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1.
Complement Ther Med ; 68: 102832, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878115

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lavender is considered as one of the medicinal plants to manage stress. Although many preliminary studies evaluated the effect of lavender on individuals' stress level, to the best of our knowledge, we did not find a study that summarizes the results. Therefore, the present study aimed to estimate the Pooled effect of lavender on the stress level of individuals using systematic review and meta-analysis. METHOD: A systematic literature review based on PRISMA 2020 was performed on the SID, MagIran, Embase, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science (WoS) databases, and Google Scholar motor engine using related MeSH/Emtree and Free Text words, including "Lavender*", "Lavandula*", "Stress*", "Stress Disorders, Traumatic", and "Stress, Psychological" with no time limitation until August 2021: We also searched two Iranain free local resourses including MagIran https://www.magiran.com and Scientific Information Database (SID) https://www.sid.ir. The quality assessment of studies was performed using JBI checklist. Heterogeneity among studies was quantified using I2 index and Random Effects model was used to combine the data and perform the meta-analysis. RESULTS: In the initial search, 1520 articles were found. After excluding the irrelevant studies, finally, 21 articles with a sample size of 791 in the intervention group and 804 in the control group were included in the meta-analysis. As a result of combining the studies, stress score after using lavender in the intervention group showed a significant decrease of 0.63 ± 0.13 (95% CI) more than that in the control group (P < 0.001). The results of subgroup analysis demonstrated that the highest standardized mean difference (SMD) before and after the intervention in the intervention group compared to the control group was related to L. angustifolia species with 0.73 ± 0.22, student groups with 2.27 ± 1.34, and diagnostic tool of Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) with 0.82 ± 0.42, indicating that the difference between the groups was statistically significant (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The pooled estimation of this systematic reiew and meta-analysis revealed that lavender significantly reduces individuals' stress. Therefore, it seems that the use of lavender can be considered as a part of a stress management programs, especially in student groups.


Subject(s)
Lavandula , Plants, Medicinal , Sudden Infant Death , Humans , Psychotherapy
2.
J Tradit Chin Med ; 42(3): 332-343, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1863487

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the and studies of natural compounds and medicinal plants with anti-coronavirus activity. METHODS: A systematic review was performed based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses and Animal Research: Reporting of experiments guidelines to find data for medicinal plants and natural products effective against human coronaviruses in or studies. Studies published up to September 6, 2020 were included. Studies ( or ) reporting the effect of medicinal plants and natural products or their derivatives on human coronavirus were included RESULTS: Promising anti-coronavirus effects are seen with different herbal compounds like some diterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, and three compounds in tea with 3CLpro inhibiting effect of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV); Hirsutenone, Six cinnamic amides and bavachinin are PLpro inhibitors and Tanshinones are active on both 3CLpro and PLpro. Some flavonoid compounds of Citrus fruits act on Immun-oregulation and target angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 which is used by SARS-COV for entry. Virus helicase is possibly inhibited by two compounds myricetin and scutellarein. CONCLUSION: This review shows that complementary medicine have the potential for new drug discovery against coronavirus. Further research is needed before definitive conclusions can be made concerning the safety and efficacy of the use of these medicinal plants.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , COVID-19 , Plants, Medicinal , SARS Virus , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biological Products/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Daru ; 30(1): 191-210, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1813906

