Morning and Night after Food, along with standard Allopathy Treatment for 10 days. Arm II: Nilavembu Kudineer (The Siddha Medicines which is used as a standard Anti-Viral drug for the past Pandemics by Siddha Physicians) 60 Ml Morning and Night after Food, along with standard Allopathy Treatment for 10 days. Arm III: Kaba Sura Kudineer (The Siddha Medicine which is proposed to be used as a Treatment for COVID 19 based on Siddha Literature) 60 Ml Morning and Night after Food, along with standard Allopathy Treatment for 10 days. The investigational drugs are registered products under the Govt.of India and bought from GMP Certified Manufacturing Units. MAIN OUTCOMES: Primary outcomes: 1. Reduction in Viral load of SARS-CoV-2 at the end of treatment (10 days). 2. Time taken to convert Patient from symptomatic to Asymptomatic based on Reduction in clinical symptoms (10 days). 3. Effect of drugs inflammatory markers (IL6,) at the end of treatment (10 days). 4. Reduction in hospital stay time (20 days follow up). (Based on RT PCR CT Value 3rd, 6th if needed 10th day). (Based on IL 6 Value needed 10th day or IL6 value on turning negative. (entry level/exit level). Secondary outcomes (10 days): 1. Reduction in use of Intensive Supportive Care. 2. Reduction in incidence of complications (Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, other systemic complications). 3. MuLBSTA score for viral pneumonia (multinodular infiltration, hypo-lymphocytosis, bacterial co infection, Total Leucocyte Count (TLC ≤ 0.8 x 109/L), smoking history, hyper-tension and age) score. 4. Laboratory markers (Haematological & Biochemical Markers). 5. Adverse events/effects Siddha-based measurements. 6. Siddha Udaliyal assessment by using Yakkai Ilakkanam (YI) Tool to diagnose body condition for covid-19 patients. RANDOMISATION: The assignment of the participants into 3 Groups will be allocated in 1:1:1 Ratio through randomization Blocks in Microsoft Excel by a Statistician who is not involved in the study. The allocation scheme will be made by another statistician by using a closed envelope after the assessment of eligibility and Informed consent procedures. The groups will be balanced for age and sex with 3:1 Ratio in each group for mild: severe COVID-19 symptoms. BLINDING: The Study is Double Blinded. Participants and Investigators were blinded. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMIZED (SAMPLE SIZE): Sample size could not be calculated, Since there are no prior trials on KSK and NVK as a comparative trial. In addition, there are no prior trials on KSK and NVK in this region. A total Number of 120 Patients, 40 each in 3 groups will be recruited in 1:1:1 Ratio. TRIAL STATUS: Protocol Number : SCRUND GIMS Noida Study 1,Version: 2.0 Protocol Date : 20.08.2020 The recruitment period is completed for the trial. The Trial started its recruitment on 22.8.2020. We anticipate study including data analysis will finish in January 2021. This is to state that it was a late submission from authors for publication of the protocol to the BMC, after enrolment in the study was over. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial protocol was registered with CTRI (Clinical Trial Registry of India) and number is CTRI/2020/08/027286 on 21.08.2020 FULL PROTOCOL: The full Protocol is attached as an additional file, Accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated. This letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol. The Study protocol has been reported in accordance with the SPIRIT guidelines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Medicine, Ayurvedic , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/physiopathology , Double-Blind Method , Ferritins/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Hospitalization , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Phytomedicine ; 84: 153494, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1062560

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Specific treatment for COVID-19 is still an unmet need. Outcomes of clinical trials on repurposed drugs have not been yielding success. Therefore, it is necessary to include complementary approaches of medicine against COVID-19. PURPOSE: This study was designed to evaluate the impact of traditional Indian Ayurvedic treatment regime on asymptomatic patients with COVID-19 infection. STUDY DESIGN: It is a placebo controlled randomized double-blind pilot clinical trial. METHODS: The study was registered with Clinical Trial Registry-India (vide Registration No. CTRI/2020/05/025273) and conducted at the Department of Medicine in National Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Jaipur, India. 1 g of Giloy Ghanvati (Tinospora cordifolia) and 2 g of Swasari Ras (traditional herbo-mineral formulation) and 0.5 g each of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) and Tulsi Ghanvati (Ocimum sanctum) were given orally to the patients in treatment group twice per day for 7 days. Medicines were given in the form of tablets and each tablet weighed 500 mg. While, Swasari Ras was administered in powdered form, 30 min before breakfasts and dinners, rest were scheduled for 30 min post-meals. Patients in the treatment group also received 4 drops of Anu taila (traditional nasal drop) in each nostril every day 1 h before breakfast. Patients in the placebo group received identical-looking tablets and drops, post randomization and double blinded assortments. RT-qPCR test was used for the detection of viral load in the nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swab samples of study participants during the study. Chemiluminescent immunometric assay was used to quantify serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) on day 1 and day 7 of the study. RESULTS: By day 3, 71.1 % and 50.0 % patients recovered in the treatment and placebo groups, respectively. Treatment group witnessed 100 % recovery by day 7, while it was 60.0 % in the placebo group. Average fold changes in serum levels of hs-CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α in treatment group were respectively, 12.4, 2.5 and 20 times lesser than those in the placebo group at day 7. There was 40 % absolute reduction in the risk of delayed recovery from infection in the treatment group. CONCLUSIONS: Ayurvedic treatment can expedite virological clearance, help in faster recovery and concomitantly reduce the risk of viral dissemination. Reduced inflammation markers suggested less severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the treatment group. Moreover, there was no adverse effect observed to be associated with this treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Medicine, Ayurvedic , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adult , Double-Blind Method , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , India , Male , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
20.
Phytother Res ; 35(3): 1237-1247, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-986406

ABSTRACT

Mental health condition is including depression and anxiety, and they may impact wellbeing, personal relationships and productivity of both genders. Herbal medicines have been used to treatment of anxiety and depression symptoms for centuries. SARS, MERS and COVID-19 are related to coronavirus types. SARS (sever acute respiratory syndrome, China, 2002), MERS (Middle East respiratory syndrome, Saudi Arabia, 2012), and SARS-CoV-2 (2019-2020) are the main coronavirus outbreaks. Both anxiety and depression are more serious to be considered and improved for all general public during fight with these diseases. In this mini-review article, we have mentioned the key role some of the most important plants and herbs for treatment of stress and anxiety and improve mental health against SARS and SARS-CoV-2 on the basis of traditional Asian medicine, especially traditional Chinese and Persian medicine.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/drug therapy , COVID-19/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Disease Outbreaks , Mental Health , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/psychology , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Plants, Medicinal , SARS-CoV-2
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