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1.
Molecules ; 27(5)2022 Feb 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1780062

ABSTRACT

Diseases caused by viruses are a global threat, resulting in serious medical and social problems for humanity. They are the main contributors to many minor and major outbreaks, epidemics, and pandemics worldwide. Over the years, medicinal plants have been used as a complementary treatment in a range of diseases. In this sense, this review addresses promising antiviral plants from Marajó island, a part of the Amazon region, which is known to present a very wide biodiversity of medicinal plants. The present review has been limited to articles and abstracts available in Scopus, Web of Science, Science Direct, Scielo, PubMed, and Google Scholar, as well as the patent offices in Brazil (INPI), United States (USPTO), Europe (EPO) and World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO). As a result, some plants from Marajó island were reported to have actions against HIV-1,2, HSV-1,2, SARS-CoV-2, HAV and HBV, Poliovirus, and influenza. Our major conclusion is that plants of the Marajó region show promising perspectives regarding pharmacological potential in combatting future viral diseases.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Brazil , COVID-19/virology , HIV-1/drug effects , Hepatitis A virus/drug effects , Herpesvirus 1, Human/drug effects , Humans , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plants, Medicinal/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
2.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol ; 194(1): 291-301, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748423

ABSTRACT

Corona virus pandemic outbreak also known as COVID-19 has created an imbalance in this world. Scientists have adopted the use of natural or alternative medicines which are consumed mostly as dietary supplements to boost the immune system as herbal remedies. India is famous for traditional medicinal formulations which includes 'Trikadu'-a combination of three acrids, namely Zingiber officinale, Piper nigrum and Piper longum which have antioxidant properties that boost our immune system hence acting as a strong preventive measure. In this study, AutoDock 4.0 was used to study interaction between the phytocompounds of Trikadu with RNA-dependent polymerase protein and enveloped protein of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Analysis of the results showed that coumarin, coumaperine and bisdemethoxycurcumin showed strong bonding interactions with both the proteins. We can conclude that Trikadu has the potential molecules; hence, it can be incorporated in the diet to boost the immune system as a preventive measure against the virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Phytotherapy , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Antioxidants/isolation & purification , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , Computer Simulation , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/drug effects , Dietary Supplements , Ginger/chemistry , Humans , Immune System/drug effects , India , Ligands , Medicine, Traditional , Molecular Docking Simulation , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Phytochemicals/therapeutic use , Piper/chemistry , Piper nigrum/chemistry , Plant Preparations/isolation & purification , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/drug effects
3.
Front Immunol ; 13: 841459, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731786

ABSTRACT

In late 2019, COVID-19 emerged in Wuhan, China. Currently, it is an ongoing global health threat stressing the need for therapeutic compounds. Linking the virus life cycle and its interaction with cell receptors and internal cellular machinery is key to developing therapies based on the control of infectivity and inflammation. In this framework, we evaluate the combination of cannabidiol (CBD), as an anti-inflammatory molecule, and terpenes, by their anti-microbiological properties, in reducing SARS-CoV-2 infectivity. Our group settled six formulations combining CBD and terpenes purified from Cannabis sativa L, Origanum vulgare, and Thymus mastichina. The formulations were analyzed by HPLC and GC-MS and evaluated for virucide and antiviral potential by in vitro studies in alveolar basal epithelial, colon, kidney, and keratinocyte human cell lines. Conclusions and Impact: We demonstrate the virucide effectiveness of CBD and terpene-based formulations. F2TC reduces the infectivity by 17%, 24%, and 99% for CaCo-2, HaCat, and A549, respectively, and F1TC by 43%, 37%, and 29% for Hek293T, HaCaT, and Caco-2, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first approach that tackles the combination of CBD with a specific group of terpenes against SARS-CoV-2 in different cell lines. The differential effectiveness of formulations according to the cell line can be relevant to understanding the pattern of virus infectivity and the host inflammation response, and lead to new therapeutic strategies.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cannabidiol/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Terpenes/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Cannabidiol/chemistry , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Drug Synergism , Humans , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Terpenes/chemistry , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
4.
Bioengineered ; 13(3): 5480-5508, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1697594

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the SARS-coronavirus 2(SARS-CoV-2) virus has become the greatest global public health crisis in recent years,and the COVID-19 epidemic is still continuing. However, due to the lack of effectivetherapeutic drugs, the treatment of corona viruses is facing huge challenges. In thiscontext, countries with a tradition of using herbal medicine such as China have beenwidely using herbal medicine for prevention and nonspecific treatment of corona virusesand achieved good responses. In this review, we will introduce the application of herbalmedicine in the treatment of corona virus patients in China and other countries, andreview the progress of related molecular mechanisms and antiviral activity ingredients ofherbal medicine, in order to provide a reference for herbal medicine in the treatment ofcorona viruses. We found that herbal medicines are used in the prevention and fightagainst COVID-19 in countries on all continents. In China, herbal medicine has beenreported to relieve some of the clinical symptoms of mild patients and shorten the length of hospital stay. However, as most herbal medicines for the clinical treatment of COVID-19still lack rigorous clinical trials, the clinical and economic value of herbal medicines in theprevention and treatment of COVID-19 has not been fully evaluated. Future work basedon large-scale randomized, double-blind clinical trials to evaluate herbal medicines andtheir active ingredients in the treatment of new COVID-19 will be very meaningful.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/isolation & purification , Herbal Medicine/methods , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
5.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(8): 3065-3077, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1627243

ABSTRACT

Spices are natural plant products enriched with the history of being used as herbal medicine for prevention of diseases. India is also known as the 'Land of Spices'. Out of 109 spices recognized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) more than 52-60 spice crops are grown in India. The major spices exported by India are turmeric, cumin, coriander, fenugreek, peppers, etc. The Indian spices are divided into three era viz. early period, middle age and early modern period. Spices are used in beverages, liquors, and pharmaceutical, cosmetic and perfumery products. The major issue with spices is their handling and storage. This review article mainly focuses on two aspects: at the outset the handling and storage of the spices is an essential factor as spices are available in different forms like raw, processed, fresh, whole dried, or pre-ground dried. Therefore, the need of processing, packaging, storage and handling of the spices is important as the deterioration of spices can lead to the loss of therapeutic activity. Furthermore, many herbal constituents have the capability to enhance the bioavailability of drugs. Therefore, an attempt has been made to throw a light on the bioenhancer activity and therapeutic activity along with their mechanism of action of some Indian spices which are regularly used for cooking purpose on a daily basis to enhance the taste of food. The spices suggested by ministry of AYUSH which is relevant to its medicinal and biological property in treatment and prevention from COVID-19 are discussed. © 2022 Society of Chemical Industry.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Plants, Medicinal , COVID-19/drug therapy , Curcuma , Humans , Phytotherapy , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Spices
6.
Molecules ; 27(2)2022 Jan 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625268

ABSTRACT

The focus of this roadmap is to evaluate the possible efficacy of Artemisia herba-alba Asso. (Asteraceae) for the treatment of COVID-19 and some of its symptoms and several comorbidities using a combination of in silico (molecular docking) studies, reported ethnic uses, and pharmacological activity studies of this plant. In this exploratory study, we show that various phytochemicals from Artemisia herba-alba can be useful against COVID-19 (in silico studies) and for its associated comorbidities. COVID-19 is a new disease, so reports of any therapeutic treatments against it (traditional or conventional) are scanty. On the other hand, we demonstrate, using Artemisia herba-alba as an example, that through a proper search and identification of medicinal plant(s) and their phytochemicals identification using secondary data (published reports) on the plant's ethnic uses, phytochemical constituents, and pharmacological activities against COVID-19 comorbidities and symptoms coupled with the use of primary data obtained from in silico (molecular docking and molecular dynamics) studies on the binding of the selected plant's phytochemicals (such as: rutin, 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, and schaftoside) with various vital components of SARS-CoV-2, it may be possible to rapidly identify plants that are suitable for further research regarding therapeutic use against COVID-19 and its associated symptoms and comorbidities.


Subject(s)
Artemisia/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Ethnobotany/methods , Ligands , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry
7.
Molecules ; 26(22)2021 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524088

ABSTRACT

Plants consistently synthesize and accumulate medically valuable secondary metabolites which can be isolated and clinically tested under in vitro conditions. An advancement with such important phytochemical production has been recognized and utilized as herbal drugs. Bioactive andrographolide (AGL; C20H30O5) isolated from Andrographis paniculate (AP) (Kalmegh) is a diterpenoid lactones having multifunctional medicinal properties including anti-manic, anti-inflammatory, liver, and lung protective. AGL is known for its immunostimulant activity against a variety of microbial infections thereby, regulating classical and alternative macrophage activation, Ag-specific antibody production during immune disorder therapy. In vitro studies with AGL found it to be effective against multiple tumors, neuronal disorders, diabetes, pneumonia, fibrosis, and other diverse therapeutic misadventures. Generally, virus-based diseases like ZIKA, influenza A virus subtype (H1NI), Ebola (EBOV), Dengue (DENV), and coronavirus (COVID-19) epidemics have greatly increased scientific interest and demands to develop more effective and economical immunomodulating drugs with minimal side effects. Trials and in vitro pharmacological studies with AGL and medicinally beneficial herbs might contribute to benefit the human population without using chemical-based synthetic drugs. In this review, we have discussed the possible role of AGL as a promising herbal-chemo remedy during human diseases, viral infections and as an immunity booster.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Diterpenes/chemistry , Diterpenes/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Plants, Medicinal/immunology , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Diterpenes/chemical synthesis , Diterpenes/therapeutic use , Health , Humans , Immune System/drug effects
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(22)2021 Nov 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524024

ABSTRACT

The worldwide outbreak of COVID-19 was caused by a pathogenic virus called Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Therapies against SARS-CoV-2 target the virus or human cells or the immune system. However, therapies based on specific antibodies, such as vaccines and monoclonal antibodies, may become inefficient enough when the virus changes its antigenicity due to mutations. Polyphenols are the major class of bioactive compounds in nature, exerting diverse health effects based on their direct antioxidant activity and their effects in the modulation of intracellular signaling. There are currently numerous clinical trials investigating the effects of polyphenols in prophylaxis and the treatment of COVID-19, from symptomatic, via moderate and severe COVID-19 treatment, to anti-fibrotic treatment in discharged COVID-19 patients. Antiviral activities of polyphenols and their impact on immune system modulation could serve as a solid basis for developing polyphenol-based natural approaches for preventing and treating COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Polyphenols/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/metabolism , Humans , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Plants, Medicinal/metabolism , Polyphenols/chemistry , Polyphenols/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22169, 2021 11 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1514423

ABSTRACT

Folk medicine such as herbal and natural products have been used for centuries in every culture throughout the world. The Chenopodiaceae family with more than 1500 species is dispersed worldwide. The Iranian wild spinach (Blitum virgatum L.) is an important traditional medicinal plant used for antiviral diseases such as pneumonia and other respiratory track infections. This plant is a mountainous herb and is growing upper than 3000 m. We performed a mass selection plant breeding program on wild populations of this Iranian wild spinach during 2013-2020. Based on experimental and field characteristics this plant was identified as B. virgatum, |abbaricum|, and related characteristics were prepared with reference to the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV). Mass selection program resulted from an adapted population named as medicinal spinach (MSP) population. To compare the mineral content of the mass-selected population with cultivated spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. |Varamin 88|), both plants were planted in pots and fields under similar conditions. In five leaves stage, plant samples were taken from both leaf and crown sections and used for experimental analysis. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to determine the mineral content including iron (Fe), zinc (Z), manganese (Mn), and copper (Cu). Our results showed the selected medicinal spinach population (MSP) with about 509 ppm iron was an important iron-rich population with about 3.5-4 times more than the amount of iron in cultivated spinach in the same conditions. Because iron is an important essential element for blood production, respiration process, energy metabolisms, synthesis of collagen, and some neurotransmitters are needed for proper immune function, so the supply of absorbable adequate iron is very important. The reasons such as the prevalence of the COVID-19 pandemic, which affects the amount of exchangeable oxygen in the lungs and historical local evidences of the use of this plant (MSP) for pneumonia, could open new horizons for focusing on studies related to the use of ancestral human experiences in addition to scientifically modern research.


Subject(s)
Iron/analysis , Plant Breeding , Plants, Medicinal/growth & development , Spinacia oleracea/growth & development , COVID-19/therapy , Copper/analysis , Humans , Iran , Manganese/analysis , Minerals/analysis , Phytotherapy , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Spinacia oleracea/chemistry , Zinc/analysis
10.
Molecules ; 26(22)2021 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512512

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), the reason for worldwide pandemic, has already masked around 220 countries globally. This disease is induced by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Arising environmental stress, increase in the oxidative stress level, weak immunity and lack of nutrition deteriorates the clinical status of the infected patients. Though several researches are at its peak for understanding and bringing forward effective therapeutics, yet there is no promising solution treating this disease directly. Medicinal plants and their active metabolites have always been promising in treating many clinical complications since time immemorial. Mother nature provides vivid chemical structures, which act multi-dimensionally all alone or synergistically in mitigating several diseases. Their unique antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity with least side effects have made them more effective candidate for pharmacological studies. These medicinal plants inhibit attachment, encapsulation and replication of COVID-19 viruses by targeting various signaling molecules such as angiotensin converting enzyme-2, transmembrane serine protease 2, spike glycoprotein, main protease etc. This property is re-examined and its potency is now used to improve the existing global health crisis. This review is an attempt to focus various antiviral activities of various noteworthy medicinal plants. Moreover, its implications as prophylactic or preventive in various secondary complications including neurological, cardiovascular, acute kidney disease, liver disease are also pinpointed in the present review. This knowledge will help emphasis on the therapeutic developments for this novel coronavirus where it can be used as alone or in combination with the repositioned drugs to combat COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning , Phytochemicals/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/pathology , Humans , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Phytochemicals/metabolism , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Plants, Medicinal/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization/drug effects
11.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480885

ABSTRACT

In our in vitro and in vivo studies, we used Acalypha indica root methanolic extract (AIRME), and investigated their free radical scavenging/antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Primarily, phytochemical analysis showed rich content of phenols (70.92 mg of gallic acid/g) and flavonoids (16.01 mg of rutin/g) in AIRME. We then performed HR-LC-MS and GC-MS analyses, and identified 101 and 14 phytochemical compounds, respectively. Among them, ramipril glucuronide (1.563%), antimycin A (1.324%), swietenine (1.134%), quinone (1.152%), oxprenolol (1.118%), choline (0.847%), bumetanide (0.847%) and fenofibrate (0.711%) are the predominant phytomolecules. Evidence from in vitro studies revealed that AIRME scavenges DPPH and hydroxyl radicals in a concentration dependent manner (10-50 µg/mL). Similarly, hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation were also remarkably inhibited by AIRME as concentration increases (20-100 µg/mL). In vitro antioxidant activity of AIRME was comparable to ascorbic acid treatment. For in vivo studies, carrageenan (1%, sub-plantar) was injected to rats to induce localized inflammation. Acute inflammation was represented by paw-edema, and significantly elevated (p < 0.05) WBC, platelets and C-reactive protein (CRP). However, AIRME pretreatment (150/300 mg/kg bodyweight) significantly (p < 0.05) decreased edema volume. This was accompanied by a significant (p < 0.05) reduction of WBC, platelets and CRP with both doses of AIRME. The decreased activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase in paw tissue were restored (p < 0.05 / p < 0.01) with AIRME in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, AIRME attenuated carrageenan-induced neutrophil infiltrations and vascular dilation in paw tissue. For the first time, our findings demonstrated the potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of AIRME, which could be considered to develop novel anti-inflammatory drugs.


Subject(s)
Acalypha/chemistry , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Edema/drug therapy , Edema/enzymology , Edema/pathology , Free Radical Scavengers/chemistry , Free Radical Scavengers/pharmacology , In Vitro Techniques , Male , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Roots/chemistry , Rats , Rats, Wistar
12.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 1636816, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455769

ABSTRACT

Respiratory inflammation is caused by an air-mediated disease induced by polluted air, smoke, bacteria, and viruses. The COVID-19 pandemic is also a kind of respiratory disease, induced by a virus causing a serious effect on the lungs, bronchioles, and pharynges that results in oxygen deficiency. Extensive research has been conducted to find out the potent natural products that help to prevent, treat, and manage respiratory diseases. Traditionally, wider floras were reported to be used, such as Morus alba, Artemisia indica, Azadirachta indica, Calotropis gigantea, but only some of the potent compounds from some of the plants have been scientifically validated. Plant-derived natural products such as colchicine, zingerone, forsythiaside A, mangiferin, glycyrrhizin, curcumin, and many other compounds are found to have a promising effect on treating and managing respiratory inflammation. In this review, current clinically approved drugs along with the efficacy and side effects have been studied. The study also focuses on the traditional uses of medicinal plants on reducing respiratory complications and their bioactive phytoconstituents. The pharmacological evidence of lowering respiratory complications by plant-derived natural products has been critically studied with detailed mechanism and action. However, the scientific validation of such compounds requires clinical study and evidence on animal and human models to replace modern commercial medicine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Phytochemicals/therapeutic use , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/epidemiology , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry
13.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2021: 9632034, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438139

ABSTRACT

The world is currently grappling with the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The infection can cause fever, a dry cough, fatigue, severe pneumonia, respiratory distress syndrome, and in some cases death. There is currently no effective antiviral SARS-CoV-2 drug. To reduce the number of infections and deaths, it is critical to focus on strengthening immunity. This review aims to conduct a comprehensive search on the previous studies using Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, Medline, PubMed, and Scopus for the collection of research papers based on the role of zinc in the immune system, the antiviral activity of zinc, the effect of zinc supplementation in respiratory infections, the therapeutic approaches against viral infections based on medicinal plants, and the role of plants' bioactive molecules in fighting viral infections. In conclusion, we highlighted the pivotal role of zinc in antiviral immunity and we suggested the bioactive molecules derived from medicinal plants as a search matrix for the development of anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Zinc/pharmacology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immune System/drug effects
14.
Molecules ; 26(6)2021 Mar 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389468

ABSTRACT

Natural products are gaining more interest recently, much of which focuses on those derived from medicinal plants. The common chicory (Cichorium intybus L.), of the Astraceae family, is a prime example of this trend. It has been proven to be a feasible source of biologically relevant elements (K, Fe, Ca), vitamins (A, B1, B2, C) as well as bioactive compounds (inulin, sesquiterpene lactones, coumarin derivatives, cichoric acid, phenolic acids), which exert potent pro-health effects on the human organism. It displays choleretic and digestion-promoting, as well as appetite-increasing, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial action, all owing to its varied phytochemical composition. Hence, chicory is used most often to treat gastrointestinal disorders. Chicory was among the plants with potential against SARS-CoV-2, too. To this and other ends, roots, herb, flowers and leaves are used. Apart from its phytochemical applications, chicory is also used in gastronomy as a coffee substitute, food or drink additive. The aim of this paper is to present, in the light of the recent literature, the chemical composition and properties of chicory.


Subject(s)
Chicory/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology , Antiparasitic Agents/chemistry , Antiparasitic Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chicory/physiology , Cooking , Food Hypersensitivity/etiology , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/chemistry , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry
15.
Phytother Res ; 35(8): 4456-4484, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355898

ABSTRACT

Traditional Indian medical practices (Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani, and homeopathy) are a vast reservoir of knowledge about medicinal plants. The promising pharmacological properties of these plants have paved the way for developing therapy against novel Coronavirus (CoV) infection. The current review will summarize published works of literature on the effects of traditional Indian medicinal plants against acute respiratory infection (COVID-19, SARS, Influenza, and Respiratory syncytial virus infection) and registered clinical trials of traditional Indian herbal medicines in COVID-19. The current study aims to comprehensively evaluate the data of traditional Indian medicinal plants to warrant their use in COVID-19 management. PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases were searched along with different clinical trial databases. A total of 22 relevant traditional Indian medicinal plants (35 relevant studies) were included in the current study having potential antiviral properties against virus-induced respiratory illness along with promising immunomodulatory and thrombolytic properties. Further, 36 randomized and nonrandomized registered clinical trials were also included that were aimed at evaluating the efficacy of herbal plants or their formulations in COVID-19 management. The antiviral, immunomodulatory, and thrombolytic activities of the traditional Indian medicinal plants laid down a strong rationale for their use in developing therapies against SARS-CoV-2 infection. The study identified some important potential traditional Indian medicinal herbs such as Ocimum tenuiflorum, Tinospora cordifolia, Achyranthes bidentata, Cinnamomum cassia, Cydonia oblonga, Embelin ribes, Justicia adhatoda, Momordica charantia, Withania somnifera, Zingiber officinale, Camphor, and Kabusura kudineer, which could be used in therapeutic strategies against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Medicine, Ayurvedic , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , Plants, Medicinal , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , India , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
16.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1346517

ABSTRACT

Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) bioautography is an evolving technology that integrates the separation and analysis technology of TLC with biological activity detection technology, which has shown a steep rise in popularity over the past few decades. It connects TLC with convenient, economic and intuitive features and bioautography with high levels of sensitivity and specificity. In this study, we discuss the research progress of TLC bioautography and then establish a definite timeline to introduce it. This review summarizes known TLC bioautography types and practical applications for determining antibacterial, antifungal, antitumor and antioxidant compounds and for inhibiting glucosidase, pancreatic lipase, tyrosinase and cholinesterase activity constitutes. Nowadays, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic, it is important to identify original, natural products with anti-COVID potential compounds from Chinese traditional medicine and natural medicinal plants. We also give an account of detection techniques, including in situ and ex situ techniques; even in situ ion sources represent a major reform. Considering the current technical innovations, we propose that the technology will make more progress in TLC plates with higher separation and detection technology with a more portable and extensive scope of application. We believe this technology will be diffusely applied in medicine, biology, agriculture, animal husbandry, garden forestry, environmental management and other fields in the future.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, Thin Layer/methods , Drug Discovery/methods , Luminescent Measurements/methods , Animals , Anti-Infective Agents/isolation & purification , Antineoplastic Agents/isolation & purification , Antioxidants/isolation & purification , Enzyme Inhibitors/isolation & purification , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Sensitivity and Specificity
17.
Comput Biol Med ; 136: 104683, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1333335

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19), a viral disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) was declared a global pandemic by WHO in 2020. In this scenario, SARS-CoV-2 main protease (COVID-19 Mpro), an enzyme mainly involved in viral replication and transcription is identified as a crucial target for drug discovery. Traditionally used medicinal plants contain a large amount of bioactives and pave a new path to develop drugs and medications for COVID-19. The present study was aimed to examine the potential of Emblica officinalis (amla), Phyllanthus niruri Linn. (bhumi amla) and Tinospora cordifolia (giloy) bioactive compounds to inhibit the enzymatic activity of COVID-19 Mpro. In total, 96 bioactive compounds were selected and docked with COVID-19 Mpro and further validated by molecular dynamics study. From the docking and molecular dynamics study, it was revealed that the bioactives namely amritoside, apigenin-6-C-glucosyl7-O-glucoside, pectolinarin and astragalin showed better binding affinities with COVID-19 Mpro. Drug-likeness, ADEMT and bioactivity score prediction of best drug candidates were evaluated by DruLiTo, pkCSM and Molinspiration servers, respectively. Overall, the in silico results confirmed that the validated bioactives could be exploited as promising COVID-19 Mpro inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Phyllanthus emblica , Phyllanthus , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Tinospora , COVID-19 , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Humans , Medicine, Ayurvedic , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Peptide Hydrolases , Phyllanthus/chemistry , Phyllanthus emblica/chemistry , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Tinospora/chemistry
18.
Phytother Res ; 35(7): 3447-3483, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323905

