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1.
Circ Res ; 132(10): 1272-1289, 2023 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319061

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is characterized by dysregulated thrombosis and coagulation that can increase mortality in patients. Platelets are fast responders to pathogen presence, alerting the surrounding immune cells and contributing to thrombosis and intravascular coagulation. The SARS-CoV-2 genome has been found in platelets from patients with COVID-19, and its coverage varies according to the method of detection, suggesting direct interaction of the virus with these cells. Antibodies against Spike and Nucleocapsid have confirmed this platelet-viral interaction. This review discusses the immune, prothrombotic, and procoagulant characteristics of platelets observed in patients with COVID-19. We outline the direct and indirect interaction of platelets with SARS-CoV-2, the contribution of the virus to programmed cell death pathway activation in platelets and the consequent extracellular vesicle release. We discuss platelet activation and immunothrombosis in patients with COVID-19, the effect of Spike on platelets, and possible activation of platelets by classical platelet activation triggers as well as contribution of platelets to complement activation. As COVID-19-mediated thrombosis and coagulation are still not well understood in vivo, we discuss available murine models and mouse adaptable strains.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Mice , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Blood Platelets/metabolism , Platelet Activation
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(9)2023 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320242

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread, with thrombotic complications being increasingly frequently reported. Although thrombosis is frequently complicated in septic patients, there are some differences in the thrombosis noted with COVID-19 and that noted with bacterial infections. The incidence (6-26%) of thrombosis varied among reports in patients with COVID-19; the incidences of venous thromboembolism and acute arterial thrombosis were 4.8-21.0% and 0.7-3.7%, respectively. Although disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is frequently associated with bacterial infections, a few cases of DIC have been reported in association with COVID-19. Fibrin-related markers, such as D-dimer levels, are extremely high in bacterial infections, whereas soluble C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (sCLEC-2) levels are high in COVID-19, suggesting that hypercoagulable and hyperfibrinolytic states are predominant in bacterial infections, whereas hypercoagulable and hypofibrinolytic states with platelet activation are predominant in COVID-19. Marked platelet activation, hypercoagulability and hypofibrinolytic states may cause thrombosis in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombophilia , Thrombosis , Humans , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombophilia/complications , Platelet Activation
3.
Platelets ; 34(1): 2200847, 2023 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295721

ABSTRACT

Ischemic cardiovascular and venous thromboembolic events are a frequent cause of death in severe COVID-19 patients. Platelet activation plays a key role in these complications, however platelet lipidomics have not been studied yet. The aim of our pilot investigation was to perform a preliminary study of platelet lipidomics in COVID-19 patients compared to healthy subjects. Lipid extraction and identification of ultrapurified platelets from eight hospitalized COVID-19 patients and eight age- and sex-matched healthy controls showed a lipidomic pattern almost completely separating COVID-19 patients from healthy controls. In particular, a significant decrease of ether phospholipids and increased levels of ganglioside GM3 were observed in platelets from COVID-19 patients. In conclusion, our study shows for the first time that platelets from COVID-19 patients display a different lipidomics signature distinguishing them from healthy controls, and suggests that altered platelet lipid metabolism may play a role in viral spreading and in the thrombotic complications of COVID-19.


What is the context? Besides respiratory system involvement, venous thromboembolism is a severe complication of COVID-19, largely due to the strong derangement of hemostasis, with platelets playing a central role.Great attention has recently been devoted to lipid alterations in COVID-19, both because viruses by reprogramming cellular lipid metabolism remodel lipid membranes to fuel their replication, and because the COVID-19-associated cytokine storm may affect cell/plasma lipidomic signatures.Lipidomics studies in COVID-19 patients have been performed mainly in plasma and serum.To the best of our knowledge, platelet lipidomics have not been examined despite the central role played by platelets in COVID-19 complications.What is the aim of the study?The aim of our pilot study was to preliminarily explore whether platelet lipidomics is altered in COVID-19 patients compared to age- and sex-matched healthy subjects, analyzing lipidomic profile of ultrapurified platelets.What are the results of our study? Our study shows for the first time that platelets from COVID-19 patients display a different lipidomics signature distinguishing them from healthy controls.Ether phospholipids and, intriguingly, two phytoceramides were lower, while ganglioside GM3 was higher in COVID-19 samples compared to healthy controls.What is the impact?Despite the small number of COVID-19 patients enrolled, recognized as a limitation of our study, we show, for the first time, that platelets from COVID-19 patients present a different lipidomics signature and suggest that altered platelet lipid metabolism may play a significant role in viral spreading and in the thrombotic complications of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Humans , COVID-19/metabolism , Lipidomics , Blood Platelets/metabolism , Platelet Activation , Thrombosis/metabolism
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(7)2023 Apr 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295699

ABSTRACT

The role of NETs and platelet activation in COVID-19 is scarcely known. We aimed to evaluate the role of NETs (citrullinated histone H3 [CitH3], cell-free DNA [cfDNA]) and platelet activation markers (soluble CD40 ligand [CD40L] and P-selectin) in estimating the hazard of different clinical trajectories in patients with COVID-19. We performed a prospective study of 204 patients, categorized as outpatient, hospitalized and ICU-admitted. A multistate model was designed to estimate probabilities of clinical transitions across varying states, such as emergency department (ED) visit, discharge (outpatient), ward admission, ICU admission and death. Levels of cfDNA, CitH3 and P-selectin were associated with the severity of presentation and analytical parameters. The model showed an increased risk of higher levels of CitH3 and P-selectin for ED-to-ICU transitions (Hazard Ratio [HR]: 1.35 and 1.31, respectively), as well as an elevated risk of higher levels of P-selectin for ward-to-death transitions (HR: 1.09). Elevated levels of CitH3 (HR: 0.90), cfDNA (HR: 0.84) and P-selectin (HR: 0.91) decreased the probability of ward-to-discharge transitions. A similar trend existed for elevated levels of P-selectin and ICU-to-ward transitions (HR 0.40); In conclusion, increased NET and P-selectin levels are associated with more severe episodes and can prove useful in estimating different clinical trajectories.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cell-Free Nucleic Acids , Extracellular Traps , Humans , P-Selectin , Prospective Studies , Histones , Platelet Activation
5.
N Engl J Med ; 384(22): 2092-2101, 2021 06 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2283980

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several cases of unusual thrombotic events and thrombocytopenia have developed after vaccination with the recombinant adenoviral vector encoding the spike protein antigen of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (ChAdOx1 nCov-19, AstraZeneca). More data were needed on the pathogenesis of this unusual clotting disorder. METHODS: We assessed the clinical and laboratory features of 11 patients in Germany and Austria in whom thrombosis or thrombocytopenia had developed after vaccination with ChAdOx1 nCov-19. We used a standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect platelet factor 4 (PF4)-heparin antibodies and a modified (PF4-enhanced) platelet-activation test to detect platelet-activating antibodies under various reaction conditions. Included in this testing were samples from patients who had blood samples referred for investigation of vaccine-associated thrombotic events, with 28 testing positive on a screening PF4-heparin immunoassay. RESULTS: Of the 11 original patients, 9 were women, with a median age of 36 years (range, 22 to 49). Beginning 5 to 16 days after vaccination, the patients presented with one or more thrombotic events, with the exception of 1 patient, who presented with fatal intracranial hemorrhage. Of the patients with one or more thrombotic events, 9 had cerebral venous thrombosis, 3 had splanchnic-vein thrombosis, 3 had pulmonary embolism, and 4 had other thromboses; of these patients, 6 died. Five patients had disseminated intravascular coagulation. None of the patients had received heparin before symptom onset. All 28 patients who tested positive for antibodies against PF4-heparin tested positive on the platelet-activation assay in the presence of PF4 independent of heparin. Platelet activation was inhibited by high levels of heparin, Fc receptor-blocking monoclonal antibody, and immune globulin (10 mg per milliliter). Additional studies with PF4 or PF4-heparin affinity purified antibodies in 2 patients confirmed PF4-dependent platelet activation. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination with ChAdOx1 nCov-19 can result in the rare development of immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia mediated by platelet-activating antibodies against PF4, which clinically mimics autoimmune heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. (Funded by the German Research Foundation.).


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Platelet Factor 4/immunology , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Thrombosis/etiology , Adult , Autoimmune Diseases/etiology , Blood Chemical Analysis , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Platelet Activation , Thrombocytopenia/immunology , Thrombosis/immunology , Young Adult
6.
Br J Haematol ; 201(5): 851-856, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2276305

ABSTRACT

The effectiveness of vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 in preventing COVID-19 or in reducing severe illness in subjects hospitalized for COVID-19 despite vaccination has been unequivocally shown. However, no studies so far have assessed if subjects who get COVID-19 despite vaccination are protected from SARS-CoV-2-induced platelet, neutrophil and endothelial activation, biomarkers associated with thrombosis and worse outcome. In this pilot study, we show that previous vaccination blunts COVID-19-associated platelet activation, assessed by circulating platelet-derived microvesicles and soluble P-selectin, and neutrophil activation, assessed by circulating neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) biomarkers and matrix metalloproteinase-9, and reduces COVID-19-associated thrombotic events, hospitalization in intensive-care units and death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Neutrophil Activation , Pilot Projects , Thrombosis/complications , Biomarkers , Platelet Activation , Vaccination
7.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1129201, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2253738

ABSTRACT

Background: Several viral and bacterial infections, including COVID-19, may lead to both thrombotic and hemorrhagic complications. Previously, it has been demonstrated an "in vitro" pathogenic effect of "antiphospholipid" antibodies (aPLs), which are able to activate a proinflammatory and procoagulant phenotype in monocytes, endothelial cells and platelets. This study analyzed the occurrence of aPL IgG in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) during COVID-19, evaluating the effect of Ig fractions from these patients on signaling and functional activation of platelets. Materials and methods: Sera from 10 patients with AIS during COVID-19, 10 non-COVID-19 stroke patients, 20 COVID-19 and 30 healthy donors (HD) were analyzed for anti-cardiolipin, anti-ß2-GPI, anti-phosphatidylserine/prothrombin and anti-vimentin/CL antibodies by ELISA. Platelets from healthy donors were incubated with Ig fractions from these patients or with polyclonal anti-ß2-GPI IgG and analyzed for phospho-ERK and phospho-p38 by western blot. Platelet secretion by ATP release dosage was also evaluated. Results: We demonstrated the presence of aPLs IgG in sera of patients with AIS during COVID-19. Treatment with the Ig fractions from these patients or with polyclonal anti-ß2-GPI IgG induced a significant increase of phospho-ERK and phospho-p38 expression. In the same vein, platelet activation was supported by the increase of adenyl nucleotides release induced by Ig fractions. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the presence of aPLs in a subgroup of COVID-19 patients who presented AIS, suggesting a role in the mechanisms contributing to hypercoagulable state in these patients. Detecting these antibodies as a serological marker to check and monitor COVID-19 may contribute to improve the risk stratification of thromboembolic manifestations in these patients.


Subject(s)
Antiphospholipid Syndrome , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Humans , Endothelial Cells , COVID-19/complications , Antibodies, Antiphospholipid , beta 2-Glycoprotein I , Platelet Activation , Stroke/complications , Signal Transduction , Immunoglobulin G
9.
PLoS One ; 18(3): e0282785, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2282344

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The increased procoagulant platelets and platelet activation are associated with thrombosis in COVID-19. In this study, we investigated platelet activation in COVID-19 patients and their association with other disease markers. METHODS: COVID-19 patients were classified into three severity groups: no pneumonia, mild-to-moderate pneumonia, and severe pneumonia. The expression of P-selectin and activated glycoprotein (aGP) IIb/IIIa on the platelet surface and platelet-leukocyte aggregates were measured prospectively on admission days 1, 7, and 10 by flow cytometry. RESULTS: P-selectin expression, platelet-neutrophil, platelet-lymphocyte, and platelet-monocyte aggregates were higher in COVID-19 patients than in uninfected control individuals. In contrast, aGPIIb/IIIa expression was not different between patients and controls. Severe pneumonia patients had lower platelet-monocyte aggregates than patients without pneumonia and patients with mild-to-moderate pneumonia. Platelet-neutrophil and platelet-lymphocyte aggregates were not different among groups. There was no change in platelet-leukocyte aggregates and P-selectin expression on days 1, 7, and 10. aGPIIb/IIIa expression was not different among patient groups. Still, adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced aGPIIb/IIIa expression was lower in severe pneumonia than in patients without and with mild-to-moderate pneumonia. Platelet-monocyte aggregates exhibited a weak positive correlation with lymphocyte count and weak negative correlations with interleukin-6, D-dimer, lactate dehydrogenase, and nitrite. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 patients have higher platelet-leukocyte aggregates and P-selectin expression than controls, indicating increased platelet activation. Compared within patient groups, platelet-monocyte aggregates were lower in severe pneumonia patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , P-Selectin , Humans , P-Selectin/metabolism , Monocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Blood Platelets/metabolism , Platelet Activation , Platelet Glycoprotein GPIIb-IIIa Complex/metabolism , Flow Cytometry , Platelet Aggregation
10.
Arch Cardiovasc Dis ; 116(4): 183-191, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2244217

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with an inflammatory cytokine burst and a prothrombotic coagulopathy. Platelets may contribute to microthrombosis, and constitute a therapeutic target in COVID-19 therapy. AIM: To assess if platelet activation influences mortality in COVID-19. METHODS: We explored two cohorts of patients with COVID-19. Cohort A included 208 ambulatory and hospitalized patients with varying clinical severities and non-COVID patients as controls, in whom plasma concentrations of the soluble platelet activation biomarkers CD40 ligand (sCD40L) and P-selectin (sP-sel) were quantified within the first 48hours following hospitalization. Cohort B was a multicentre cohort of 2878 patients initially admitted to a medical ward. In both cohorts, the primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: In cohort A, median circulating concentrations of sCD40L and sP-sel were only increased in the 89 critical patients compared with non-COVID controls: sP-sel 40,059 (interquartile range 26,876-54,678)pg/mL; sCD40L 1914 (interquartile range 1410-2367)pg/mL (P<0.001 for both). A strong association existed between sP-sel concentration and in-hospital mortality (Kaplan-Meier log-rank P=0.004). However, in a Cox model considering biomarkers of immunothrombosis, sP-sel was no longer associated with mortality, in contrast to coagulopathy evaluated with D-dimer concentration (hazard ratio 4.86, 95% confidence interval 1.64-12.50). Moreover, in cohort B, a Cox model adjusted for co-morbidities suggested that prehospitalization antiplatelet agents had no significant impact on in-hospital mortality (hazard ratio 1.05, 95% CI 0.80-1.37; P=0.73). CONCLUSIONS: Although we observed an association between excessive biomarkers of platelet activation and in-hospital mortality, our findings rather suggest that coagulopathy is more central in driving disease progression, which may explain why prehospitalization antiplatelet drugs were not a protective factor against mortality in our multicentre cohort.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors , Humans , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/adverse effects , Platelet Activation , Inflammation/diagnosis , Inflammation/drug therapy , Biomarkers
12.
J Thromb Haemost ; 21(5): 1307-1321, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2230493

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with COVID-19 are at increased risk of thrombosis, which is associated with altered platelet function and coagulopathy, contributing to excess mortality. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the mechanism of altered platelet function in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: The platelet proteome, platelet functional responses, and platelet-neutrophil aggregates were compared between patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and healthy control subjects using tandem mass tag proteomic analysis, Western blotting, and flow cytometry. RESULTS: COVID-19 patients showed a different profile of platelet protein expression (858 altered of the 5773 quantified). Levels of COVID-19 plasma markers were enhanced in the platelets of COVID-19 patients. Gene ontology pathway analysis demonstrated that the levels of granule secretory proteins were raised, whereas those of platelet activation proteins, such as the thrombopoietin receptor and protein kinase Cα, were lowered. Basally, platelets of COVID-19 patients showed enhanced phosphatidylserine exposure, with unaltered integrin αIIbß3 activation and P-selectin expression. Agonist-stimulated integrin αIIbß3 activation and phosphatidylserine exposure, but not P-selectin expression, were decreased in COVID-19 patients. COVID-19 patients had high levels of platelet-neutrophil aggregates, even under basal conditions, compared to controls. This association was disrupted by blocking P-selectin, demonstrating that platelet P-selectin is critical for the interaction. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our data suggest the presence of 2 platelet populations in patients with COVID-19: one of circulating platelets with an altered proteome and reduced functional responses and another of P-selectin-expressing neutrophil-associated platelets. Platelet-driven thromboinflammation may therefore be one of the key factors enhancing the risk of thrombosis in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Humans , Proteome/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , Proteomics , Phosphatidylserines/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Thrombosis/etiology , Blood Platelets/metabolism , Platelet Glycoprotein GPIIb-IIIa Complex/metabolism , Platelet Activation , Selectins/metabolism
13.
Thromb Haemost ; 123(2): 231-244, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2234961

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Monocyte-platelet aggregates (MPAs) represent the crossroads between thrombosis and inflammation, and targeting this axis may suppress thromboinflammation. While antiplatelet therapy (APT) reduces platelet-platelet aggregation and thrombosis, its effects on MPA and platelet effector properties on monocytes are uncertain. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the effect of platelets on monocyte activation and APT on MPA and platelet-induced monocyte activation. METHODS: Agonist-stimulated whole blood was incubated in the presence of P-selectin, PSGL1, PAR1, P2Y12, GP IIb/IIIa, and COX-1 inhibitors and assessed for platelet and monocyte activity via flow cytometry. RNA-Seq of monocytes incubated with platelets was used to identify platelet-induced monocyte transcripts and was validated by RT-qPCR in monocyte-PR co-incubation ± APT. RESULTS: Consistent with a proinflammatory platelet effector role, MPAs were increased in patients with COVID-19. RNA-Seq revealed a thromboinflammatory monocyte transcriptome upon incubation with platelets. Monocytes aggregated to platelets expressed higher CD40 and tissue factor than monocytes without platelets (p < 0.05 for each). Inhibition with P-selectin (85% reduction) and PSGL1 (87% reduction) led to a robust decrease in MPA. P2Y12 and PAR1 inhibition lowered MPA formation (30 and 21% reduction, p < 0.05, respectively) and decreased monocyte CD40 and TF expression, while GP IIb/IIIa and COX1 inhibition had no effect. Pretreatment of platelets with P2Y12 inhibitors reduced the expression of platelet-mediated monocyte transcription of proinflammatory SOCS3 and OSM. CONCLUSIONS: Platelets skew monocytes toward a proinflammatory phenotype. Among traditional APTs, P2Y12 inhibition attenuates platelet-induced monocyte activation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Humans , Blood Platelets/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Monocytes/metabolism , P-Selectin/metabolism , Platelet Activation , Platelet Glycoprotein GPIIb-IIIa Complex/metabolism , Platelet Membrane Glycoprotein IIb/metabolism , Receptor, PAR-1/metabolism , Thrombosis/metabolism
14.
Thromb Res ; 223: 24-33, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2183790

