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1.
Vox Sang ; 115(3): 146-151, 2020 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1508355

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emerging viruses like severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) and Nipah virus (NiV) have been identified to pose a potential threat to transfusion safety. In this study, the ability of the THERAFLEX UV-Platelets and THERAFLEX MB-Plasma pathogen inactivation systems to inactivate these viruses in platelet concentrates and plasma, respectively, was investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood products were spiked with SARS-CoV, CCHFV or NiV, and then treated with increasing doses of UVC light (THERAFLEX UV-Platelets) or with methylene blue (MB) plus increasing doses of visible light (MB/light; THERAFLEX MB-Plasma). Samples were taken before and after treatment with each illumination dose and tested for residual infectivity. RESULTS: Treatment with half to three-fourths of the full UVC dose (0·2 J/cm2 ) reduced the infectivity of SARS-CoV (≥3·4 log), CCHFV (≥2·2 log) and NiV (≥4·3 log) to the limit of detection (LOD) in platelet concentrates, and treatment with MB and a fourth of the full light dose (120 J/cm2 ) decreased that of SARS-CoV (≥3·1 log), CCHFV (≥3·2 log) and NiV (≥2·7 log) to the LOD in plasma. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates that both THERAFLEX UV-Platelets (UVC) and THERAFLEX MB-Plasma (MB/light) effectively reduce the infectivity of SARS-CoV, CCHFV and NiV in platelet concentrates and plasma, respectively.


Subject(s)
Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Crimean-Congo/radiation effects , Light , Methylene Blue/pharmacology , Nipah Virus/radiation effects , SARS Virus/radiation effects , Ultraviolet Rays , Virus Inactivation , Blood Platelets/virology , Blood Transfusion , Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Crimean-Congo/drug effects , Humans , Nipah Virus/drug effects , Plasma/virology , SARS Virus/drug effects
2.
Vox Sang ; 116(6): 673-681, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319364

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: During the ongoing pandemic of COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in plasma and platelet products from asymptomatic blood donors, raising concerns about potential risk of transfusion transmission, also in the context of the current therapeutic approach utilizing plasma from convalescent donors. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of amotosalen/UVA light treatment to inactivate SARS-CoV-2 in human plasma to reduce the risk of potential transmission through blood transfusion. METHODS: Pools of three whole-blood-derived human plasma units (630-650 ml) were inoculated with a clinical SARS-CoV-2 isolate. Spiked units were treated with amotosalen/UVA light (INTERCEPT Blood System™) to inactivate SARS-CoV-2. Infectious titres and genomic viral load were assessed by plaque assay and real-time quantitative PCR. Inactivated samples were subject to three successive passages on permissive tissue culture to exclude the presence of replication-competent viral particles. RESULTS: Inactivation of infectious viral particles in spiked plasma units below the limit of detection was achieved by amotosalen/UVA light treatment with a mean log reduction of >3·32 ± 0·2. Passaging of inactivated samples on permissive tissue showed no viral replication even after 9 days of incubation and three passages, confirming complete inactivation. The treatment also inhibited NAT detection by nucleic acid modification with a mean log reduction of 2·92 ± 0·87 PFU genomic equivalents. CONCLUSION: Amotosalen/UVA light treatment of SARS-CoV-2 spiked human plasma units efficiently and completely inactivated >3·32 ± 0·2 log of SARS-CoV-2 infectivity, showing that such treatment could minimize the risk of transfusion-related SARS-CoV-2 transmission.


Subject(s)
Furocoumarins/pharmacology , Plasma/virology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/radiation effects , Ultraviolet Therapy , Virus Inactivation , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Humans , Transfusion Reaction/prevention & control , Treatment Outcome
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 357, 2021 Apr 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315854