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of viral diseases like novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) prompted the scientific world to examine antiviral bioactive compounds rather than nucleic acid analogous, protease inhibitors, or other toxic synthetic molecules. The emerging viral infections significantly associated with 2019-nCoV have challenged humanity's survival. Further, there is a constant emergence of new resistant viral strains that demand novel antiviral agents with fewer side effects and cell toxicity. Despite significant progress made in immunization and regenerative medicine, numerous viruses still lack prophylactic vaccines and specific antiviral treatments that are so often influenced by the generation of viral escape mutants. Of importance, medicinal herbs offer a wide variety of therapeutic antiviral chemotypes that can inhibit viral replication by preventing viral adsorption, adhering to cell receptors, inhibiting virus penetration in the host cell, and competing for pathways of activation of intracellular signals. The present review will comprehensively summarize the promising antiviral activities of medicinal plants and their bioactive molecules. Furthermore, it will elucidate their mechanism of action and possible implications in the treatment/prevention of viral diseases even when their mechanism of action is not fully understood, which could serve as the base for the future development of novel or complementary antiviral treatments.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Plants, Medicinal , Virus Diseases , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Humans , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Virus Diseases/drug therapy
19.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288959

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic, as well as the more general global increase in viral diseases, has led researchers to look to the plant kingdom as a potential source for antiviral compounds. Since ancient times, herbal medicines have been extensively applied in the treatment and prevention of various infectious diseases in different traditional systems. The purpose of this review is to highlight the potential antiviral activity of plant compounds as effective and reliable agents against viral infections, especially by viruses from the coronavirus group. Various antiviral mechanisms shown by crude plant extracts and plant-derived bioactive compounds are discussed. The understanding of the action mechanisms of complex plant extract and isolated plant-derived compounds will help pave the way towards the combat of this life-threatening disease. Further, molecular docking studies, in silico analyses of extracted compounds, and future prospects are included. The in vitro production of antiviral chemical compounds from plants using molecular pharming is also considered. Notably, hairy root cultures represent a promising and sustainable way to obtain a range of biologically active compounds that may be applied in the development of novel antiviral agents.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/immunology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Computer Simulation , Humans , Molecular Farming/methods , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/immunology , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plants, Medicinal/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication/drug effects
20.
Plant J ; 107(5): 1299-1319, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282039

ABSTRACT

Caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs) are specialized plant metabolites we encounter in our daily life. Humans consume CQAs in mg-to-gram quantities through dietary consumption of plant products. CQAs are considered beneficial for human health, mainly due to their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Recently, new biosynthetic pathways via a peroxidase-type p-coumaric acid 3-hydroxylase enzyme were discovered. More recently, a new GDSL lipase-like enzyme able to transform monoCQAs into diCQA was identified in Ipomoea batatas. CQAs were recently linked to memory improvement; they seem to be strong indirect antioxidants via Nrf2 activation. However, there is a prevalent confusion in the designation and nomenclature of different CQA isomers. Such inconsistencies are critical and complicate bioactivity assessment since different isomers differ in bioactivity and potency. A detailed explanation regarding the origin of such confusion is provided, and a recommendation to unify nomenclature is suggested. Furthermore, for studies on CQA bioactivity, plant-based laboratory animal diets contain CQAs, which makes it difficult to include proper control groups for comparison. Therefore, a synthetic diet free of CQAs is advised to avoid interferences since some CQAs may produce bioactivity even at nanomolar levels. Biotransformation of CQAs by gut microbiota, the discovery of new enzymatic biosynthetic and metabolic pathways, dietary assessment, and assessment of biological properties with potential for drug development are areas of active, ongoing research. This review is focused on the chemistry, biosynthesis, occurrence, analytical challenges, and bioactivity recently reported for mono-, di-, tri-, and tetraCQAs.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Cognitive Dysfunction/prevention & control , Neuroprotective Agents/chemistry , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Quinic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Acyltransferases/genetics , Acyltransferases/metabolism , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/metabolism , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Biosynthetic Pathways , Brachypodium/enzymology , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Ipomoea batatas/enzymology , Mixed Function Oxygenases/genetics , Mixed Function Oxygenases/metabolism , Neuroprotective Agents/metabolism , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Phytochemicals/metabolism , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plant Proteins/genetics , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Quinic Acid/chemistry , Quinic Acid/metabolism , Quinic Acid/pharmacology , Terminology as Topic
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