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Studies exploring alterations in blood coagulation and platelet activation induced by COVID-19 vaccines are not concordant. We aimed to assess the impact of four COVID-19 vaccines on platelet activation, coagulation, and inflammation considering also the immunization dose and the history of SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: TREASURE study enrolled 368 consecutive subjects (161 receiving viral vector vaccines -ChAdOx1-S/Vaxzevria or Janssen- and 207 receiving mRNA vaccines -Comirnaty/Pfizer-BioNTech or Spikevax/Moderna). Blood was collected the day before and 8 ± 2 days after the vaccination. Platelet activation markers (P-selectin, aGPIIbIIIa and Tissue Factor expression; number of platelet-monocyte and -granulocyte aggregates) and microvesicle release were analyzed by flow cytometry. Platelet thrombin generation (TG) capacity was measured using the Calibrated Automated Thrombogram. Plasma coagulation and inflammation markers and immune response were evaluated by ELISA. RESULTS: Vaccination did not induce platelet activation and microvesicle release. IL-6 and CRP levels (+30%), D-dimer, fibrinogen and F1+2 (+13%, +3.7%, +4.3%, respectively) but not TAT levels significantly increased upon immunization with all four vaccines, with no difference among them and between first and second dose. An overall minor post-vaccination reduction of aPC, TM and TFPI, all possibly related to endothelial function, was observed. No anti-PF4 seroconversion was observed. CONCLUSION: This study showed that the four COVID-19 vaccines administered to a large population sample induce a transient inflammatory response, with no onset of platelet activation. The minor changes in clotting activation and endothelial function might be potentially involved at a population level in explaining the very rare venous thromboembolic complications of COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , Blood Coagulation , Platelet Activation , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(23)2022 Dec 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143241

ABSTRACT

A state of immunothrombosis has been reported in COVID-19. Platelets actively participate in this process. However, little is known about the ability of SARS-CoV-2 virus proteins to induce platelet activity. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) was incubated with spike full-length protein and the RBD domain in independent assays. We evaluated platelet activation through the expression of P-selectin and activation of glicoprotein IIbIIIa (GP IIbIIIa), determined by flow cytometry and the ability of the proteins to induce platelet aggregation. We determined concentrations of immunothrombotic biomarkers in PRP supernatant treated with the proteins. We determined that the spike full-length proteins and the RBD domain induced an increase in P-selectin expression and GP IIbIIIa activation (p < 0.0001). We observed that the proteins did not induce platelet aggregation, but favored a pro-aggregating state that, in response to minimal doses of collagen, could re-establish the process (p < 0.0001). On the other hand, the viral proteins stimulated the release of interleukin 6, interleukin 8, P-selectin and the soluble fraction of CD40 ligand (sCD40L), molecules that favor an inflammatory state p < 0.05. These results indicate that the spike full-length protein and its RBD domain can induce platelet activation favoring an inflammatory phenotype that might contribute to the development of an immunothrombotic state.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Blood Platelets/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Platelet Activation , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Protein Domains
17.
EBioMedicine ; 85: 104305, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2068885