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In 2020, a new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, quickly spread worldwide within a few months. Although coronaviruses typically infect the upper or lower respiratory tract, the virus RNA can be detected in plasma. The risk of transmitting coronavirus via transfusion of blood products remains. As more asymptomatic infections are identified in COVID-19 cases, blood safety has become particularly important. Methylene blue (MB) photochemical technology has been proven to inactivate lipid-enveloped viruses with high efficiency and safety. The present study aimed to investigate the SARS-CoV-2 inactivation effects of MB in plasma. METHODS: The SARS-CoV-2 virus strain was isolated from Zhejiang University. The live virus was harvested from cultured VERO-E6 cells, and mixed with MB in plasma. The MB final concentrations were 0, 1, 2, and 4 µM. The "BX-1 AIDS treatment instrument" was used at room temperature, the illumination adjusted to 55,000 ± 0.5 million Lux, and the plasma was irradiated for 0, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 40 mins using light at a single wavelength of 630 nm. Virus load changes were measured using quantitative reverse transcription- PCR. RESULTS: BX-1 could effectively eliminate SARS-CoV-2 within 2 mins in plasma, and the virus titer declined to 4.5 log10 TCID50 (median tissue culture infectious dose)/mL. CONCLUSION: BX-1 is based on MB photochemical technology, which was designed to inactivate HIV-1 virus in plasma. It was proven to be safe and reliable in clinical trials of HIV treatment. In this study, we showed that BX-1 could also be applied to inactivate SARS-CoV-2. During the current outbreak, this technique it has great potential for ensuring the safety of blood transfusions, for plasma transfusion therapy in recovering patients, and for preparing inactivated vaccines.


Subject(s)
Blood Safety , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , Methylene Blue/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Inactivation , Animals , Blood Transfusion , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Plasma/virology , RNA, Viral , Vero Cells
4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(7): e2116572, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305100

ABSTRACT

Importance: Seroprevalence studies complement data on detected cases and attributed deaths in assessing the cumulative spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Objective: To estimate seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in patients receiving dialysis and adults in the US in January 2021 before the widespread introduction of COVID-19 vaccines. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study used data from the third largest US dialysis organization (US Renal Care), which has facilities located nationwide, to estimate SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence among US patients receiving dialysis. Remainder plasma (ie, plasma that would have otherwise been discarded) of all patients receiving dialysis at US Renal Care facilities from January 1 to 31, 2021, was tested for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Patients were excluded if they had a documented dose of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination or if a residence zip code was missing from electronic medical records. Crude seroprevalence estimates from this sample (January 2021) were standardized to the US adult population using the 2018 American Community Survey 1-year estimates and stratified by age group, sex, self-reported race/ethnicity, neighborhood race/ethnicity composition, neighborhood income level, and urban or rural status. These data and case detection rates were then compared with data from a July 2020 subsample of patients who received dialysis at the same facilities. Exposures: Age, sex, race/ethnicity, and region of residence as well as neighborhood race/ethnicity composition, poverty, population density, and urban or rural status. Main Outcomes and Measures: The spike protein receptor-binding domain total antibody assay (Siemens Healthineers; manufacturer-reported sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 99.8%) was used to estimate crude SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in the unweighted sample, and then the estimated seroprevalence rates for the US dialysis and adult populations were calculated, adjusting for age, sex, and region. Results: A total of 21 464 patients (mean [SD] age, 63.1 [14.2] years; 12 265 men [57%]) were included in the unweighted sample from January 2021. The patients were disproportionately older (aged 65-79 years, 7847 [37%]; aged ≥80 years, 2668 [12%]) and members of racial/ethnic minority groups (Hispanic patients, 2945 [18%]; non-Hispanic Black patients, 4875 [29%]). Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was 18.9% (95% CI, 18.3%-19.5%) in the sample, with a seroprevalence of 18.7% (95% CI, 18.1%-19.2%) standardized to the US dialysis population, and 21.3% (95% CI, 20.3%-22.3%) standardized to the US adult population. In the unweighted sample, younger persons (aged 18-44 years, 25.9%; 95% CI, 24.1%-27.8%), those who self-identified as Hispanic or living in Hispanic neighborhoods (25.1%; 95% CI, 23.6%-26.4%), and those living in the lowest-income neighborhoods (24.8%; 95% CI, 23.2%-26.5%) were among the subgroups with the highest seroprevalence. Little variability was observed in seroprevalence by geographic region, population density, and urban or rural status in the January 2021 sample (largest regional difference, 1.2 [95% CI, 1.1-1.3] higher odds of seroprevalence in residents of the Northeast vs West). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study of patients receiving dialysis in the US, fewer than 1 in 4 patients had evidence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies 1 year after the first case of SARS-CoV-2 infection was detected in the US. Results standardized to the US population indicate similar prevalence of antibodies among US adults. Vaccine introduction to younger individuals, those living in neighborhoods with a large population of racial/ethnic minority residents, and those living in low-income neighborhoods may be critical to disrupting the spread of infection.


Subject(s)
Dialysis/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dialysis/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Plasma/virology , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 357, 2021 Apr 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1190056

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In 2020, a new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, quickly spread worldwide within a few months. Although coronaviruses typically infect the upper or lower respiratory tract, the virus RNA can be detected in plasma. The risk of transmitting coronavirus via transfusion of blood products remains. As more asymptomatic infections are identified in COVID-19 cases, blood safety has become particularly important. Methylene blue (MB) photochemical technology has been proven to inactivate lipid-enveloped viruses with high efficiency and safety. The present study aimed to investigate the SARS-CoV-2 inactivation effects of MB in plasma. METHODS: The SARS-CoV-2 virus strain was isolated from Zhejiang University. The live virus was harvested from cultured VERO-E6 cells, and mixed with MB in plasma. The MB final concentrations were 0, 1, 2, and 4 µM. The "BX-1 AIDS treatment instrument" was used at room temperature, the illumination adjusted to 55,000 ± 0.5 million Lux, and the plasma was irradiated for 0, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 40 mins using light at a single wavelength of 630 nm. Virus load changes were measured using quantitative reverse transcription- PCR. RESULTS: BX-1 could effectively eliminate SARS-CoV-2 within 2 mins in plasma, and the virus titer declined to 4.5 log10 TCID50 (median tissue culture infectious dose)/mL. CONCLUSION: BX-1 is based on MB photochemical technology, which was designed to inactivate HIV-1 virus in plasma. It was proven to be safe and reliable in clinical trials of HIV treatment. In this study, we showed that BX-1 could also be applied to inactivate SARS-CoV-2. During the current outbreak, this technique it has great potential for ensuring the safety of blood transfusions, for plasma transfusion therapy in recovering patients, and for preparing inactivated vaccines.


Subject(s)
Blood Safety , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , Methylene Blue/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Inactivation , Animals , Blood Transfusion , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Plasma/virology , RNA, Viral , Vero Cells
6.
Cells ; 10(3)2021 03 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125934

ABSTRACT

We herein characterize the immunopathological features of two Italian COVID-19 patients who underwent bilateral lung transplantation (bLTx). Removed lungs underwent histopathological evaluation. Gene expression profiling (GEP) for immune-related signatures was performed on lung specimens and SARS-CoV-2-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Cytokine levels were measured on lungs, bronchoalveolar lavage fluids and in culture supernatants. Pathological assessment showed extensive lung damage with the pattern of proliferative to fibrotic phases, with diffuse alveolar damage mimicking usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). Lungs' GEP revealed overexpression of pathogen recognition receptors, effector cytokines and chemokines, immune activation receptors and of the inflammasome components. Multiplex cytokine analysis confirmed a proinflammatory state, with high levels of monocyte/macrophage chemotactic and activating factors and of IL-6 and TNF-α. A similar profile was observed in SARS-CoV-2-stimulated PBMCs collected 7 days after transplant. The pattern of tissue damage observed in the lungs suggests that this may represent the output of protracted disease, resembling a diffuse UIP-like picture. The molecular immune profiling supports the paradigm of a persistent proinflammatory state and sustained humoral immunity, conditions that are maintained despite the iatrogenic immunosuppression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/surgery , Chemokines/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Lung Transplantation , Lung/pathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/surgery , Adolescent , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/cytology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/virology , COVID-19/blood , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation/immunology , Genotype , Humans , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Lung/immunology , Lung/metabolism , Lung/virology , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymph Nodes/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Plasma/virology , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
7.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 100(3): 115365, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1116561

ABSTRACT

We present the case of an inpatient with pneumonia and repeatedly negative nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 testing. In such challenging cases, alternative diagnostic options include lower respiratory tract and plasma SARS-CoV-2 RNA testing, of which the latter may be particularly useful where bronchoscopy is deferred due to clinical factors or transmission risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Plasma/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Humans , Male , Nasopharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/genetics , Specimen Handling
8.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243967, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992705

ABSTRACT

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic emerged in December 2019. Convalescent plasma represents a promising COVID-19 treatment. Here, we report on the manufacturing of a plasma-based product containing antibodies specific to SARS-CoV-2 obtained from recently recovered COVID-19 patients. Convalescent plasma donors were screened as follows: 1) previously confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection (by real-time PCR (RT-PCR)); 2) a subsequent negative PCR test followed by a 2-week waiting period; 3) an additional negative PCR test prior to plasmapheresis; and 4) confirmation of the presence of SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies. Convalescent plasma was stored fresh (2-6°C) for up to 5 days or frozen (-30°C) for long-term storage. Donor peripheral blood and final plasma product were assayed for binding antibodies targeting the SARS-CoV-2 S-protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) and their titers measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We performed 72 plasmaphereses resulting in 248 final products. Convalescent plasma contained an RBD-specific antibody titer (IgG) ranging from 1:100 to 1:3200 (median 1:800). The titer was congruent to the titer of the blood (n = 34) before collection (1:100-1:6400, median 1:800). Levels of IL-8 and LBP of donors were slightly increased. Therapeutic products derived from a human origin must undergo rigorous testing to ensure uniform quality and patient safety. Whilst previous publications recommended RBD-specific binding antibody titers of ≥ 1:320, we selected a minimum titer of 1:800 in order to maximize antibody delivery. Production of highly standardized convalescent plasma was safe, feasible and was readily implemented in the treatment of severely ill COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , Pandemics , Plasma/immunology , Plasma/virology , Plasmapheresis/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Tissue Donors , Young Adult
9.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 412, 2020 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-901889

ABSTRACT

The latest outbreak of pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2 presents a significant challenge to global public health and has a major impact on clinical microbiology laboratories. In some situations, such as patients in coma condition, the oropharyngeal or nasopharyngeal sampling is seldom feasible, and blood sampling could be an alternative. In the current article, a comprehensive literature search has been conducted for detecting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) using plasma or serum samples. To date, twenty-six studies have used SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid in plasma or serum (RNAaemia) to diagnose COVID-19. The pros and cons are discussed in this article. While the detection of SARS-CoV-2 viral load in respiratory specimens is commonly used to diagnose COVID-19, detecting SARS-CoV-2 RNA in plasma or serum should not lose sight and it could be considered as an alternative diagnostic approach.


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Humans , Pandemics , Plasma/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Serum/virology , Viral Load
10.
Am J Pathol ; 190(11): 2290-2303, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-877760

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, has spread globally, and proven treatments are limited. Transfusion of convalescent plasma collected from donors who have recovered from COVID-19 is among many approaches being studied as potentially efficacious therapy. We are conducting a prospective, propensity score-matched study assessing the efficacy of COVID-19 convalescent plasma transfusion versus standard of care as treatment for severe and/or critical COVID-19. We present herein the results of an interim analysis of 316 patients enrolled at Houston Methodist hospitals from March 28 to July 6, 2020. Of the 316 transfused patients, 136 met a 28-day outcome and were matched to 251 non-transfused control COVID-19 patients. Matching criteria included age, sex, body mass index, comorbidities, and baseline ventilation requirement 48 hours from admission, and in a second matching analysis, ventilation status at day 0. Variability in the timing of transfusion relative to admission and titer of antibodies of plasma transfused allowed for analysis in specific matched cohorts. The analysis showed a significant reduction (P = 0.047) in mortality within 28 days, specifically in patients transfused within 72 hours of admission with plasma with an anti-spike protein receptor binding domain titer of ≥1:1350. These data suggest that treatment of COVID-19 with high anti-receptor binding domain IgG titer convalescent plasma is efficacious in early-disease patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Plasma/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Component Transfusion/methods , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Plasma/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(10): 2497-2499, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-836160

ABSTRACT

Along with positive SARS-CoV-2 RNA in nasopharyngeal swabs, viral RNA was detectable at high concentration for >3 weeks in fecal samples from 12 mildly symptomatic and asymptomatic children with COVID-19 in Seoul, South Korea. Saliva also tested positive during the early phase of infection. If proven infectious, feces and saliva could serve as transmission sources.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Feces/virology , Nasopharynx/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA, Viral/analysis , Saliva/virology , Adolescent , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/urine , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Plasma/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/urine , Republic of Korea , SARS-CoV-2 , Urine/virology , Viral Load
13.
Transfusion ; 60(6): 1319-1331, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-116543

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The INTERCEPT Blood System pathogen reduction technology (PRT), which uses amotosalen and ultraviolet A light treatment (amotosalen/UV-PRT), inactivates pathogens in plasma and platelet components (PCs). This review summarizes data describing the inactivation efficacy of amotosalen/UVA-PRT for a broad spectrum of viruses and parasites. METHODS: Twenty-five enveloped viruses, six nonenveloped viruses (NEVs), and four parasites species were evaluated for sensitivity to amotosalen/UVA-PRT. Pathogens were spiked into plasma and PC at high titers. Samples were collected before and after PRT and assessed for infectivity with cell cultures or animal models. Log reduction factors (LRFs) were defined as the difference in infectious titers before and after amotosalen/UV-PRT. RESULTS: LRFs of ≥4.0 log were reported for 19 pathogens in plasma (range, ≥4.0 to ≥7.6), 28 pathogens in PC in platelet additive solution (PC-PAS; ≥4.1-≥7.8), and 14 pathogens in PC in 100% plasma (PC-100%; (≥4.3->8.4). Twenty-five enveloped viruses and two NEVs were sensitive to amotosalen/UV-PRT; LRF ranged from >2.9 to ≥7.6 in plasma, 2.4 or greater to greater than 6.9 in PC-PAS and >3.5 to >6.5 in PC-100%. Infectious titers for four parasites were reduced by >4.0 log in all PC and plasma (≥4.9 to >8.4). CONCLUSION: Amotosalen/UVA-PRT demonstrated effective infectious titer reduction for a broad spectrum of viruses and parasites. This confirms the capacity of this system to reduce the risk of viral and parasitic transfusion-transmitted infections by plasma and PCs in various geographies.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets , Blood Safety , Disinfection , Furocoumarins/pharmacology , Parasites , Plasma , Ultraviolet Rays , Virus Inactivation , Animals , Blood Platelets/parasitology , Blood Platelets/virology , Humans , Plasma/parasitology , Plasma/virology , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , Virus Inactivation/radiation effects
14.
Vox Sang ; 115(6): 495-501, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-88638

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is a member of the coronavirus family. Coronavirus infections in humans are typically associated with respiratory illnesses; however, viral RNA has been isolated in serum from infected patients. Coronaviruses have been identified as a potential low-risk threat to blood safety. The Mirasol Pathogen Reduction Technology (PRT) System utilizes riboflavin and ultraviolet (UV) light to render blood-borne pathogens noninfectious, while maintaining blood product quality. Here, we report on the efficacy of riboflavin and UV light against the pandemic virus SARS-CoV-2 when tested in both plasma and platelets units. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Stock SARS-CoV-2 was grown in Vero cells and inoculated into either plasma or platelet units. Those units were then treated with riboflavin and UV light. The infectious titres of SARS-CoV-2 were determined by plaque assay using Vero cells. A total of five (n = 5) plasma and three (n = 3) platelet products were evaluated in this study. RESULTS: In both experiments, the measured titre of SARS-CoV-2 was below the limit of detection following treatment with riboflavin and UV light. The mean log reductions in the viral titres were ≥3·40 and ≥4·53 for the plasma units and platelet units, respectively. CONCLUSION: Riboflavin and UV light effectively reduced the titre of SARS-CoV-2 in both plasma and platelet products to below the limit of detection in tissue culture. The data suggest that the process would be effective in reducing the theoretical risk of transfusion transmitted SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Blood Safety/methods , Blood-Borne Pathogens/drug effects , Photosensitizing Agents/pharmacology , Riboflavin/pharmacology , Ultraviolet Rays , Animals , Betacoronavirus/radiation effects , Blood Platelets/virology , Blood-Borne Pathogens/radiation effects , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Plasma/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vero Cells
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