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The recent emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic (caused by SARS-CoV-2) and the experience of its unprecedented alarming toll on humanity have shone a fresh spotlight on the weakness of global preparedness for pandemics, significant health inequalities, and the fragility of healthcare systems in certain regions of the world. It is imperative to identify effective drug treatments for COVID-19. Therefore, the objective of this review is to present a unique and contextualised collection of antiviral natural plants or remedies from the West African sub-region as existing or potential treatments for viral infections, including COVID-19, with emphasis on their mechanisms of action. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Evidence was synthesised from the literature using appropriate keywords as search terms within scientific databases such as Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science and Google Scholar. RESULTS: While some vaccines and small-molecule drugs are now available to combat COVID-19, access to these therapeutic entities in many countries is still quite limited. In addition, significant aspects of the symptomatology, pathophysiology and long-term prognosis of the infection yet remain unknown. The existing therapeutic armamentarium, therefore, requires significant expansion. There is evidence that natural products with antiviral effects have been used in successfully managing COVID-19 symptoms and could be developed as anti-COVID-19 agents which act through host- and virus-based molecular targets. CONCLUSION: Natural products could be successfully exploited for treating viral infections/diseases, including COVID-19. Strengthening natural products research capacity in developing countries is, therefore, a key strategy for reducing health inequalities, improving global health, and enhancing preparedness for future pandemics.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , COVID-19 , Plants, Medicinal , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Molecules ; 27(9)2022 Apr 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1810049

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has had an impact on human quality of life and economics. Scientists have been identifying remedies for its prevention and treatment from all possible sources, including plants. Nigella sativa L. (NS) is an important medicinal plant of Islamic value. This review highlights the anti-COVID-19 potential, clinical trials, inventions, and patent literature related to NS and its major chemical constituents, like thymoquinone. The literature was collected from different databases, including Pubmed, Espacenet, and Patentscope. The literature supports the efficacy of NS, NS oil (NSO), and its chemical constituents against COVID-19. The clinical data imply that NS and NSO can prevent and treat COVID-19 patients with a faster recovery rate. Several inventions comprising NS and NSO have been claimed in patent applications to prevent/treat COVID-19. The patent literature cites NS as an immunomodulator, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, a source of anti-SARS-CoV-2 compounds, and a plant having protective effects on the lungs. The available facts indicate that NS, NSO, and its various compositions have all the attributes to be used as a promising remedy to prevent, manage, and treat COVID-19 among high-risk people as well as for the therapy of COVID-19 patients of all age groups as a monotherapy or a combination therapy. Many compositions of NS in combination with countless medicinal herbs and medicines are still unexplored. Accordingly, the authors foresee a bright scope in developing NS-based anti-COVID-19 composition for clinical use in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nigella sativa , Plants, Medicinal , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Inventions , Nigella sativa/chemistry , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 414(13): 3971-3985, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1787801

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, continues to cause global morbidity and mortality despite the increasing availability of vaccines. Alongside vaccines, antivirals are urgently needed to combat SARS-CoV-2 infection and spread, particularly in resource-limited regions which lack access to existing therapeutics. Small molecules isolated from medicinal plants may be able to block cellular entry by SARS-CoV-2 by antagonising the interaction of the viral spike glycoprotein receptor-binding domain (RBD) with the host angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2) receptor. As the medicinal plant Gunnera perpensa L. is being used by some South African traditional healers for SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 management, we hypothesised that it may contain chemical constituents that inhibit the RBD-ACE2 interaction. Using a previously described AlphaScreen-based protein interaction assay, we show here that the DCM:MeOH extract of G. perpensa readily disrupts RBD (USA-WA1/2020)-ACE2 interactions with a half-maximal inhibition concentration (IC50) of < 0.001 µg/mL, compared to an IC50 of 0.025 µg/mL for the control neutralising antibody REGN10987. Employing hyphenated analytical techniques like UPLC-IMS-HRMS (method developed and validated as per the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines), we identified two ellagitannins, punicalin (2.12% w/w) and punicalagin (1.51% w/w), as plant constituents in the DCM:MeOH extract of G. perpensa which antagonised RBD-ACE2 binding with respective IC50s of 9 and 29 nM. This good potency makes both compounds promising leads for development of future entry-based SARS-CoV-2 antivirals. The results also highlight the advantages of combining reverse pharmacology (based on medicinal plant use) with hyphenated analytical techniques to expedite identification of urgently needed antivirals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Plants, Medicinal , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , South Africa , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
6.
Front Public Health ; 10: 823804, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785440

ABSTRACT

At the end of 2019, the coronavirus virus COVID-19 has brought the whole world a serious disaster. During this special time, some rural communities were least affected by the epidemic, mainly reflected on the rational utilization of natural biological resources, including edible and medicinal plants and the management of the home gardens. This paper deconstructed the self-responses of rural communities during the pandemic time and tried to provide some suggestions for local government on policymaking. In the end, the future development of ethnobiology in China has been discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Plants, Medicinal , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Rural Population
7.
Molecules ; 27(5)2022 Feb 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1780062

ABSTRACT

Diseases caused by viruses are a global threat, resulting in serious medical and social problems for humanity. They are the main contributors to many minor and major outbreaks, epidemics, and pandemics worldwide. Over the years, medicinal plants have been used as a complementary treatment in a range of diseases. In this sense, this review addresses promising antiviral plants from Marajó island, a part of the Amazon region, which is known to present a very wide biodiversity of medicinal plants. The present review has been limited to articles and abstracts available in Scopus, Web of Science, Science Direct, Scielo, PubMed, and Google Scholar, as well as the patent offices in Brazil (INPI), United States (USPTO), Europe (EPO) and World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO). As a result, some plants from Marajó island were reported to have actions against HIV-1,2, HSV-1,2, SARS-CoV-2, HAV and HBV, Poliovirus, and influenza. Our major conclusion is that plants of the Marajó region show promising perspectives regarding pharmacological potential in combatting future viral diseases.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Brazil , COVID-19/virology , HIV-1/drug effects , Hepatitis A virus/drug effects , Herpesvirus 1, Human/drug effects , Humans , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plants, Medicinal/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
8.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 18(1): 29, 2022 Apr 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779659

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As a hard-hit area during the COVID-19 pandemic, Belgium knew the highest mortality among people from sub-Saharan African descent, compared to any other group living in the country. After migration, people often maintain traditional perceptions and habits regarding health and healthcare, resulting in a high prevalence of traditional, complementary and alternative medicine use among different migrant communities in northern urban settings. Despite being the largest community of sub-Saharan African descent in Belgium, little is known on ethnobotanical practices of the Belgian Congolese community. We therefore conducted an exploratory study on the use of medicinal plants in the context of COVID-19 and perceptions on this new disease among members of the Congolese community in Belgium. METHODS: We conducted 16 in-depth semi-structured interviews with people of Congolese descent currently living in Belgium. Participants were selected using purposive sampling. Medicinal plant use in the context of COVID-19 was recorded through free-listing. Data on narratives, ideas and perceptions on the origin, cause/aetiology and overall measures against COVID-19 (including vaccination) were collected. Interview transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Four overarching themes emerged from our data. Firstly, participants perceived the representation of the severity of COVID-19 by the Belgian media and government-and by extend by all governmental agencies in the global north-as exaggerated. As a result, traditional and complementary treatments were seen as feasible options to treat symptoms of the disease. Fifteen forms of traditional, complementary and alternative medicine were documented, of which thirteen were plants. Participants seem to fold back on their Congolese identity and traditional knowledge in seeking coping strategies to deal with the COVID-19 pandemic. Finally, institutional postcolonial distrust did not only seem to lead to distrust in official messages on the COVID-19 pandemic but also to feelings of vaccination hesitancy. CONCLUSION: In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, participants in our study retreated to, reshaped and adapted traditional and culture-bound knowledge. This study suggests that the fragile and sensitive relationship between sub-Saharan African migrant groups and other social/ethnic groups in Belgium might play a role in their sensitivity to health-threatening situations, such as the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Complementary Therapies , Plants, Medicinal , Belgium , Ethnobotany , Humans , Pandemics
9.
Neuropeptides ; 93: 102240, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778388
10.
Genet Res (Camb) ; 2021: 9952620, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775004

