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Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 10760296211051764, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511654


The precise mechanisms of pathology in severe COVID-19 remains elusive. Current evidence suggests that inflammatory mediators are responsible for the manifestation of clinical symptoms that precedes a fatal response to infection. This review examines the nature of platelet activating factor and emphasizes the similarities between the physiological effects of platelet activating factor and the clinical complications of severe COVID-19.

COVID-19/metabolism , Platelet Activating Factor/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Humans , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/mortality , Inflammation/pathology , Multiple Organ Failure/complications , Multiple Organ Failure/metabolism , Multiple Organ Failure/mortality , Multiple Organ Failure/pathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombosis/complications , Thrombosis/metabolism , Thrombosis/mortality , Thrombosis/pathology
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Jan 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1055094


The new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is an emerging situation with high rates of morbidity and mortality, in the pathophysiology of which inflammation and thrombosis are implicated. The disease is directly connected to the nutritional status of patients and a well-balanced diet is recommended by official sources. Recently, the role of platelet activating factor (PAF) was suggested in the pathogenesis of COVID-19. In the present review several micronutrients (vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin D, selenium, omega-3 fatty acids, and minerals), phytochemicals and Mediterranean diet compounds with potential anti-COVID activity are presented. We further underline that the well-known anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic actions of the investigated nutrients and/or holistic dietary schemes, such as the Mediterranean diet, are also mediated through PAF. In conclusion, there is no single food to prevent coronavirus Although the relationship between PAF and COVID-19 is not robust, a healthy diet containing PAF inhibitors may target both inflammation and thrombosis and prevent the deleterious effects of COVID-19. The next step is the experimental confirmation or not of the PAF-COVID-19 hypothesis.

COVID-19/prevention & control , Diet, Mediterranean , Micronutrients , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Platelet Activating Factor/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans
Biofactors ; 46(6): 927-933, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-966303


Recent articles report elevated markers of coagulation, endothelial injury, and microthromboses in lungs from deceased COVID-19 patients. However, there has been no discussion of what may induce intravascular coagulation. Platelets are critical in the formation of thrombi and their most potent trigger is platelet activating factor (PAF), first characterized by Demopoulos and colleagues in 1979. PAF is produced by cells involved in host defense and its biological actions bear similarities with COVID-19 disease manifestations. PAF can also stimulate perivascular mast cell activation, leading to inflammation implicated in severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Mast cells are plentiful in the lungs and are a rich source of PAF and of inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1ß and IL-6, which may contribute to COVID-19 and especially SARS. The histamine-1 receptor antagonist rupatadine was developed to have anti-PAF activity, and also inhibits activation of human mast cells in response to PAF. Rupatadine could be repurposed for COVID-19 prophylaxis alone or together with other PAF-inhibitors of natural origin such as the flavonoids quercetin and luteolin, which have antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and anti-PAF actions.

COVID-19/prevention & control , Cyproheptadine/analogs & derivatives , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/prevention & control , Platelet Activating Factor/antagonists & inhibitors , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/prevention & control , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Platelets/drug effects , Blood Platelets/pathology , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cyproheptadine/therapeutic use , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/pathology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Inflammation , Interleukin-1beta/genetics , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Luteolin/therapeutic use , Mast Cells/drug effects , Mast Cells/pathology , Mast Cells/virology , Platelet Activating Factor/genetics , Platelet Activating Factor/metabolism , Pulmonary Embolism/blood , Pulmonary Embolism/pathology , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Quercetin/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/blood , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/pathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology