Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 110
Filter
1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 4801, 2022 03 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1751764

ABSTRACT

Ubiquitous microthromboses in the pulmonary vasculature play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Excess of Willebrand factor (vWf) with intravascular multimer formation was identified as a key driver of this finding. Plasma exchange (PLEX) might be a therapeutic option to restore the disbalance between vWf and ADAMTS13. We report the effects of PLEX on vWf, ADAMTS13, inflammatory cytokines and parameters of ventilation. We investigated 25 patients, who were on mechanical ventilation for COVID-19 pneumonia with ARDS at two German university hospitals. All patients received PLEX as an ultima ratio measure for refractory ARDS. VWf antigen (vWf:Ag), ADAMTS13 activity, a cytokine panel mirroring the inflammatory situation and clinical parameters were assessed before and after three to six PLEX therapies with fresh frozen plasma. Before the PLEX sequence there was an excessive release of vWf:Ag (425.4 ± 167.5%) and mildly reduced ADAMTS13 activity (49.7 ± 23.3%). After the PLEX series, there was a significant increase of ADAMTS13 activity to 62.4 ± 17.7% (p = 0.029) and a significant decrease of vWf:Ag to 336.1 ± 138.2% (p = 0.041) resulting in a 63% improvement of the ADAMT13/vWf:Ag ratio from 14.5 ± 10.0 to 23.7 ± 14.6, p = 0.024. Comparison of parameters before and after individual PLEX sessions (n = 35) revealed a mean reduction of vWf from 387.8 ± 165.1 to 213.2 ± 62.3% (p = 0.001) and an increase of ADAMTS13 activity from 60.4 ± 20.1 to 70.5 ± 14.0% (p = 0.001). Parallelly, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and interleukin-18 decreased significantly (p = 0.034 each). Along the PLEX sequence lactate dehydrogenase (p = 0.001), C-reactive protein (p = 0.001), and positive end expiratory pressure (p = 0.01) significantly decreased accompanied by an improvement of Horovitz index (p = 0.001). PLEX restores the disbalance between ADAMTS13 and vWf:Ag, a driver of immunothrombosis. Moreover, it reduces the inflammatory state and is associated with a benefit of ventilation parameters. These findings render a further rationale to regard PLEX as a therapeutic option in severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Plasma Exchange , von Willebrand Factor , ADAMTS13 Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness/therapy , Humans , Inflammation/therapy , von Willebrand Factor/metabolism
2.
J Clin Apher ; 36(4): 628-633, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748739

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Criteria for selection of FFP blood type has not been clearly established and use of group AB plasma is preferred by numerous transplantation protocols. AIMS: This study assesses the safety and efficacy of alternative group A or B plasma in ABO incompatible solid organ transplantation. MATERIALS & METHODS: Alternative use of group A or B plasma (incompatible plasma) was inevitable during the shortage of group AB plasma. Experience from select number of patients during the period of extreme group AB plasma shortage is described. RESULTS: The result of alternative use of group A or B plasma was within expectation, showing effective reduction of isoagglutinin titers for pre-operative desensitization and efficacy for treatment of post-operative patients. No immediate hemolytic transfusion reaction was reported. DISCUSSION: While validation in a larger cohort of patients is necessary, our limited experience have shown satisfactory clinical outcomes without adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Use of incompatible group A or B plasma is a viable option when group AB plasma is limited.


Subject(s)
ABO Blood-Group System , Blood Group Incompatibility/therapy , Plasma Exchange/methods , Transplantation/methods , Agglutinins/chemistry , Blood Banks/supply & distribution , Graft Survival , Hemolysis , Humans , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Patient Safety , Plasma/immunology , Plasmapheresis , Transfusion Reaction , Treatment Outcome
3.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(2)2022 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685516

ABSTRACT

Intrahepatic cholestasis in pregnancy (ICP) represents, depending on its severity, a serious risk for the fetus. Those cases with unusually high bile acid levels may be resistant to pharmaceutical treatment and can be treated with plasma exchange or albumin dialysis. However, the success rate of these therapeutic options and the factors influencing therapeutic response are unknown. Furthermore, if these options fail to improve ICP and serum bile acid levels are very high (>200 µm/L), there are no clear recommendations when delivery should be planned. Here, we report a patient with severe ICP resistant to both therapeutic plasma exchange and albumin dialysis. Caesarean section was performed at 32 weeks of gestation followed by rapid remission of ICP.


Subject(s)
Cholestasis, Intrahepatic , Pregnancy Complications , Albumins , Cesarean Section , Cholestasis, Intrahepatic/therapy , Female , Humans , Plasma Exchange , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/therapy , Renal Dialysis
4.
Intern Med ; 61(3): 407-412, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1666883

ABSTRACT

A 57-year-old man without underlying diseases presented with fatigue, loss of appetite, and jaundice 1 week after receiving the first dose of the BNT162b2 mRNA coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine and showed hemolytic anemia with fragmented erythrocytes and severe thrombocytopenia 2 weeks after receiving the vaccine. An a disintegrin-like and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type 1 motifs 13 (ADAMTS13) activity level of <10% and ADAMTS13 inhibitor positivity confirmed the diagnosis of acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). Combination therapy with plasma exchange, corticosteroid, and rituximab improved the clinical outcome. We herein report the first Japanese case of TTP possibly associated with vaccination. Physicians should be alert for this rare but life-threatening hematological complication following COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , COVID-19 , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic , ADAMTS13 Protein , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , Plasma Exchange , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/chemically induced , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/diagnosis , Vaccination/adverse effects
5.
Neurol Sci ; 43(4): 2271-2276, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636977

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disorder of the neuromuscular junction that can be exacerbated by many viral infections, including COVID-19. The management of MG exacerbations is challenging in this scenario. We report 8 cases of MG exacerbation or myasthenic crisis associated with COVID-19 and discuss prognosis and treatment based on a literature review. RESULTS: Most patients were female (7/8), with an average age of 47.1 years. Treatment was immunoglobulin (IVIG) in 3 patients, plasma exchange (PLEX) in 2 patients, and adjustment of baseline drugs in 3. In-hospital mortality was 25% and 37.5% in 2-month follow-up. DISCUSSION: This is the largest case series of MG exacerbation or myasthenic crisis due to COVID-19 to this date. Mortality was considerably higher than in myasthenic crisis of other etiologies. Previous treatment for MG or acute exacerbation treatment did not seem to interfere with prognosis, although sample size was too small to draw definitive conclusions. Further studies are needed to understand the safety and effectiveness of interventions in this setting, particularly of PLEX, IVIG, rituximab, and tocilizumab.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myasthenia Gravis , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Myasthenia Gravis/complications , Myasthenia Gravis/therapy , Plasma Exchange , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(11): 1607-1614, 2021 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572707

ABSTRACT

Novel coronavirus infections 2019 (COVID-19) associated hyperinflammatory syndromes are well-defined clinical conditions and have a potential risk for severe infection. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), a rare type of acute progressive hyperinflammatory syndrome, has been reported in a limited number of COVID-19 cases. In this article, we aimed to present a patient with HLH secondary to COVID-19 diagnosed by bone marrow biopsy, and to summarize and review HLH cases associated with COVID-19 in the literature. A 47-year-old male patient presented with complaints of fever, cough, abdominal discomfort, and nausea-vomiting. He had recovered from COVID-19 a month ago and was readmitted to the hospital due to the re-appearance of clinical symptoms after a two-week interval. The patient was diagnosed with HLH secondary to COVID-19 on sixth day of admission and fully recovered with systemic pulse steroid, intravenous immunoglobulin, and plasma exchange therapy. Analysis of literature searches revealed that 22 cases were definitely diagnosed with COVID-19-associated HLH, 16 of them were male. They had been treated with different anti-cytokine drugs, of which nine had died. The increasing number of HLH cases, which have high mortality rates, shows the importance of hyperinflammatory syndromes in COVID-19 patients. Some patients may experience hemophagocytosis in the late period of COVID-19, even while in recovery. Increased awareness and early treatment for HLH triggered by COVID-19 can be a life-saving effort for reducing mortality in severe COVID-19 cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/etiology , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Plasma Exchange
7.
Blood Purif ; 50(3): 290-297, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533118

ABSTRACT

The principles and use of plasmapheresis are often little understood by intensivists. We propose to review the principles, the main indications, and the methods of using this technique.


Subject(s)
Critical Care/methods , Plasma Exchange/methods , Animals , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Equipment Design , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/therapy , Humans , Liver Failure, Acute/therapy , Membranes, Artificial , Plasma Exchange/instrumentation , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/therapy
8.
Intern Med ; 61(3): 407-412, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528762

ABSTRACT

A 57-year-old man without underlying diseases presented with fatigue, loss of appetite, and jaundice 1 week after receiving the first dose of the BNT162b2 mRNA coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine and showed hemolytic anemia with fragmented erythrocytes and severe thrombocytopenia 2 weeks after receiving the vaccine. An a disintegrin-like and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type 1 motifs 13 (ADAMTS13) activity level of <10% and ADAMTS13 inhibitor positivity confirmed the diagnosis of acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). Combination therapy with plasma exchange, corticosteroid, and rituximab improved the clinical outcome. We herein report the first Japanese case of TTP possibly associated with vaccination. Physicians should be alert for this rare but life-threatening hematological complication following COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , COVID-19 , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic , ADAMTS13 Protein , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , Plasma Exchange , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/chemically induced , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/diagnosis , Vaccination/adverse effects
10.
J Clin Apher ; 36(6): 849-863, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1479409

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) for neuroimmunological disorders has played an increasingly important role within the Southeast Asian (SEA) region. The South East Asian Therapeutic Plasma exchange Consortium (SEATPEC) was formed in 2018 to promote education and research on TPE within the region. The advent of the Covid-19 pandemic has produced challenges for the development and expansion of this service. METHODOLOGY: A qualitative and semi-quantitative questionnaire-based survey was conducted by SEATPEC member countries from January to June 2020 (Phase 1) and then from July 2020 to January 2021 in (Phase 2) to assess the impact of Covid-19 on regional TPE. OBJECTIVES: The study's main objectives were to explore the challenges experienced and adaptations/adjustments taken by SEATPEC countries in order to continue safe and efficient TPE during the Covid-19 pandemic. RESULTS: The pandemic was found to disrupt the delivery of TPE services in all SEATPEC countries. Contributing factors were multifactorial due to overstretched medical services, staff shortages, quarantines and redeployments, fear of acquiring Covid-19, movement restriction orders, and patient's psychological fear of attending hospitals/testing for Covid-19. All SEATPEC countries practiced careful stratification of cases for TPE (electives vs emergencies, Covid-19 vs non-Covid-19 cases). SEATPEC countries had to modify TPE treatment protocols to include careful preprocedure screening of patient's for Covid-19, use of personal protective equipment (PPE) and post-TPE sanitization of machines and TPE suites. CONCLUSION: Based on the responses of the survey, SEATPEC countries produced a consensus statement with five recommendations for safe and effective TPE within the region.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Plasma Exchange , Asia, Southeastern/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Consensus , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/complications , Nervous System Diseases/therapy , Neurologists , Pandemics , Plasma Exchange/methods , Plasma Exchange/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
J Clin Apher ; 37(1): 117-121, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1473857

ABSTRACT

Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) is a newly described hematologic disorder, which presents as acute thrombocytopenia and thrombosis after administration of the ChAdOx1 nCov-19 (AstraZeneca) and Ad26.COV2.S (Johnson & Johnson) adenovirus-based vaccines against COVID-19. Due to positive assays for antibodies against platelet factor 4 (PF4), VITT is managed similarly to autoimmune heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and non-heparin anticoagulation. We describe a case of VITT in a 50-year-old man with antecedent alcoholic cirrhosis who presented with platelets of 7 × 103 /µL and portal vein thrombosis 21 days following administration of the Ad26.COV2.S COVID-19 vaccine. The patient developed progressive thrombosis and persistent severe thrombocytopenia despite IVIG, rituximab and high-dose steroids and had persistent anti-PF4 antibodies over 30 days after his initial presentation. As such, delayed therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) was pursued on day 32 of admission as salvage therapy, with a sustained improvement in his platelet count. Our case serves as proof-of-concept of the efficacy of TPE in VITT.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , Plasma Exchange/methods , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/therapy , Vaccination/adverse effects , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Platelet Count , Platelet Factor 4/immunology , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/etiology
12.
Transfus Apher Sci ; 61(1): 103292, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1466939