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Herbal medicine is one of crucial symbols of Chinese national medicine. Investigation on molecular responses of different herbal strategies against viral myocarditis is immeasurably conducive to targeting drug development in the current international absence of miracle treatment. Methods: Literature retrieval platforms were applied in the collection of existing empirical evidences for viral myocarditis-related single-herbal strategies. SwissTargetPrediction, Metascape, and Discovery Studio coordinating with multidatabases investigated underlying target genes, interactive proteins, and docking molecules in turn. Results: Six single-herbal medicines consisting of Huangqi (Hedysarum Multijugum Maxim), Yuganzi (Phyllanthi Fructus), Kushen (Sophorae Flavescentis Radix), Jianghuang (Curcumaelongae Rhizoma), Chaihu (Radix Bupleuri), and Jixueteng (Spatholobus Suberectus Dunn) meet the requirement. There were 11 overlapped and 73 unique natural components detected in these herbs. SLC6A2, SLC6A4, NOS2, PPARA, PPARG, ACHE, CYP2C19, CYP51A1, and CHRM2 were equally targeted by six herbs and identified as viral myocarditis-associated symbols. MCODE algorithm exposed the hub role of SRC and EGFR in strategies without Jianghuang. Subsequently, we learned intermolecular interactions of herbal components and their targeting heart-tissue-specific CHRM2, FABP3, TNNC1, TNNI3, TNNT2, and SCN5A and cardiac-myocytes-specific IL6, MMP1, and PLAT coupled with viral myocarditis. Ten interactive characteristics such as π-alkyl and van der Waals were modeled in which ARG111, LYS253, ILE114, and VAL11 on cardiac troponin (TNNC1-TNNI3-TNNT2) and ARG208, ASN106, and ALA258 on MMP1 fulfilled potential communicating anchor with ellagic acid, 5α, 9α-dihydroxymatrine, and leachianone g via hydrogen bond and hydrophobic interaction, respectively. Conclusions: The comprehensive outcomes uncover differences and linkages between six herbs against viral myocarditis through component and target analysis, fostering development of drugs.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Infections , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Myocarditis , Plants, Medicinal , Virus Diseases , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Myocarditis/drug therapy , Phytotherapy , Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins , Virus Diseases/drug therapy
11.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol ; 194(1): 291-301, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748423

ABSTRACT

Corona virus pandemic outbreak also known as COVID-19 has created an imbalance in this world. Scientists have adopted the use of natural or alternative medicines which are consumed mostly as dietary supplements to boost the immune system as herbal remedies. India is famous for traditional medicinal formulations which includes 'Trikadu'-a combination of three acrids, namely Zingiber officinale, Piper nigrum and Piper longum which have antioxidant properties that boost our immune system hence acting as a strong preventive measure. In this study, AutoDock 4.0 was used to study interaction between the phytocompounds of Trikadu with RNA-dependent polymerase protein and enveloped protein of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Analysis of the results showed that coumarin, coumaperine and bisdemethoxycurcumin showed strong bonding interactions with both the proteins. We can conclude that Trikadu has the potential molecules; hence, it can be incorporated in the diet to boost the immune system as a preventive measure against the virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Phytotherapy , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Antioxidants/isolation & purification , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , Computer Simulation , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/drug effects , Dietary Supplements , Ginger/chemistry , Humans , Immune System/drug effects , India , Ligands , Medicine, Traditional , Molecular Docking Simulation , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Phytochemicals/therapeutic use , Piper/chemistry , Piper nigrum/chemistry , Plant Preparations/isolation & purification , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/drug effects
12.
Front Immunol ; 13: 841459, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731786

ABSTRACT

In late 2019, COVID-19 emerged in Wuhan, China. Currently, it is an ongoing global health threat stressing the need for therapeutic compounds. Linking the virus life cycle and its interaction with cell receptors and internal cellular machinery is key to developing therapies based on the control of infectivity and inflammation. In this framework, we evaluate the combination of cannabidiol (CBD), as an anti-inflammatory molecule, and terpenes, by their anti-microbiological properties, in reducing SARS-CoV-2 infectivity. Our group settled six formulations combining CBD and terpenes purified from Cannabis sativa L, Origanum vulgare, and Thymus mastichina. The formulations were analyzed by HPLC and GC-MS and evaluated for virucide and antiviral potential by in vitro studies in alveolar basal epithelial, colon, kidney, and keratinocyte human cell lines. Conclusions and Impact: We demonstrate the virucide effectiveness of CBD and terpene-based formulations. F2TC reduces the infectivity by 17%, 24%, and 99% for CaCo-2, HaCat, and A549, respectively, and F1TC by 43%, 37%, and 29% for Hek293T, HaCaT, and Caco-2, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first approach that tackles the combination of CBD with a specific group of terpenes against SARS-CoV-2 in different cell lines. The differential effectiveness of formulations according to the cell line can be relevant to understanding the pattern of virus infectivity and the host inflammation response, and lead to new therapeutic strategies.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cannabidiol/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Terpenes/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Cannabidiol/chemistry , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Drug Synergism , Humans , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Terpenes/chemistry , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
13.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 3523920, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1723959

ABSTRACT

The in vitro antimycotic activity of the leaf extract of Catharanthus roseus, Lantana camara, Nerium indicum, Sida cordifolia, and Ziziphus mauritiana was studied against M. circinelloides. This fungal species causes mucormycosis (black fungus). Presently, mucormycosis is affecting COVID patients due to prolonged use of steroids. So, it is needed to require development of more effective and less toxic antimycotic agents for the treatment of mucormycosis. Plants and their extraction preparations have been used as medicine against infectious disease. In this research, aqueous, ethanol, and DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide) leaf extracts were used for antimycotic activity. All leaf extracts of selected medicinal plants recorded significant activity against M. circinelloides. Ethanol leaf extract of C. roseus showed the highest antimycotic activity followed by N. indicum and L. camara. Z. mauritiana which showed moderate activity against M. circinelloides.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Plants, Medicinal , Ethanol , Humans , Mucor , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/microbiology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology
14.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 148: 112756, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708753

ABSTRACT

The 2019 corona virus disease (COVID-19) has caused a global chaos, where a novel Omicron variant has challenged the healthcare system, followed by which it has been referred to as a variant of concern (VOC) by the World Health Organization (WHO), owing to its alarming transmission and infectivity rate. The large number of mutations in the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein is responsible for strengthening of the spike-angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) interaction, thereby explaining the elevated threat. This is supplemented by enhanced resistance of the variant towards pre-existing antibodies approved for the COVID-19 therapy. The manuscript brings into light failure of existing therapies to provide the desired effect, however simultaneously discussing the novel possibilities on the verge of establishing suitable treatment portfolio. The authors entail the risks associated with omicron resistance against antibodies and vaccine ineffectiveness on one side, and novel approaches and targets - kinase inhibitors, viral protease inhibitors, phytoconstituents, entry pathways - on the other. The manuscript aims to provide a holistic picture about the Omicron variant, by providing comprehensive discussions related to multiple aspects of the mutated spike variant, which might aid the global researchers and healthcare experts in finding an optimised solution to this pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cathepsins/metabolism , ErbB Receptors/antagonists & inhibitors , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Immunization, Secondary , Phytotherapy/methods , Plants, Medicinal , Protein Binding/physiology , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs/physiology , Protein Structural Elements/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Viral Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Viral Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use
15.
Bioengineered ; 13(3): 5480-5508, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1697594

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the SARS-coronavirus 2(SARS-CoV-2) virus has become the greatest global public health crisis in recent years,and the COVID-19 epidemic is still continuing. However, due to the lack of effectivetherapeutic drugs, the treatment of corona viruses is facing huge challenges. In thiscontext, countries with a tradition of using herbal medicine such as China have beenwidely using herbal medicine for prevention and nonspecific treatment of corona virusesand achieved good responses. In this review, we will introduce the application of herbalmedicine in the treatment of corona virus patients in China and other countries, andreview the progress of related molecular mechanisms and antiviral activity ingredients ofherbal medicine, in order to provide a reference for herbal medicine in the treatment ofcorona viruses. We found that herbal medicines are used in the prevention and fightagainst COVID-19 in countries on all continents. In China, herbal medicine has beenreported to relieve some of the clinical symptoms of mild patients and shorten the length of hospital stay. However, as most herbal medicines for the clinical treatment of COVID-19still lack rigorous clinical trials, the clinical and economic value of herbal medicines in theprevention and treatment of COVID-19 has not been fully evaluated. Future work basedon large-scale randomized, double-blind clinical trials to evaluate herbal medicines andtheir active ingredients in the treatment of new COVID-19 will be very meaningful.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/isolation & purification , Herbal Medicine/methods , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
16.
Food Chem ; 382: 132251, 2022 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654433

ABSTRACT

Ascorbic acid (AA) and eugenol (EUG) are well-known antioxidants found in several fruits, spices and herbs. In particular, the EUG, one of the major phytocompounds present in clove, acts as pro-oxidant or anti-oxidant depending on its concentration. Considering the medical importance of AA and EUG and its extensive usage in the form of food and medicine, we have developed a voltammetric sensor based on hydroxyapatite-TiO2 composite modified GCE for their selective and simultaneous determination over very wide linear range of 2.78-2490 µM for AA and 1.4-78 µM for EUG with the LODs of 63.3 nM and 94 nM respectively. Practical applicability of the prepared electrode has been demonstrated by detecting AA and EUG in lemon juice, vitamin tablet, clove oil and Kabasura Kudineer, an herbal decoction used as an immunity booster against number of diseases including Covid-19. The proposed HAP-TiO2/GCE shall be useful for food and pharmaceutical industries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Graphite , Nanocomposites , Plants, Medicinal , Ascorbic Acid , Dopamine/analysis , Durapatite , Electrodes , Eugenol , Fruit/chemistry , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Titanium
17.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(8): 3065-3077, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1627243

ABSTRACT

Spices are natural plant products enriched with the history of being used as herbal medicine for prevention of diseases. India is also known as the 'Land of Spices'. Out of 109 spices recognized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) more than 52-60 spice crops are grown in India. The major spices exported by India are turmeric, cumin, coriander, fenugreek, peppers, etc. The Indian spices are divided into three era viz. early period, middle age and early modern period. Spices are used in beverages, liquors, and pharmaceutical, cosmetic and perfumery products. The major issue with spices is their handling and storage. This review article mainly focuses on two aspects: at the outset the handling and storage of the spices is an essential factor as spices are available in different forms like raw, processed, fresh, whole dried, or pre-ground dried. Therefore, the need of processing, packaging, storage and handling of the spices is important as the deterioration of spices can lead to the loss of therapeutic activity. Furthermore, many herbal constituents have the capability to enhance the bioavailability of drugs. Therefore, an attempt has been made to throw a light on the bioenhancer activity and therapeutic activity along with their mechanism of action of some Indian spices which are regularly used for cooking purpose on a daily basis to enhance the taste of food. The spices suggested by ministry of AYUSH which is relevant to its medicinal and biological property in treatment and prevention from COVID-19 are discussed. © 2022 Society of Chemical Industry.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Plants, Medicinal , COVID-19/drug therapy , Curcuma , Humans , Phytotherapy , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Spices
18.
Molecules ; 27(2)2022 Jan 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625268

ABSTRACT

The focus of this roadmap is to evaluate the possible efficacy of Artemisia herba-alba Asso. (Asteraceae) for the treatment of COVID-19 and some of its symptoms and several comorbidities using a combination of in silico (molecular docking) studies, reported ethnic uses, and pharmacological activity studies of this plant. In this exploratory study, we show that various phytochemicals from Artemisia herba-alba can be useful against COVID-19 (in silico studies) and for its associated comorbidities. COVID-19 is a new disease, so reports of any therapeutic treatments against it (traditional or conventional) are scanty. On the other hand, we demonstrate, using Artemisia herba-alba as an example, that through a proper search and identification of medicinal plant(s) and their phytochemicals identification using secondary data (published reports) on the plant's ethnic uses, phytochemical constituents, and pharmacological activities against COVID-19 comorbidities and symptoms coupled with the use of primary data obtained from in silico (molecular docking and molecular dynamics) studies on the binding of the selected plant's phytochemicals (such as: rutin, 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, and schaftoside) with various vital components of SARS-CoV-2, it may be possible to rapidly identify plants that are suitable for further research regarding therapeutic use against COVID-19 and its associated symptoms and comorbidities.


Subject(s)
Artemisia/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Ethnobotany/methods , Ligands , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry
19.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol ; 23(2): 235-260, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613441

ABSTRACT

The world population has suffered as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. The disease has become life-threatening in a very short time, harming citizens and the economic systems globally. The novel virus SARS-CoV-2 has been known as the causative agent of COVID-19. The SARS-CoV-2 is a single-stranded RNA virus having ~30 kb genomic components, which are 70% identical to SARS-CoV. The main process of the pathophysiology of COVID-19 has been associated with the interaction of a novel coronavirus with host cell receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE 2), by fusion. Therapeutic agents having serine protease inhibitors and ACE-2 blockers may be explored for the treatment by inhibiting the viral target such as Mpro, RdRp, PLpro, and helicase. Herbal medicine has a wide array of chemical entities with potential health benefits, including antiviral activity, which may be explored as an alternative treatment for COVID-19. The herbal bioactives like catechins, andrographolide, hesperidin, biorobin, scutellarein, silvestrol, shikonin, tryptanthrin, vitexin quercetin, myricetin, caffeic acid, psoralidin, luteolin, etc. have shown potential inhibitory effect against SARS-CoV-2. Recent research reports indicate that the various plant secondary metabolites have shown potential antiviral activities. The present review article highlights the recent information on the mechanism of actions and applications of herbal medicine in the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Plants, Medicinal , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
20.
J Evid Based Integr Med ; 27: 2515690X211053641, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608003

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic started in early 2020 with the outbreak of a highly pathogenic human coronavirus. The world is facing a challenge and there is a pressing need for efficient drugs. Plants and natural compounds are a proven rich resource for new drug discovery. Considering the potential of natural products to manage the pandemic, this article was designed to provide an inclusive map of the stages and pathogenetic mechanisms for effective natural products on COVID-19. New drug discovery for the COVID-19 pandemic can encompass both prevention and disease management strategies. Preventive mechanisms that may be considered include boosting the immune response and hand hygiene in the preexposure phase; and blocking of virus binding and entry in the postexposure phase. Potential therapeutic target mechanisms include virus-directed therapies and host-directed therapies. Several medicinal plants and natural products, such as Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal and propolis for prevention; Tanacetum parthenium (L.) for treatment; and Ammoides verticillata (Desf.) Briq and Nigella sativa L. for both prevention and treatment have been found effective and are good targets for future research. The examples of phytochemical compounds that may be effective include aloin and terpenes as anti-septics; isothymol, dithymoquinone, and glycyrrhizin as inhibitors of virus binding and entry; glycyrrhizin, and berberine as replication suppressants; ginsenoside Rg1 and parthenolide as immunomodulators; and eriocitrin, rhoifolin, hesperidin, naringin, rutin, and veronicastroside as anti-complements. Recognizing different mechanisms of fighting against this virus can lead to a more systematic approach in finding natural products and medicinal plants for COVID-19 prevention and treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Plants, Medicinal , Humans , Pandemics , Phytotherapy , SARS-CoV-2
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