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1.
Chem Biodivers ; 19(1): e202100668, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611203

ABSTRACT

Forsyqinlingines C (1) and D (2), two C9 -monoterpenoid alkaloids bearing a rare skeleton, were isolated from the ripe fruits of Forsythia suspensa. Their structures, including absolute configurations, were fully elucidated by extensive spectroscopic data and ECD experiments. The plausible biogenetic pathway for compounds 1 and 2 was also proposed. In vitro, two C9 -monoterpenoid alkaloids showed anti-inflammatory activity performed by the inhibitory effect on the release of ß-glucuronidase in rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), as well as antiviral activity against influenza A (H1N1) virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV).


Subject(s)
Alkaloids/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Forsythia/chemistry , Monoterpenes/chemistry , Alkaloids/isolation & purification , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/isolation & purification , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Forsythia/metabolism , Fruit/chemistry , Fruit/metabolism , Glucuronidase/metabolism , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/drug effects , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Molecular Conformation , Neutrophils/cytology , Neutrophils/drug effects , Neutrophils/metabolism , Platelet Activating Factor/pharmacology , Rats , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/drug effects
2.
Eur Respir J ; 57(1)2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1041881

ABSTRACT

Epidemiological data from the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak suggest sex differences in mortality and vulnerability; however, sex-dependent incidence of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remains controversial and the sex-dependent mechanisms of endothelial barrier regulation are unknown. In premenopausal women, increased signalling of angiotensin (Ang)(1-7) via the Mas receptor has been linked to lower cardiovascular risk. Since stimulation of the Ang(1-7)/Mas axis protects the endothelial barrier in acute lung injury (ALI), we hypothesised that increased Ang(1-7)/Mas signalling may protect females over males in ALI/ARDS.Clinical data were collected from Charité inpatients (Berlin) and sex differences in ALI were assessed in wild-type (WT) and Mas-receptor deficient (Mas-/- ) mice. Endothelial permeability was assessed as weight change in isolated lungs and as transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) in vitroIn 734 090 Charité inpatients (2005-2016), ARDS had a higher incidence in men as compared to women. In murine ALI, male WT mice had more lung oedema, protein leaks and histological evidence of injury than female WT mice. Lung weight change in response to platelet-activating factor (PAF) was more pronounced in male WT and female Mas-/- mice than in female WT mice, whereas Mas-receptor expression was higher in female WT lungs. Ovariectomy attenuated protection in female WT mice and reduced Mas-receptor expression. Oestrogen increased Mas-receptor expression and attenuated endothelial leakage in response to thrombin in vitro This effect was alleviated by Mas-receptor blockade.Improved lung endothelial barrier function protects female mice from ALI-induced lung oedema. This effect is partially mediated via enhanced Ang(1-7)/Mas signalling as a result of oestrogen-dependent Mas expression.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury/genetics , Angiotensin I/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , Capillary Permeability/genetics , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Estrogens/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Peptide Fragments/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/genetics , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin I/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Capillary Permeability/drug effects , Child , Electric Impedance , Endothelial Cells/drug effects , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Estradiol/pharmacology , Female , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Lung/drug effects , Male , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Middle Aged , Ovariectomy , Peptide Fragments/pharmacology , Platelet Activating Factor/pharmacology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/metabolism , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Distribution , Sex Factors , Up-Regulation , Young Adult
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