ABSTRACT

The psychosocial consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic caused multifaceted challenges in clinical and therapeutic practices. This was the case at the Therapeutic Apheresis Unit of the Padua University Hospital too. Several published reports describe the increase in alcohol and food addiction diseases. In this context, during the last months, the Padua Therapeutic Apheresis Unit treated many more patients with acute pancreatitis due to severe hypertriglyceridemia with therapeutic plasma exchange than in the previous ten years. Furthermore, retrospective cohort studies have been recently published describing the onset of acute pancreatitis during the COVID-19 infection even if, to date, there is still insufficient evidence to estabilish a direct causality. Anyway, the COVID-19 pandemic translated into changes of the overall disease prevalence scenario and therefore the Padua Therapeutic Apheresis Unit will need to reorganise its Therapeutic Apheresis activity.


Subject(s)
Hypertriglyceridemia/complications , Pancreatitis/etiology , Pancreatitis/physiopathology , Pancreatitis/therapy , Plasma Exchange/methods , Adult , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Hypertriglyceridemia/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
13.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(10)2021 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462939

ABSTRACT

A 50-year-old Indian woman presented with acute dysphasia, left upper limb numbness and thrombocytopenia 12 days after receiving the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine (AstraZeneca/Vaxzevria). MRI of the brain was unremarkable. Microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia with thrombocytopenia was noted on her peripheral blood film. A diagnosis of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) was confirmed through the findings of absent ADAMTS13 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13) activity and markedly raised titre of ADAMTS13 autoantibodies. Prompt treatment with plasma exchange, adjunctive steroids and rituximab was commenced. A remission of TTP was achieved and she was discharged 3 weeks after admission. While other immune-mediated conditions have been documented after receipt of the vaccine, this report highlights the first case of immune-mediated TTP diagnosed after administration of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine.


Subject(s)
Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Plasma Exchange , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/chemically induced , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/diagnosis , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/drug therapy , Rituximab/adverse effects
14.
Postgrad Med ; 133(8): 994-1000, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450321

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a rare but severe condition resulting in excessive response of the immune system after SARS-CoV-2 infection. We report a single-center cohort of children with MIS-C, describing the spectrum of presentation, therapies, clinical course, and short-term outcomes. METHODS: This is a prospective observational study from to a tertiary pediatric rheumatology center including patients (aged 1 month to 21 years) diagnosed with MIS-C between April 2020-April 2021. Demographic, clinical, laboratory results and follow-up data were collected through the electronic patient record system and analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 67 patients with MIS-C were included in the study. Fever was detected in all patients; gastrointestinal system symptoms were found in 67.2% of the patients, rash in 38.8%, conjunctivitis in 31.3%, hypotension in 26.9% myocarditis, and/or pericarditis in 22.4%, respectively. Respiratory symptoms were only in five patients (7.5%). Kawasaki Disease like presentation was found 37.3% of the patients. The mean duration of hospitalization was 11.8 7.07 days. Fifty-seven patients (85%) received intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), 45 (67%) received corticosteroids, 17 (25.3%) received anakinra, and one (1.5%) received tocilizumab. Seven of the patients (10.4%) underwent therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE). In 21 (31.3%) patients, a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) was required in a median of 2 days. The first finding to improve was fever, while the first parameter to decrease was ferritin (median 6.5 days (IQR, 4-11.2 days)). Sixty-five patients were discharged home with a median duration of hospital stay of 10 days (IQR, 7-15 days). CONCLUSION: Patients with MIS-C may have severe cardiac findings and intensive care requirements in admission and hospital follow-up. The vast majority of these findings improve with effective treatment without any sequelae until discharge and in a short time in follow-up. Although the pathogenesis and treatment plan of the disease are partially elucidated, follow-up studies are needed in terms of long-term prognosis and relapse probabilities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Rheumatology/statistics & numerical data , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Administration, Intravesical , Adolescent , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulins/administration & dosage , Immunoglobulins/therapeutic use , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/administration & dosage , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Male , Oxytocin/administration & dosage , Oxytocin/analogs & derivatives , Oxytocin/therapeutic use , Plasma Exchange , Prospective Studies
15.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 22(9): 701-717, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405362

