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1.
Clin Immunol ; 232: 108871, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446516

ABSTRACT

Despite the burgeoning field of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) research, the persistence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) neutralising antibodies remains unclear. This study validated two high-throughput immunological methods for use as surrogate live virus neutralisation assays and employed them to examine the half-life of SARS-CoV-2 neutralising antibodies in convalescent plasma donations made by 42 repeat donors between April and September 2020. SARS-CoV-2 neutralising antibody titres decreased over time but typically remained above the methods' diagnostic cut-offs. Using this longitudinal data, the average half-life of SARS-CoV-2 neutralising antibodies was determined to be 20.4 days. SARS-CoV-2 neutralising antibody titres appear to persist in the majority of donors for several months. Whether these titres confer protection against re-infection requires further study and is of particular relevance as COVID-19 vaccines become widely available.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Blood Donors , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Half-Life , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Plasma/immunology , Plasma/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Young Adult
2.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(9): e1009958, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440996

ABSTRACT

Cross-reactive epitopes (CREs) are similar epitopes on viruses that are recognized or neutralized by same antibodies. The S protein of SARS-CoV-2, similar to type I fusion proteins of viruses such as HIV-1 envelope (Env) and influenza hemagglutinin, is heavily glycosylated. Viral Env glycans, though host derived, are distinctly processed and thereby recognized or accommodated during antibody responses. In recent years, highly potent and/or broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies (bnAbs) that are generated in chronic HIV-1 infections have been defined. These bnAbs exhibit atypical features such as extensive somatic hypermutations, long complementary determining region (CDR) lengths, tyrosine sulfation and presence of insertions/deletions, enabling them to effectively neutralize diverse HIV-1 viruses despite extensive variations within the core epitopes they recognize. As some of the HIV-1 bnAbs have evolved to recognize the dense viral glycans and cross-reactive epitopes (CREs), we assessed if these bnAbs cross-react with SARS-CoV-2. Several HIV-1 bnAbs showed cross-reactivity with SARS-CoV-2 while one HIV-1 CD4 binding site bnAb, N6, neutralized SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, neutralizing plasma antibodies of chronically HIV-1 infected children showed cross neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2 pseudoviruses. Collectively, our observations suggest that human monoclonal antibodies tolerating extensive epitope variability can be leveraged to neutralize pathogens with related antigenic profile.


Subject(s)
Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , HIV Antibodies/immunology , HIV-1/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Cross Reactions/immunology , Humans , Plasma/immunology
3.
Viruses ; 12(5)2020 05 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389513

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 enters cells using its Spike protein, which is also the main target of neutralizing antibodies. Therefore, assays to measure how antibodies and sera affect Spike-mediated viral infection are important for studying immunity. Because SARS-CoV-2 is a biosafety-level-3 virus, one way to simplify such assays is to pseudotype biosafety-level-2 viral particles with Spike. Such pseudotyping has now been described for single-cycle lentiviral, retroviral, and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) particles, but the reagents and protocols are not widely available. Here, we detailed how to effectively pseudotype lentiviral particles with SARS-CoV-2 Spike and infect 293T cells engineered to express the SARS-CoV-2 receptor, ACE2. We also made all the key experimental reagents available in the BEI Resources repository of ATCC and the NIH. Furthermore, we demonstrated how these pseudotyped lentiviral particles could be used to measure the neutralizing activity of human sera or plasma against SARS-CoV-2 in convenient luciferase-based assays, thereby providing a valuable complement to ELISA-based methods that measure antibody binding rather than neutralization.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Neutralization Tests/methods , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/analysis , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Containment of Biohazards , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Lentivirus , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Plasma/immunology
4.
Trials ; 21(1): 828, 2020 Oct 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388814

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Primary objectives • To assess the time from randomisation until an improvement within 84 days defined as two points on a seven point ordinal scale or live discharge from the hospital in high-risk patients (group 1 to group 4) with SARS-CoV-2 infection requiring hospital admission by infusion of plasma from subjects after convalescence of SARS-CoV-2 infection or standard of care. Secondary objectives • To assess overall survival, and the overall survival rate at 28 56 and 84 days. • To assess SARS-CoV-2 viral clearance and load as well as antibody titres. • To assess the percentage of patients that required mechanical ventilation. • To assess time from randomisation until discharge. TRIAL DESIGN: Randomised, open-label, multicenter phase II trial, designed to assess the clinical outcome of SARS-CoV-2 disease in high-risk patients (group 1 to group 4) following treatment with anti-SARS-CoV-2 convalescent plasma or standard of care. PARTICIPANTS: High-risk patients >18 years of age hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 infection in 10-15 university medical centres will be included. High-risk is defined as SARS-CoV-2 positive infection with Oxygen saturation at ≤ 94% at ambient air with additional risk features as categorised in 4 groups: • Group 1, pre-existing or concurrent hematological malignancy and/or active cancer therapy (incl. chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgery) within the last 24 months or less. • Group 2, chronic immunosuppression not meeting the criteria of group 1. • Group 3, age ≥ 50 - 75 years meeting neither the criteria of group 1 nor group 2 and at least one of these criteria: Lymphopenia < 0.8 x G/l and/or D-dimer > 1µg/mL. • Group 4, age ≥ 75 years meeting neither the criteria of group 1 nor group 2. Observation time for all patients is expected to be at least 3 months after entry into the study. Patients receive convalescent plasma for two days (day 1 and day 2) or standard of care. For patients in the standard arm, cross over is allowed from day 10 in case of not improving or worsening clinical condition. Nose/throat swabs for determination of viral load are collected at day 0 and day 1 (before first CP administration) and subsequently at day 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 28 or until discharge. Serum for SARS-Cov-2 diagnostic is collected at baseline and subsequently at day 3, 7, 14 and once during the follow-up period (between day 35 and day 84). There is a regular follow-up of 3 months. All discharged patients are followed by regular phone calls. All visits, time points and study assessments are summarized in the Trial Schedule (see full protocol Table 1). All participating trial sites will be supplied with study specific visit worksheets that list all assessments and procedures to be completed at each visit. All findings including clinical and laboratory data are documented by the investigator or an authorized member of the study team in the patient's medical record and in the electronic case report forms (eCRFs). INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: This trial will analyze the effects of convalescent plasma from recovered subjects with SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in high-risk patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Patients at high risk for a poor outcome due to underlying disease, age or condition as listed above are eligible for enrollment. In addition, eligible patients have a confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and O2 saturation ≤ 94% while breathing ambient air. Patients are randomised to receive (experimental arm) or not receive (standard arm) convalescent plasma in two bags (238 - 337 ml plasma each) from different donors (day 1, day 2). A cross over from the standard arm into the experimental arm is possible after day 10 in case of not improving or worsening clinical condition. MAIN OUTCOMES: Primary endpoints: The main purpose of the study is to assess the time from randomisation until an improvement within 84 days defined as two points on a seven-point ordinal scale or live discharge from the hospital in high-risk patients (group 1 to group 4) with SARS-CoV-2 infection requiring hospital admission by infusion of plasma from subjects after convalescence of a SARS-CoV-2 infection or standard of care. Secondary endpoints: • Overall survival, defined as the time from randomisation until death from any cause 28-day, 56-day and 84-day overall survival rates. • SARS-CoV-2 viral clearance and load as well as antibody titres. • Requirement mechanical ventilation at any time during hospital stay (yes/no). • Time until discharge from randomisation. • Viral load, changes in antibody titers and cytokine profiles are analysed in an exploratory manner using paired non-parametric tests (before - after treatment). RANDOMISATION: Upon confirmation of eligibility (patients must meet all inclusion criteria and must not meet exclusion criteria described in section 5.3 and 5.4 of the full protocol), the clinical site must contact a centralized internet randomization system ( https://randomizer.at/ ). Patients are randomized using block randomisation to one of the two arms, experimental arm or standard arm, in a 1:1 ratio considering a stratification according to the 4 risk groups (see Participants). BLINDING (MASKING): The study is open-label, no blinding will be performed. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): A total number of 174 patients is required for the entire trial, n=87 per group. TRIAL STATUS: Protocol version 1.2 dated 09/07/2020. A recruitment period of approximately 9 months and an overall study duration of approximately 12 months is anticipated. Recruitment of patients starts in the third quarter of 2020. The study duration of an individual patient is planned to be 3 months. After finishing all study-relevant procedures, therapy, and follow-up period, the patient is followed in terms of routine care and treated if necessary. Total trial duration: 18 months Duration of the clinical phase: 12 months First patient first visit (FPFV): 3rd Quarter 2020 Last patient first visit (LPFV): 2nd Quarter 2021 Last patient last visit (LPLV): 3rd Quarter 2021 Trial Report completed: 4th Quarter 2021 TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT Number: 2020-001632-10, https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/ctr-search/trial/2020-001632-10/DE , registered on 04/04/2020. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol. The study protocol has been reported in accordance with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Clinical Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines (Additional file 2). The eCRF is attached (Additional file 3).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Plasma/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral , Aged , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Convalescence , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Risk Adjustment , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4864, 2021 08 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354101

ABSTRACT

Successful therapeutics and vaccines for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have harnessed the immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Evidence that SARS-CoV-2 exists as locally evolving variants suggests that immunological differences may impact the effectiveness of antibody-based treatments such as convalescent plasma and vaccines. Considering that near-sourced convalescent plasma likely reflects the antigenic composition of local viral strains, we hypothesize that convalescent plasma has a higher efficacy, as defined by death within 30 days of transfusion, when the convalescent plasma donor and treated patient were in close geographic proximity. Results of a series of modeling techniques applied to approximately 28,000 patients from the Expanded Access to Convalescent Plasma program (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT04338360) support this hypothesis. This work has implications for the interpretation of clinical studies, the ability to develop effective COVID-19 treatments, and, potentially, for the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines as additional locally-evolving variants continue to emerge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Plasma/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Specificity , Antigenic Variation , Blood Donors , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
6.
Chem Biol Interact ; 344: 109497, 2021 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1312959

ABSTRACT

Extracellular vesicles like exosomes are important therapeutic tactics for treating COVID -19. By utilizing convalescent plasma derived exosomes (CPExo) from COVID-19 recovered persistence could accelerate the treatment strategies in the current state of affairs. Adequate literature has shown that administering the exosome to the in vivo system could be beneficial and could target the pathogens in an effective and precise manner. In this hypothesis we highlight the CPExo instead of convalescent plasma (CP), perhaps to dispense of exosomes are gratified and it's more effectively acquired immune response conferral through antibodies. COVID-19 convalescent plasma has billions of exosomes and it has aptitudes to carry molecular constituents like proteins, lipids, RNA and DNA, etc. Moreover, exosomes are capable of recognizing antigens with adequate sensitivity and specificity. Many of these derivatives could trigger an immune modulation into the cells and act as an epigenetic inheritor response to target pathogens through RNAs. COIVID-19 resistance activated plasma-derived exosomes are either responsible for the effects of plasma beyond the contained immune antibodies or could be inhibitory. The proposed hypothesis suggests that preselecting the plasma-derived antibodies and RNAs merged exosomes would be an optimized therapeutic tactic for COVID-19 patients. We suggest that, the CPExo has a multi-potential effect for treatment efficacy by acting as immunotherapeutic, drug carrier, and diagnostic target with noncoding genetic materials as a biomarker.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Exosomes/immunology , Plasma/immunology , Adaptive Immunity/immunology , Antibodies/immunology , Antigens/immunology , DNA/immunology , Humans , Immunization, Passive , RNA/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
7.
Chem Biol Interact ; 344: 109497, 2021 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309180

ABSTRACT

Extracellular vesicles like exosomes are important therapeutic tactics for treating COVID -19. By utilizing convalescent plasma derived exosomes (CPExo) from COVID-19 recovered persistence could accelerate the treatment strategies in the current state of affairs. Adequate literature has shown that administering the exosome to the in vivo system could be beneficial and could target the pathogens in an effective and precise manner. In this hypothesis we highlight the CPExo instead of convalescent plasma (CP), perhaps to dispense of exosomes are gratified and it's more effectively acquired immune response conferral through antibodies. COVID-19 convalescent plasma has billions of exosomes and it has aptitudes to carry molecular constituents like proteins, lipids, RNA and DNA, etc. Moreover, exosomes are capable of recognizing antigens with adequate sensitivity and specificity. Many of these derivatives could trigger an immune modulation into the cells and act as an epigenetic inheritor response to target pathogens through RNAs. COIVID-19 resistance activated plasma-derived exosomes are either responsible for the effects of plasma beyond the contained immune antibodies or could be inhibitory. The proposed hypothesis suggests that preselecting the plasma-derived antibodies and RNAs merged exosomes would be an optimized therapeutic tactic for COVID-19 patients. We suggest that, the CPExo has a multi-potential effect for treatment efficacy by acting as immunotherapeutic, drug carrier, and diagnostic target with noncoding genetic materials as a biomarker.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Exosomes/immunology , Plasma/immunology , Adaptive Immunity/immunology , Antibodies/immunology , Antigens/immunology , DNA/immunology , Humans , Immunization, Passive , RNA/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
8.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 06 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1289016

ABSTRACT

We summarize here in vitro evidences of efficacy for convalescent plasma, currently approved vaccines and monoclonal antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC: B.1.1.7, B.1.351, P.1, and B.1.617.2), variants of interest (VOI: B.1.427/B.1.429, P.2, B.1.525, P.3, B.1.526, and B.1.671.1), and other strains (B.1.1.298 and B.1.258delta). While waiting from real world clinical efficacy, these data provide guidance for the treating physician.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Plasma/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive/standards , In Vitro Techniques , Neutralization Tests , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
9.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249938, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206195

ABSTRACT

This study compared the performance of four serology assays for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and investigated whether COVID-19 disease history correlates with assay performance. Samples were tested at Northshore using the Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 (Roche Diagnostics), Access SARS-CoV-2 IgG anti-RBD (Beckman Coulter), and LIAISON SARS-CoV-2 S1/S2 IgG (DiaSorin) as well as at Genalyte using Maverick Multi-Antigen Serology Panel. The study included one hundred clinical samples collected before December 2019 and ninety-seven samples collected from convalescent plasma donors originally diagnosed with COVID-19 by PCR. COVID-19 disease history was self-reported by the plasma donors. There was no difference in specificity between the assays tested. Clinical sensitivity of these four tests was 98% (Genalyte), 96% (Roche), 92% (DiaSorin), and 87% (Beckman). The only statistically significant differences in clinical sensitivity was between the Beckman assay and both Genalyte and Roche assays. Convalescent plasma donor characteristics and disease symptoms did not correlate with false negative results from the Beckman and DiaSorin assays. All four tests showed high specificity (100%) and varying sensitivities (89-98%). No correlations between disease history and serology results were observed. The Genalyte Multiplex assay showed as good or better sensitivity to three other previously validated assays with FDA Emergency Use Authorizations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Plasma/chemistry , Plasma/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serologic Tests/methods
10.
J Med Virol ; 93(3): 1678-1686, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196494

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The role of convalescent plasma therapy for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is unclear. METHODS: We retrospectively compared outcomes in a cohort of critical COVID-19 patients who received standard care (SC Group) and those who, in addition, received convalescent plasma (CP Group). RESULTS: In total, 40 patients were included in each group. The median patient age was 53.5 years (interquartile range [IQR] 42-60.5), and the majority of patients required invasive ventilation (69, 86.2%). Plasma was harvested from donors after a median of 37 days (IQR 31-46) from the first positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) result and 26 days (IQR 21-32) after documented viral clearance; it was administered after a median of 10 days (IQR 9-10) from the onset of symptoms and 2.5 days (IQR 2-4) from admission to intensive care unit. The primary endpoint of improvement in respiratory support status within 28 days was achieved in 26 patients (65%) in the SC Group and 31 patients (77.5%) in the CP Group (p = .32). The 28-day all-cause mortality (12.5% vs. 2.5%; p = .22) and viral clearance (65% vs. 55%; p = .49) were not significantly different between the two groups. Convalescent plasma was not significantly associated with the primary endpoint (adjusted hazard ratio 0.87; 95% confidence interval 0.51-1.49; p = .62). Adverse events were balanced between the two study groups. CONCLUSION: In severe COVID-19, convalescent plasma therapy was not associated with clinical benefits. Randomized trials are required to confirm our findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Plasma/immunology , Adult , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
11.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 650487, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1167306

ABSTRACT

Background: Convalescent plasma (CP) transfusion is considered to be the priority therapeutic option for COVID-19 inpatients when no specific drugs are available for emerging infections. An alternative, simple, and sensitive method is urgently needed for clinical use to detect neutralization activity of the CP to avoid the use of inconvenient micro-neutralization assay. Method: This study aims to explore optimal index in predicting the COVID-19 CP neutralization activity (neutralizing antibody titers, NAb titers) in an indirect ELISA format. Fifty-seven COVID-19-recovered patients plasma samples were subjected to anti-SARS-CoV-2 RBD, S1, and N protein IgG antibody by indirect ELISA. Results: ELISA-RBD exhibited high specificity (96.2%) and ELISA-N had high sensitivity (100%); while ELISA-S1 had low sensitivity (86.0%) and specificity (73.1%). Furthermore, ELISA-RBD IgG titers and pseudovirus-based NAb titers correlated significantly, with R2 of 0.2564 (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: ELISA-RBD could be a substitute for the neutralization assay in resource-limited situations to screen potential plasma donors for further plasma infusion therapy.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/therapy , Immunization, Passive/methods , Plasma/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Donors , China , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cohort Studies , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Vero Cells
12.
Viruses ; 13(3)2021 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1143612

ABSTRACT

The use of convalescent plasma in the treatment of COVID-19 may lead to a milder course of infection and has been associated with improved outcomes. Determining optimal treatments in high risk populations is crucial, as is the case in those with hematological malignancies. We analyzed a cohort of 23 patients with hematological malignancies and COVID-19 who had received plasma 48-72 h after the diagnosis of infection and compared it with a historical group of 22 patients who received other therapy. Overall survival in those who received convalescent plasma was significantly higher than in the historical group (p = 0.03460). The plasma-treated group also showed a significantly milder course of infection (p = 0.03807), characterized by less severe symptoms and faster recovery (p = 0.00001). In conclusion, we have demonstrated that convalescent plasma is an effective treatment and its early administration leads to clinical improvement, increased viral clearance and longer overall survival in patients with hematological malignancies and COVID-19. To our knowledge, this is the first report to analyze the efficacy of convalescent plasma in a cohort of patients with hematological malignancies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Hematologic Neoplasms/mortality , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Male , Middle Aged , Plasma/immunology , Survival , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
13.
Vox Sang ; 116(6): 665-672, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140312

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 convalescent plasma is an experimental treatment against SARS-CoV-2. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of different pathogen reduction methods on the levels and virus neutralizing activity of the specific antibodies against SARS-CoV2 in convalescent plasma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 140 plasma doses collected by plasmapheresis from COVID-19 convalescent donors were subjected to pathogen reduction by three methods: methylene blue (M)/visible light, riboflavin (R)/UVB and amotosalen (A)/UVA. To conduct a paired comparison, individual plasma doses were divided into 2 samples that were subjected to one of these methods. The titres of SARS-CoV2 neutralizing antibodies (NtAbs) and levels of specific immunoglobulins to RBD, S- and N-proteins of SARS-CoV-2 were measured before and after pathogen reduction. RESULTS: The methods reduced NtAbs titres differently: among units with the initial titre 80 or above, 81% of units remained unchanged and 19% decreased by one step after methylene blue; 60% were unchanged and 40% decreased by one step after amotosalen; after riboflavin 43% were unchanged and 50% (7%, respectively) had a one-step (two-step, respectively) decrease. Paired two-sample comparisons (M vs. A, M vs. R and A vs. R) revealed that the largest statistically significant decrease in quantity and activity of the specific antibodies resulted from the riboflavin treatment. CONCLUSION: Pathogen reduction with methylene blue or with amotosalen provides the greater likelihood of preserving the immunological properties of the COVID-19 convalescent plasma compared to riboflavin.


Subject(s)
Blood Safety/methods , Blood-Borne Pathogens/isolation & purification , COVID-19/therapy , Plasma/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Furocoumarins , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Methylene Blue , Riboflavin , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
16.
Hum Immunol ; 82(4): 255-263, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085551

ABSTRACT

Early in the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, convalescent plasma (CP) therapy was proposed as a treatment for severely ill patients. We conducted a CP treatment protocol under the Mayo Clinic Extended Access Program at University Hospital Brooklyn (UHB). Potential donors were screened with a lateral flow assay (LFA) for IgM and IgG antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 S1 receptor-binding domain (RBD). Volunteers that were LFA positive were tested with an ELISA to measure IgG titers against the RBD. Subjects with titers of at least 1:1024 were selected to donate. Most donors with positive LFA had acceptable titers and were eligible to donate. Out of 171 volunteers, only 65 tested positive in the LFA (38.0%), and 55 (32.2%) had titers of at least 1:1024. Before our donation program started, 31 CP units were procured from the New York Blood Center (NYBC). Among the 31 CP units that were obtained from the NYBC, 25 units (80.6%) were positive in the LFA but only 12 units (38.7%) had titers of at least 1:1024. CP was administered to 28 hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Patients who received low titer CP, high titer CP and patients who did not receive CP were followed for 45 days after presentation. Severe adverse events were not associated with CP transfusion. Death was a less frequent outcome for patients that received high titer CP (>1:1024) 38.6% mortality, than patients that received low titer CP (≤1:1024) 77.8% mortality.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Blood Donors , Donor Selection , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoglobulin M/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Plasma/immunology , Retrospective Studies
17.
Clin J Oncol Nurs ; 25(1): 28-32, 2021 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082805

ABSTRACT

Convalescent plasma has emerged as a treatment that merits consideration for COVID-19-positive patients requiring hospitalization. With millions of cases of COVID-19 being reported worldwide, nurses across specialties are caring for infected patients and are often the primary patient educators about convalescent plasma treatment. Keeping abreast of current clinical guidelines and evidence-based practice allows nurses to identify patients who should be considered for treatment, understand the administration guidelines, and be aware of the toxicity profile to provide safe and high-quality care to patients. The purpose of this article is to provide information on convalescent plasma as a treatment for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Health Personnel/education , Immunization, Passive/standards , Plasma/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
18.
Int J Infect Dis ; 102: 332-334, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060485

ABSTRACT

The pathophysiology of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is primarily a host immune interplay to virus invasion. The therapeutic options have been explored either against hyperinflammation from dysregulated adaptive immunity or direct virus neutralization using antibodies from convalescent plasma (CP) of a recovered patient. The therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) for removal of excessive inflammatory cytokines has been tried with success in COVID-19. We undertook this exploratory study to evaluate safety and efficacy of TPE followed by CP transfusion in 14 patients with critical COVID-19 requiring invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). All patients showed improvement in symptoms and decrease of inflammatory markers especially CRP (p = 0.03). 10 patients were liberated from IMV after a median of 5.5 (3-36) days, post sequential therapy. Day 7 and Day 28 mortality was 21.4% and 28.6% respectively. The median duration ICU and hospital LOS were 12 (5-42) days and 18 (12-47) days respectively. No patient developed transfusion-associated complications, but three patients developed secondary bacterial sepsis within 14 days of therapy, and one died. This case series demonstrated the sequential use of TPE followed by CP transfusion as a therapeutic option in critical COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Blood Component Transfusion , COVID-19/therapy , Plasma Exchange , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Male , Middle Aged , Plasma/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
19.
J Infect Dis ; 222(12): 1965-1973, 2020 11 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060647

ABSTRACT

We present a microsphere-based flow cytometry assay that quantifies the ability of plasma to inhibit the binding of spike protein to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. Plasma from 22 patients who had recovered from mild coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and expressed anti-spike protein trimer immunoglobulin G inhibited angiotensin-converting enzyme 2-spike protein binding to a greater degree than controls. The degree of inhibition was correlated with anti-spike protein immunoglobulin G levels, neutralizing titers in a pseudotyped lentiviral assay, and the presence of fever during illness. This inhibition assay may be broadly useful to quantify the functional antibody response of patients recovered from COVID-19 or vaccine recipients in a cell-free assay system.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Serologic Tests/methods , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Aged , Binding Sites , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Male , Microspheres , Middle Aged , Plasma/immunology , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Young Adult
20.
Viruses ; 13(1)2020 12 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1043520

ABSTRACT

Immune profiling of patients with COVID-19 has shown that SARS-CoV-2 causes severe lymphocyte deficiencies (e.g., lymphopenia, decreased numbers, and exhaustion of T cells) and increased levels of pro-inflammatory monocytes. Peripheral blood (PB) samples from convalescent plasma (CP) donors, COVID-19 patients, and control subjects were analyzed by multiparametric flow cytometry, allowing the identification of a wide panel of immune cells, comprising lymphocytes (T, B, natural killer (NK) and NKT cells), monocytes, granulocytes, and their subsets. Compared to active COVID-19 patients, our results revealed that the immune profile of recovered donors was restored for most subpopulations. Nevertheless, even 2 months after recovery, CP donors still had reduced levels of CD4+ T and B cells, as well as granulocytes. CP donors with non-detectable levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies in their serum were characterized by higher Th9 and Th17 cells, which were possibly expanded at the expense of Th2 humoral immunity. The most noticeable alterations were identified in previously hospitalized CP donors, who presented the lowest levels of CD8+ regulatory T cells, the highest levels of CD56+CD16- NKT cells, and a promotion of a Th17-type phenotype, which might be associated with a prolonged pro-inflammatory response. A longer follow-up of CP donors will eventually reveal the time needed for full recovery of their immune system competence.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/therapy , Plasma/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , B-Lymphocytes , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Immunization, Passive , Male , Middle Aged , Th1 Cells , Th17 Cells , Th2 Cells , Time Factors , Young Adult
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