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is characterized by enhanced platelet activation and diffuse hemostatic alterations, which may contribute to immunothrombosis/thromboinflammation and subsequent development of target-organ damage. Thrombopoietin (THPO), a growth factor essential to megakariocyte proliferation, is known to prime platelet activation and leukocyte-platelet interaction. In addition, THPO concentrations increase in several critical diseases, such as acute cardiac ischemia and sepsis, thus representing a potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarker. Furthermore, several data suggest that interleukin (IL)-6 is one of the most important inflammatory mediators involved in these phenomena, which led to explore the potential therapeutic role of IL-6 inhibitors. In this prospective cohort study, we aimed to study THPO and IL-6 concentrations in COVID-19 patients at the time of first clinical evaluation in the Emergency Department (ED), and to investigate their potential use as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. In addition, we sought to explore the role of THPO contained in plasma samples obtained from COVID-19 patients in priming in vitro platelet activation and leukocyte-platelet interaction. METHODS: We enrolled 66 patients presenting to the ED with symptoms suggestive of COVID-19, including 47 with confirmed COVID-19 and 19 in whom COVID-19 was excluded (Non-COVID-19 patients). As controls, we also recruited 18 healthy subjects. In vitro, we reproduced the effects of increased circulating THPO on platelet function by adding plasma from COVID-19 patients or controls to platelet-rich plasma or whole blood obtained by healthy donors, and we indirectly studied the effect of THPO on platelet activation by blocking its biological activity. FINDINGS: THPO levels were higher in COVID-19 patients than in both Non-COVID-19 patients and healthy subjects. Studying THPO as diagnostic marker for the diagnosis of COVID-19 by receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) statistics, we found an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.73, with an optimal cut-off value of 42.60 pg/mL. IL-6 was higher in COVID-19 patients than in healthy subjects, but did not differ between COVID-19 and Non-COVID-19 patients. THPO concentrations measured at the time of diagnosis in the ED were also higher in COVID-19 patients subsequently developing a severe disease than in those with mild disease. Evaluating THPO as biomarker for severe COVID-19 using ROC analysis, we found an AUC of 0.71, with an optimal cut-off value of 57.11 pg/mL. IL-6 was also higher in severe than in mild COVID-19 patients, with an AUC for severe COVID-19 of 0.83 and an optimal cut-off value of 23 pg/ml. THPO concentrations correlated with those of IL-6 (r=0.2963; p=0.043), and decreased 24 h after the administration of tocilizumab, an IL-6 receptor blocking antibody, showing that the increase of THPO levels depends on IL-6-stimulated hepatic synthesis. In vitro, plasma obtained from COVID-19 patients, but not from healthy subjects, primed platelet aggregation and leukocyte-platelet binding, and these effects were reduced by inhibiting THPO activity. INTERPRETATION: Increased THPO may be proposed as an early biomarker for the diagnosis of COVID-19 and for the identification of patients at risk of developing critical illness. Elevated THPO may contribute to enhance platelet activation and leukocyte-platelet interaction in COVID-19 patients, thus potentially participating in immunothrombosis/thromboinflammation. FUNDING: This work was supported by Ministero dell'Università e della Ricerca Scientifica e Tecnologica (MURST) ex 60% to GM and EL.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Humans , Thrombopoietin/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , Interleukin-6 , Prospective Studies , Inflammation , Platelet Activation , Biomarkers
18.
Clin Lab ; 68(9)2022 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2040369

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: CD62P is a surface marker for platelet activation. Platelet dysfunction contributes to disproportionate intravascular microthrombosis in SARS-CoV-2. We aimed to assess the clinical significance of CD62P as a biomarker of platelet activation and its correlation to the clinical severity and outcome of COVID-19 infections. METHODS: The study included 80 COVID-19 patients and, in addition, there were 20 age and gender-matched healthy controls. Laboratory measurements included CBC, serum ferritin, LDH, CRP, D-dimer and flow cytometric assessments of the platelet markers CD42b and CD62P. The primary study outcome was patients' survival at the end of study. RESULTS: Among the studied patients, 24 patients (30.0%) died by the end of the study. Survivors had significantly lower CD62P values when compared with non-survivors [median (IQR): 75.5 (73.0 - 91.0) versus 96.0 (93.5 - 97.8), p < 0.001]. Patients with severe disease had significantly higher levels of CD62P levels [median (IQR): 95.5 (92.0 - 97.8) versus 75.0 (72.0 - 76.8), p < 0.001]. Logistic regression analysis identified D-dimer levels [OR (95% CI): 0.14 (0.03 - 0.74) and CD62P levels: OR (95% CI): 0.4 (0.17 - 0.94)] as significant predictors of mortality in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: CD62P expression on admission may be a useful prognostic maker in hospitalized Covid-19 patients. Its expression is related to other markers of inflammation and coagulopathy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , P-Selectin/metabolism , Biomarkers , Ferritins , Humans , Platelet Activation , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2
20.
J Thromb Haemost ; 20(9): 2161-2163, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1992868
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