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a major public health event caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). COVID-19 has spread widely all over the world. A high proportion of patients become severely or critically ill, and suffer high mortality due to respiratory failure and multiple organ dysfunction. Therefore, providing timely and effective treatment for critically ill patients is essential to reduce overall mortality. Convalescent plasma therapy and pharmacological treatments, such as aerosol inhalation of interferon-α (IFN-α), corticosteroids, and tocilizumab, have all been applied in clinical practice; however, their effects remain controversial. Recent studies have shown that extracorporeal therapies might have a potential role in treating critically ill COVID-19 patients. In this review, we examine the application of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE), hemoadsorption (HA), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO2R) in critically ill COVID-19 patients to provide support for the further diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Circulation/methods , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/complications , Carbon Dioxide/isolation & purification , Critical Illness , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Hemoperfusion , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Plasma Exchange , Renal Replacement Therapy
16.
Neurologist ; 26(5): 196-224, 2021 Sep 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398198

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Central nervous system complications are reported in an increasing number of patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). COVID-19-related Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is of particular importance given its association with higher mortality rates and prolonged respiratory failure. REVIEW SUMMARY: We conducted a systematic review of published cases for COVID-19-related GBS, and provide a summary of clinical management strategies for these cases. Sixty-three studies, including 86 patients, were included. Seventy-six cases with reported outcome data were eligible for the outcome analysis. Ninety-nine percent of patients were diagnosed with COVID-19 before diagnosis of GBS (median: 14 d prior, interquartile range: 7 to 20). Intravenous immunotherapy (intravenous immunoglobulin: 0.4 g/kg/d for 5 d) was the most frequently used treatment approach. The review indicated that the outcome was not favorable in 26% of cases (persistent neurological deficits). A mortality rate of 3.5% was observed in patients with COVID-19-related GBS. CONCLUSIONS: Although evidence to support specific treatments is lacking, clinicians should consider the benefits of immunotherapy and plasma exchange in addition to the standard antimicrobial and supportive therapies for patients who meet the diagnostic criteria for acute sensory and motor polyradiculoneuritis. Intravenous immunoglobulin treatment alone is not shown to result in improved outcomes or mortality. More extensive studies aimed at exploring the neurological manifestations and complications of COVID-19 and distinctive treatment options for COVID-19-related GBS are warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/drug therapy , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Thyroid Neoplasms/drug therapy , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Humans , Plasma Exchange/methods , Plasmapheresis/adverse effects , Plasmapheresis/methods
17.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(8)2021 Jul 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389440

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, or SARS-CoV-2, causes acute respiratory disease (coronavirus disease 2019; COVID-19). However, the involvement of other mechanisms is also possible, and neurological complications are being diagnosed more frequently. Here, we would like to present a case of a Polish patient with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), after a documented history of COVID-19: A 50-year-old man, 18 days after the onset of COVID-19 symptoms, had progressive quadriparesis preceded by 1-day sensory disturbances. Based on the clinical picture, the results of diagnostic work-up including a nerve conduction study (ENG) that revealed a demyelinating and axonal sensorimotor polyneuropathy, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis that showed albumin-cytological dissociation, an acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy was confirmed, consistent with GBS. Upon a therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE), the patient's condition improved. The presented case of GBS in a patient after mild COVID-19 is the first case in Poland that has supplemented those already described in the global literature. Attention should be drawn to the possibility of GBS occurring after SARS-CoV-2 infection, even when it has a mild course.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Plasma Exchange , Quadriplegia , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Vox Sang ; 116(7): 798-807, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370878

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cytokine release syndrome in COVID-19 is due to a pathological inflammatory response of raised cytokines. Removal of these cytokines by therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) prior to end-organ damage may improve clinical outcomes. This manuscript is intended to serve as a preliminary guidance document for application of TPE in patients with severe COVID-19. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The available literature pertaining to the role of TPE for treatment of COVID-19 patients was reviewed to guide optimal management. It included indication, contraindication, optimal timing of initiation and termination of TPE, vascular access and anticoagulants, numbers and mode of procedures, outcome measures and adverse events. RESULTS: Out of a total of 78 articles, only 65 were directly related to the topic. From these 65, only 32 were acceptable as primary source, while 33 were used as supporting references. TPE in critically ill COVID-19 patients may be classified under ASFA category III grade 2B. The early initiation of TPE for 1-1·5 patient's plasma volume with fresh frozen plasma, or 4-5% albumin or COVID-19 convalescent plasma as replacement fluids before multiorgan failure, has better chances of recovery. The number of procedures can vary from three to nine depending on patient response. CONCLUSION: TPE in COVID-19 patients may help by removing toxic cytokines, viral particles and/or by correcting coagulopathy or restoring endothelial membrane. Severity score (SOFA & APACHE II) and cytokine levels (IL-6, C-reactive protein) can be used to execute TPE therapy and to monitor response in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Plasma Exchange , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Plasmapheresis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
19.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(8)2021 Aug 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354557

ABSTRACT

Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a life-threatening disease characterised by thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia and microvascular thrombosis. Congenital TTP accounting for less than 5% of all TTP cases can have a late presentation in adulthood mostly triggered by predisposing factors such as infection, pregnancy and inflammation. We present a case of a 23-year-old woman who presented to us in the postpartum period with mesenteric artery thrombosis with infarcts and later was diagnosed as a case of TTP based on congenital a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type 1 repeats 13 (ADAMTS-13) deficiency detected on ADAMTS-13 levels and gene sequencing. She was successfully managed initially with therapeutic plasma exchanges and is now on prophylactic fortnightly fresh frozen plasma infusions at 15 mL/kg body weight and continues to be in remission.


Subject(s)
ADAMTS13 Protein/deficiency , Anemia, Hemolytic , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic , Thrombosis , ADAMTS13 Protein/genetics , Female , Humans , Plasma Exchange , Pregnancy , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/diagnosis , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/therapy , Young Adult
20.
JAMA Cardiol ; 6(12): 1451-1460, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1349213

ABSTRACT

Importance: The COVID-19 pandemic saw one of the fastest developments of vaccines in an effort to combat an out-of-control pandemic. The 2 most common COVID-19 vaccine platforms currently in use, messenger RNA (mRNA) and adenovirus vector, were developed on the basis of previous research in use of this technology. Postauthorization surveillance of COVID-19 vaccines has identified safety signals, including unusual cases of thrombocytopenia with thrombosis reported in recipients of adenoviral vector vaccines. One of the devastating manifestations of this syndrome, termed vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT), is cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST). This review summarizes the current evidence and indications regarding biology, clinical characteristics, and pharmacological management of VITT with CVST. Observations: VITT appears to be similar to heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), with both disorders associated with thrombocytopenia, thrombosis, and presence of autoantibodies to platelet factor 4 (PF4). Unlike VITT, HIT is triggered by recent exposure to heparin. Owing to similarities between these 2 conditions and lack of high-quality evidence, interim recommendations suggest avoiding heparin and heparin analogues in patients with VITT. Based on initial reports, female sex and age younger than 60 years were identified as possible risk factors for VITT. Treatment consists of therapeutic anticoagulation with nonheparin anticoagulants and prevention of formation of autoantibody-PF4 complexes, the latter being achieved by administration of high-dose intravenous immunoglobin (IVIG). Steroids, which can theoretically inhibit the production of new antibodies, have been used in combination with IVIG. In severe cases, plasma exchange should be used for clearing autoantibodies. Monoclonal antibodies, such as rituximab and eculizumab, can be considered when other therapies fail. Routine platelet transfusions, aspirin, and warfarin should be avoided because of the possibility of worsening thrombosis and magnifying bleeding risk. Conclusions and Relevance: Adverse events like VITT, while uncommon, have been described despite vaccination remaining the most essential component in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic. While it seems logical to consider the use of types of vaccines (eg, mRNA-based administration) in individuals at high risk, treatment should consist of therapeutic anticoagulation mostly with nonheparin products and IVIG.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/etiology , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/complications , Adult , Age Factors , Antibodies, Monoclonal/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Autoantibodies/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Combined Modality Therapy/methods , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Plasma Exchange/methods , Platelet Factor 4/immunology , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/diagnosis , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/drug therapy , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/physiopathology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Safety , Sex Characteristics , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnosis , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/physiopathology , Steroids/administration & dosage , Steroids/therapeutic use
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL