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1.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2663: 441-461, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324357

ABSTRACT

Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a well-characterized, iatrogenic complication of heparin anticoagulation with significant morbidity. In contrast, vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) is a recently recognized severe prothrombotic complication of adenoviral vaccines, including the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (Vaxzevria, AstraZeneca) and Ad26.COV2.S (Janssen, Johnson & Johnson) vaccines against COVID-19. The diagnosis of HIT and VITT involve laboratory testing for antiplatelet antibodies by immunoassays followed by confirmation by functional assays to detect platelet-activating antibodies. Functional assays are critical to detect pathological antibodies due to the varying sensitivity and specificity of immunoassays. This chapter presents a protocol for a novel whole blood flow cytometry-based assay to detect procoagulant platelets in healthy donor blood in response to plasma from patients suspected of HIT or VITT. A method to identify suitable healthy donors for HIT and VITT testing is also described.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Vaccines , Humans , Blood Platelets , Ad26COVS1 , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Flow Cytometry , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis , Antibodies , Platelet Factor 4
2.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2663: 429-440, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324176

ABSTRACT

Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) was first described in 2021 and represents an adverse reaction to adenoviral vector COVID-19 vaccines AstraZeneca ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) and Johnson & Johnson Ad26.COV2.S vaccine. VITT is a severe immune platelet activation syndrome with an incidence of 1-2 per 100,000 vaccinations. The features of VITT include thrombocytopenia and thrombosis within 4-42 days of first dose of vaccine. Affected individuals develop platelet-activating antibodies against platelet factor 4 (PF4). The International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis recommends both an antigen-binding assay (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA) and a functional platelet activation assay for the diagnostic workup of VITT. Here, the application of multiple electrode aggregometry (Multiplate) is presented as a functional assay for VITT.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombocytopenia , Vaccines , Humans , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Ad26COVS1 , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis , Antibodies , Electrodes , Platelet Factor 4
3.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2663: 463-477, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324173

ABSTRACT

The serotonin release assay (SRA) has been the gold-standard assay for detection of heparin-dependent platelet-activating antibodies and integral for the diagnosis for heparin-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia (HIT). In 2021, a thrombotic thrombocytopenic syndrome was reported after adenoviral vector COVID-19 vaccination. This vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenic syndrome (VITT) proved to be a severe immune platelet activation syndrome manifested by unusual thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, very elevated plasma D-dimer, and a high mortality even with aggressive therapy (anticoagulation and plasma exchange). While the platelet-activating antibodies in both HIT and VITT are directed toward platelet factor 4 (PF4), important differences have been found. These differences have required modifications to the SRA to improve detection of functional VITT antibodies. Functional platelet activation assays remain essential in the diagnostic workup of HIT and VITT. Here we detail the application of SRA for the assessment of HIT and VITT antibodies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Humans , Heparin/adverse effects , Serotonin , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis , Antibodies , Thrombosis/diagnosis , Thrombosis/etiology , Platelet Factor 4/adverse effects
4.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2663: 405-415, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323040

ABSTRACT

Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) represents an autoimmune process whereby antibodies are formed against heparin in complex with platelet factor 4 (PF4) after heparin administration. These antibodies can be detected by a variety of immunological assays, including ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and by chemiluminescence on the AcuStar instrument. However, pathological HIT antibodies are those that activate platelets in a platelet activation assay and cause thrombosis in vivo. We would tend to call this condition heparin-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia (HITT), although some workers instead use the truncated abbreviation HIT. Vaccine-induced (immune) thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) instead reflects an autoimmune process whereby antibodies are formed against PF4 after administration of a vaccine, most notably adenovirus-based vaccines directed against COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019). Although both VITT and HITT reflect similar pathological processes, they have different origins and are detected in different ways. Most notable is that anti-PF4 antibodies in VITT can only be detected immunologically by ELISA assays, tending to be negative in rapid assays such as that using the AcuStar. Moreover, functional platelet activation assays otherwise used for HITT may need to be modified to detect platelet activation in VITT.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Vaccines , Humans , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis , Heparin/adverse effects , Thrombosis/chemically induced , Antibodies , Vaccines/adverse effects , Platelet Factor 4/adverse effects
6.
Eur J Intern Med ; 105: 1-7, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2309780

ABSTRACT

Vaccine-induced immune thrombocytopenia and thrombosis (VITT) is a rare syndrome characterized by high-titer anti-platelet factor 4 (PF4) antibodies, thrombocytopenia and arterial and venous thrombosis in unusual sites, as cerebral venous sinuses and splanchnic veins. VITT has been described to occur almost exclusively after administration of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and Ad26.COV2.S adenovirus vector- based COVID-19 vaccines. Clinical and laboratory features of VITT resemble those of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). It has been hypothesized that negatively charged polyadenylated hexone proteins of the AdV vectors could act as heparin to induce the conformational changes of PF4 molecule that lead to the formation of anti-PF4/polyanion antibodies. The anti-PF4 immune response in VITT is fostered by the presence of a proinflammatory milieu, elicited by some impurities found in ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine, as well as by soluble spike protein resulting from alternative splice events. Anti-PF4 antibodies bind PF4, forming immune complexes which activate platelets, monocytes and granulocytes, resulting in the VITT's immunothrombosis. The reason why only a tiny minority of patents receiving AdV-based COVID-19 vaccines develop VITT is still unknown. It has been hypothesized that individual intrinsic factors, either acquired (i.e., pre-priming of B cells to produce anti-PF4 antibodies by previous contacts with bacteria or viruses) or inherited (i.e., differences in platelet T-cell ubiquitin ligand-2 [TULA-2] expression) can predispose a few subjects to develop VITT. A better knowledge of the mechanistic basis of VITT is essential to improve the safety and the effectiveness of future vaccines and gene therapies using adenovirus vectors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Vaccines , Humans , Antigen-Antibody Complex , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Ad26COVS1 , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Ligands , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , COVID-19/prevention & control , Platelet Factor 4/genetics , Platelet Factor 4/metabolism , Heparin/adverse effects , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Vaccines/adverse effects , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/chemically induced , Ubiquitins
7.
N Engl J Med ; 384(22): 2092-2101, 2021 06 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2283980

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several cases of unusual thrombotic events and thrombocytopenia have developed after vaccination with the recombinant adenoviral vector encoding the spike protein antigen of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (ChAdOx1 nCov-19, AstraZeneca). More data were needed on the pathogenesis of this unusual clotting disorder. METHODS: We assessed the clinical and laboratory features of 11 patients in Germany and Austria in whom thrombosis or thrombocytopenia had developed after vaccination with ChAdOx1 nCov-19. We used a standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect platelet factor 4 (PF4)-heparin antibodies and a modified (PF4-enhanced) platelet-activation test to detect platelet-activating antibodies under various reaction conditions. Included in this testing were samples from patients who had blood samples referred for investigation of vaccine-associated thrombotic events, with 28 testing positive on a screening PF4-heparin immunoassay. RESULTS: Of the 11 original patients, 9 were women, with a median age of 36 years (range, 22 to 49). Beginning 5 to 16 days after vaccination, the patients presented with one or more thrombotic events, with the exception of 1 patient, who presented with fatal intracranial hemorrhage. Of the patients with one or more thrombotic events, 9 had cerebral venous thrombosis, 3 had splanchnic-vein thrombosis, 3 had pulmonary embolism, and 4 had other thromboses; of these patients, 6 died. Five patients had disseminated intravascular coagulation. None of the patients had received heparin before symptom onset. All 28 patients who tested positive for antibodies against PF4-heparin tested positive on the platelet-activation assay in the presence of PF4 independent of heparin. Platelet activation was inhibited by high levels of heparin, Fc receptor-blocking monoclonal antibody, and immune globulin (10 mg per milliliter). Additional studies with PF4 or PF4-heparin affinity purified antibodies in 2 patients confirmed PF4-dependent platelet activation. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination with ChAdOx1 nCov-19 can result in the rare development of immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia mediated by platelet-activating antibodies against PF4, which clinically mimics autoimmune heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. (Funded by the German Research Foundation.).


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Platelet Factor 4/immunology , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Thrombosis/etiology , Adult , Autoimmune Diseases/etiology , Blood Chemical Analysis , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Platelet Activation , Thrombocytopenia/immunology , Thrombosis/immunology , Young Adult
8.
Blood ; 141(14): 1659-1665, 2023 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2255229

ABSTRACT

Within the first months of the COVID-19 vaccination campaign, previously healthy recipients who developed severe thrombosis (often cerebral and/or splanchnic vasculature) and thrombocytopenia typically after adenoviral vector-based vaccination were identified. Similarities between this syndrome, vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT), and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia prompted recognition of the role of antiplatelet factor 4 (PF4) antibodies and management strategies based on IV immunoglobulin and nonheparin anticoagulants, which improved outcome. We update current understanding of VITT and potential involvement of anti-PF4 antibodies in thrombotic disorders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Vaccines , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/chemically induced , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/therapy , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombosis/etiology , Platelet Factor 4
9.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1098665, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2269468

ABSTRACT

Platelet factor 4 (PF4), also known as chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 4 (CXCL4), is a specific protein synthesized from platelet α particles. The combination of PF4 and heparin to form antigenic complexes is an important mechanism in the pathogenesis of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), but vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) related to the COVID-19 vaccine makes PF4 a research hotspot again. Similar to HIT, vaccines, bacteria, and other non-heparin exposure, PF4 can interact with negatively charged polyanions to form immune complexes and participate in thrombosis. These anions include cell surface mucopolysaccharides, platelet polyphosphates, DNA from endothelial cells, or von Willebrand factor (VWF). Among them, PF4-VWF, as a new immune complex, may induce and promote the formation of immune-associated thrombosis and is expected to become a new target and therapeutic direction. For both HIT and VITT, there is no effective and targeted treatment except discontinuation of suspected drugs. The research and development of targeted drugs based on the mechanism of action have become an unmet clinical need. Here, this study systematically reviewed the characteristics and pathophysiological mechanisms of PF4 and VWF, elaborated the potential mechanism of action of PF4-VWF complex in immune-associated thrombosis, summarized the current status of new drug research and development for PF4 and VWF, and discussed the possibility of this complex as a potential biomarker for early immune-associated thrombosis events. Moreover, the key points of basic research and clinical evaluation are put forward in the study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Humans , Acceleration , Antigen-Antibody Complex , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Heparin/metabolism , Immunologic Factors , Platelet Factor 4 , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/complications , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Thrombosis/complications , von Willebrand Factor
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(47): e2213361119, 2022 11 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2269357

ABSTRACT

Severe COVID-19 is characterized by a prothrombotic state associated with thrombocytopenia, with microvascular thrombosis being almost invariably present in the lung and other organs at postmortem examination. We evaluated the presence of antibodies to platelet factor 4 (PF4)-polyanion complexes using a clinically validated immunoassay in 100 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 with moderate or severe disease (World Health Organization score, 4 to 10), 25 patients with acute COVID-19 visiting the emergency department, and 65 convalescent individuals. Anti-PF4 antibodies were detected in 95 of 100 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 (95.0%) irrespective of prior heparin treatment, with a mean optical density value of 0.871 ± 0.405 SD (range, 0.177 to 2.706). In contrast, patients hospitalized for severe acute respiratory disease unrelated to COVID-19 had markedly lower levels of the antibodies. In a high proportion of patients with COVID-19, levels of all three immunoglobulin (Ig) isotypes tested (IgG, IgM, and IgA) were simultaneously elevated. Antibody levels were higher in male than in female patients and higher in African Americans and Hispanics than in White patients. Anti-PF4 antibody levels were correlated with the maximum disease severity score and with significant reductions in circulating platelet counts during hospitalization. In individuals convalescent from COVID-19, the antibody levels returned to near-normal values. Sera from patients with COVID-19 induced higher levels of platelet activation than did sera from healthy blood donors, but the results were not correlated with the levels of anti-PF4 antibodies. These results demonstrate that the vast majority of patients with severe COVID-19 develop anti-PF4 antibodies, which may play a role in the clinical complications of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombocytopenia , Humans , Male , Female , Platelet Factor 4 , Heparin , Antibodies , Immunologic Factors , Severity of Illness Index
11.
Hamostaseologie ; 43(1): 22-27, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2284990

ABSTRACT

Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) is a rare but serious complication of adenoviral vector-based COVID-19 vaccines. Similar to heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), antibodies reacting to platelet factor 4 (PF4) are responsible for platelet activation in VITT. The diagnosis of VITT includes the detection of anti-PF4 antibodies. Particle gel immunoassay (PaGIA) is one of the rapid immunoassays that is commonly used in the diagnosis of HIT to detect anti-PF4 antibodies. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic performance of PaGIA in patients suspected of VITT. In this retrospective, single-center study, the correlation between PaGIA, enzyme immunoassay (EIA), and modified heparin-induced platelet aggregation assay (HIPA) in patients with findings suggestive of VITT was investigated. A commercially available PF4 rapid immunoassay (ID PaGIA H/PF4, Bio-Rad-DiaMed GmbH, Switzerland) and an anti-PF4/heparin EIA (ZYMUTEST HIA IgG, Hyphen Biomed) were used according to manufacturer's instructions. Modified HIPA was accepted as the gold standard test. Between March 8 and November 19, 2021, a total of 34 samples from clinically well-characterized patients (14 males, 20 females, mean age: 48.2 ± 18.2 years) were analyzed with PaGIA, EIA, and modified HIPA. VITT was diagnosed in 15 patients. Sensitivity and specificity of PaGIA were 54 and 67%, respectively. Anti-PF4/heparin optical density values were not significantly different between PaGIA positive and negative samples (p = 0.586). The sensitivity and specificity of EIA, on the other hand, were 87 and 100%, respectively. In conclusion, PaGIA is not reliable in the diagnosis of VITT because of its low sensitivity and specificity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , Immunoassay , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Thrombocytopenia , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Heparin/adverse effects , Platelet Factor 4 , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/chemically induced , Retrospective Studies , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced
12.
Thromb Res ; 223: 78-79, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2234909

ABSTRACT

Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) has been described following adenovirus vector-based COVID-19 vaccines. This condition is associated with important morbidity and mortality following thrombosis related complications. Diagnosis is confirmed based on results of platelet factor 4 ELISA detecting anti-PF4 antibodies and of platelet-activation assay. Initial treatment strategy has been established but long-term management and follow up remain unclear. Most platelet-activation tests become negative after 12 weeks. We describe a case of VITT which can now be characterized as long VITT. The patient initially had a lower limb ischemia, pulmonary embolism and cerebral vein thrombosis. He was treated with prednisone, intravenous immunoglobulin, argatroban and had a lower limb revascularization surgery. Rivaroxaban was then initiated for the acute treatment and continued for the secondary prevention of recurrent events. The patient still demonstrates positive platelet-activation tests and thrombocytopenia after more than 18 months of follow-up. No recurrent thrombosis or bleeding event have occurred. He is not known for any relevant past medical history other than alcohol consumption and slight thrombocytopenia (130 × 109/L since 2015). It is unclear if the ongoing and more important thrombocytopenia could be explained by the persistent platelet-activating anti-PF4 antibodies or the patient's habits. Managing long VITT is challenging considering uncertainty regarding risks and benefits of long-term anticoagulation and potential needs of additional treatment. Additional data is needed to offer optimal long-term management for this patient population. We suggest that long VITT diagnosis definition might include the persistence within patient serum/plasma of anti-PF4 platelet-activating antibodies with clinical manifestations (e.g., thrombocytopenia) for more than 3 months.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Vaccines , Male , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Platelet Factor 4
13.
Semin Thromb Hemost ; 49(5): 444-452, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2222050

ABSTRACT

Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) and vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) are rare, iatrogenic immune-mediated conditions with high rates of thrombosis-related morbidity and mortality. HIT is a long-recognized reaction to the administration of the common parenterally administered anticoagulant heparin (or its derivatives), while VITT is a new, distinct syndrome occurring in response to adenovirus-based vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 and potentially other types of vaccines. A feature of both HIT and VITT is paradoxical thrombosis despite a characteristic low platelet count, mediated by the presence of platelet-activating antibodies to platelet factor 4. Several additional factors have also been suggested to contribute to clot formation in HIT and/or VITT, including monocytes, tissue factor, microparticles, endothelium, the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps, complement, procoagulant platelets, and vaccine components. In this review, we discuss the literature to date regarding mechanisms contributing to thrombosis in both HIT and VITT and explore the pathophysiological similarities and differences between the two conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Vaccines , Humans , Platelet Factor 4
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Sep 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066128

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 patients often develop coagulopathies including microclotting, thrombotic strokes or thrombocytopenia. Autoantibodies are present against blood-related proteins including cardiolipin (CL), serum albumin (SA), platelet factor 4 (PF4), beta 2 glycoprotein 1 (ß2GPI), phosphodiesterases (PDE), and coagulation factors such as Factor II, IX, X and von Willebrand factor (vWF). Different combinations of autoantibodies associate with different coagulopathies. Previous research revealed similarities between proteins with blood clotting functions and SARS-CoV-2 proteins, adenovirus, and bacterial proteins associated with moderate-to-severe COVID-19 infections. This study investigated whether polyclonal antibodies (mainly goat and rabbit) against these viruses and bacteria recognize human blood-related proteins. Antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and adenovirus recognized vWF, PDE and PF4 and SARS-CoV-2 antibodies also recognized additional antigens. Most bacterial antibodies tested (group A streptococci [GAS], staphylococci, Escherichia coli [E. coli], Klebsiella pneumoniae, Clostridia, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis) cross-reacted with CL and PF4. while GAS antibodies also bound to F2, Factor VIII, Factor IX, and vWF, and E. coli antibodies to PDE. All cross-reactive interactions involved antibody-antigen binding constants smaller than 100 nM. Since most COVID-19 coagulopathy patients display autoantibodies against vWF, PDE and PF4 along with CL, combinations of viral and bacterial infections appear to be necessary to initiate their autoimmune coagulopathies.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders , COVID-19 , Adenoviridae , Animals , Antibodies, Bacterial , Antigens, Bacterial , Autoantibodies , Bacterial Proteins , Blood Coagulation Factors , Capsid Proteins , Cardiolipins , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Factor IX , Factor VIII , Humans , Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases , Platelet Factor 4/metabolism , Prothrombin , Rabbits , SARS-CoV-2 , Serum Albumin , beta 2-Glycoprotein I , von Willebrand Factor
15.
Rev Neurol ; 75(7): 199-202, 2022 10 01.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2057053

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a devastating impact on health, society and economics worldwide. Therefore, vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have recently emerged as an important measure to fight the pandemic. ChAdOx1-S (Oxford-AstraZeneca) is an adenovirus-vectored vaccine that expresses the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. It shows an acceptable safety profile. Nevertheless, several cases of unusual thrombosis and thrombocytopenia have been reported after initial vaccination with ChAdOx1-S mimicking autoimmune heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. This condition has been called thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS) and complications such as intracerebral haemorrhage have been described. CASE REPORT: We present a case of intracerebral haemorrhage after ChAdOx1-S vaccination. Middle-aged patient with no prior medical history was seen in the emergency room 16 days after the first dose of ChAdOx1-S vaccine with sudden onset left hemiplegia and severe holocranial oppressive headache. She did not receive heparin treatment in the previous 100 days. Blood test showed moderate thrombocytopenia and a right frontal lobar haemorrhage was seen on computed tomography scan, computed tomography venography was negative for thrombosis. The presence of antibodies against platelet factor 4 was confirmed. The patient's neurological condition progressively worsened. She developed a treatment resistant intracranial hypertension syndrome and she died three weeks later. CONCLUSIONS: TTS is a rare adverse effect of ChAdOx1-S vaccine, defined by the presence of thrombosis in uncommon locations. In our case we report an spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage probable due to the thrombocytopenia related to probable TTS. It represents a rare clinical presentation of TTS.


TITLE: Hemorragia intracerebral fatal asociada al síndrome de trombosis con trombocitopenia tras la vacuna ChAdOx1-S.Introducción. La pandemia por COVID-19 ha tenido un impacto devastador en la salud, la sociedad y la economía en el mundo. Por ello, las vacunas contra el coronavirus del síndrome respiratorio agudo grave 2 (SARS-CoV-2) han surgido como medida importante para combatir la pandemia. ChAdOx1-S (Oxford-AstraZeneca) es una vacuna vectorizada por adenovirus que expresa la proteína de espiga del SARS-CoV-2. Se han notificado varios casos de trombosis y trombocitopenia inusuales tras la ChAdOx1-S que imitan la trombocitopenia autoinmune inducida por heparina. Esta situación se denomina síndrome de trombosis con trombocitopenia (STT), y se han descrito casos de hemorragia intracerebral secundaria. Caso clínico. Presentamos un caso de hemorragia intracerebral tras la vacunación con ChAdOx1-S. Una paciente de mediana edad sin antecedentes médicos de interés fue atendida en urgencias 16 días después de la primera dosis de ChAdOx1-S con una hemiplejía izquierda de inicio repentino y una cefalea opresiva holocraneal grave. No recibió heparina los 100 días anteriores. El análisis de sangre mostró trombocitopenia moderada y en la tomografía computarizada se observó una hemorragia lobar frontal derecha sin trombosis en la venografía por tomografía computarizada. Se confirmó la presencia de anticuerpos contra el factor 4 de las plaquetas en la sangre. La paciente presentó un síndrome de hipertensión intracraneal resistente al tratamiento y falleció tres semanas después. Conclusiones. El STT es un efecto adverso infrecuente de la vacuna ChAdOx1-S que se define por la presencia de trombosis en localizaciones infrecuentes. En nuestro caso, describimos una hemorragia intracerebral espontánea secundaria a la trombocitopenia desencadenada por el STT. Representa una presentación clínica poco frecuente del STT.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Cerebral Hemorrhage/etiology , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Female , Heparin/adverse effects , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Platelet Factor 4 , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Thrombocytopenia/etiology
16.
Rinsho Ketsueki ; 63(9): 1233-1241, 2022.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056364

ABSTRACT

The levels of anti-platelet factor 4 (PF4) antibodies, also known as anti-PF4 or heparin complex antibodies, are used to diagnose heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). In HIT, anti-PF4 antibodies induced by heparin exposure cause thrombocytopenia and thrombosis. However, anti-PF4 antibodies were recently reported to be associated with the development of fatal vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) after adenoviral vector vaccination for coronavirus disease 2019. HIT and VITT are caused by anti-PF4 antibodies and have similar pathological conditions. However, the severity of these conditions differs and the detection sensitivity of their antibodies varies depending on the assays used. Herein, we review HIT and VITT associated with anti-PF4 antibodies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heparin , Platelet Factor 4 , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Antibodies , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Heparin/adverse effects , Humans , Immunologic Factors , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/complications , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/pathology , Vaccines/adverse effects
17.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 21(1): 190, 2022 09 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038757

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC), also now known as long COVID, has become a major global health and economic burden. Previously, we provided evidence that there is a significant insoluble fibrin amyloid microclot load in the circulation of individuals with long COVID, and that these microclots entrap a substantial number of inflammatory molecules, including those that might prevent clot breakdown. Scientifically, the most challenging aspect of this debilitating condition is that traditional pathology tests such as a serum CRP (C-reactive protein) may not show any significant abnormal inflammatory markers, albeit these tests measure only the soluble inflammatory molecules. Elevated, or abnormal soluble biomarkers such as IL-6, D-Dimer or fibrinogen indicate an increased risk for thrombosis or a host immune response in COVID-19. The absence of biomarkers in standard pathology tests, result in a significant amount of confusion for patients and clinicians, as patients are extremely sick or even bed-ridden but with no regular identifiable reason for their disease. Biomarkers that are currently available cannot detect the molecules present in the microclots we identified and are therefore unable to confirm their presence or the mechanisms that drive their formation. METHODS: Here we analysed the protein content of double-digested microclots of 99 long COVID patients and 29 healthy controls. The patients suffering from long COVID reported their symptoms through a questionnaire completed by themselves or their attending physician. RESULTS: Our long COVID cohort's symptoms were found to be in line with global findings, where the most prevalent symptoms were constant fatigue (74%,) cognitive impairment (71%) and depression and anxiety (30%). Our most noteworthy findings were a reduced level of plasma Kallikrein compared to our controls, an increased level of platelet factor 4 (PF4) von Willebrand factor (VWF), and a marginally increased level of α-2 antiplasmin (α-2-AP). We also found a significant presence of antibodies entrapped inside these microclots. CONCLUSION: Our results confirm the presence of pro-inflammatory molecules that may also contribute to a failed fibrinolysis phenomenon, which could possibly explain why individuals with long COVID suffer from chronic fatigue, dyspnoea, or cognitive impairment. In addition, significant platelet hyperactivation was noted. Hyperactivation will result in the granular content of platelets being shed into the circulation, including PF4. Overall, our results provide further evidence of both a failed fibrinolytic system in long COVID/PASC and the entrapment of many proteins whose presence might otherwise go unrecorded. These findings might have significant implications for individuals with pre-existing comorbidities, including cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Thrombosis , Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Fibrin/metabolism , Fibrinogen/metabolism , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Plasma Kallikrein , Platelet Factor 4 , Proteomics , Thrombosis/diagnosis , alpha-2-Antiplasmin , von Willebrand Factor/analysis , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
18.
J Thromb Haemost ; 20(11): 2579-2586, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2019525

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) is a prothrombotic, heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT)-mimicking, adverse reaction caused by platelet-activating anti-platelet factor 4 (PF4) antibodies that occurs rarely after adenovirus vector-based COVID-19 vaccination. Strength of PF4-dependent enzyme immunoassay (EIA) reactivity-judged by optical density (OD) measurements-strongly predicts platelet-activating properties of HIT antibodies in a functional test. Whether a similar relationship holds for VITT antibodies is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate probability for positive platelet activation testing for VITT antibodies based upon EIA OD reactivity; and to investigate simple approaches to minimize false-negative platelet activation testing for VITT. METHODS: All samples referred for VITT testing were systematically evaluated by semiquantitative in-house PF4/heparin-EIA (OD readings) and PF4-induced platelet activation (PIPA) testing within a cohort study. EIA-positive sera testing PIPA-negative were retested following 1/4 to 1/10 dilution. Logistic regression was performed to predict the probability of a positive PIPA per magnitude of EIA reactivity. RESULTS: Greater EIA ODs in sera from patients with suspected VITT correlated strongly with greater likelihood of PIPA reactivity. Of 61 sera (with OD values >1.0) testing negative in the PIPA, a high proportion (27/61, 44.3%) became PIPA positive when tested at 1/4 to 1/10 dilution. CONCLUSIONS: VITT serology resembles HIT in that greater EIA OD reactivity predicts higher probability of positive testing for platelet-activating antibodies. Unlike the situation with HIT antibodies, however, diluting putative VITT serum increases probability of a positive platelet activation assay, suggesting that optimal complex formation depends on the stoichiometric ratio of PF4 and anti-PF4 VITT antibodies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Vaccines , Humans , Heparin/adverse effects , Cohort Studies , COVID-19 Vaccines , Platelet Factor 4 , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Antibodies , Thrombosis/diagnosis , Thrombosis/chemically induced , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/chemically induced
19.
Bioconjug Chem ; 33(8): 1574-1583, 2022 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1977960

ABSTRACT

The pentasaccharide Fondaparinux, a synthetic selective factor Xa inhibitor, is one of the safest anticoagulants in the heparin family that is recommended as an alternative drug for patients with hypersensitivity to other drugs such as heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). However, some observations of Fondaparinux-induced thrombocytopenia (FIT) have been reported while others claimed that FIT does not occur in patients with fondaparinux therapy, indicating that the mechanism of FIT remains controversial. Here, we utilized different methodologies including dynamic light scattering, immunosorbent and platelet aggregation assays, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and flow cytometry to gain insights into FIT. We found that at a certain concentration, Fondaparinux formed sufficient large and stable complexes with PF4 that facilitated binding of the HIT-like monoclonal KKO antibody and enhanced platelet aggregation and activation. We proposed a model to describe the role of Fondaparinux concentration in the formation of complexes with platelet factor 4 and how it promotes the binding of KKO. Our results clarify controversial observations of FIT in patients as each contains a dissimilar PF4:Fondaparinux concentration ratio.


Subject(s)
Thrombocytopenia , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Fondaparinux/adverse effects , Heparin/adverse effects , Humans , Platelet Factor 4/metabolism , Platelet Factor 4/therapeutic use , Polysaccharides , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombocytopenia/drug therapy
20.
Blood ; 140(5): 478-490, 2022 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974106

ABSTRACT

Vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are based on a range of novel platforms, with adenovirus-based approaches (like ChAdOx1 nCov-19) being one of them. Recently, a novel complication of SARS-CoV-2-targeted adenovirus vaccines has emerged: immune thrombocytopenia, either isolated, or accompanied by thrombosis (then termed VITT). This complication is characterized by low platelet counts, and in the case of VITT, also by platelet-activating platelet factor 4 antibodies reminiscent of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, leading to a prothrombotic state with clot formation at unusual anatomic sites. Here, we detected antiplatelet antibodies targeting platelet glycoprotein receptors in 30% of patients with proven VITT (n = 27) and 42% of patients with isolated thrombocytopenia after ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccination (n = 26), indicating broad antiplatelet autoimmunity in these clinical entities. We use in vitro and in vivo models to characterize possible mechanisms of these platelet-targeted autoimmune responses leading to thrombocytopenia. We show that IV but not intramuscular injection of ChAdOx1 nCov-19 triggers platelet-adenovirus aggregate formation and platelet activation in mice. After IV injection, these aggregates are phagocytosed by macrophages in the spleen, and platelet remnants are found in the marginal zone and follicles. This is followed by a pronounced B-cell response with the emergence of circulating antibodies binding to platelets. Our work contributes to the understanding of platelet-associated complications after ChAdOx1 nCov-19 administration and highlights accidental IV injection as a potential mechanism of platelet-targeted autoimmunity. Hence, preventing IV injection when administering adenovirus-based vaccines could be a potential measure against platelet-associated pathologies after vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Thrombocytopenia , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/adverse effects , Immunity , Mice , Platelet Factor 4 , SARS-CoV-2 , Spleen , Thrombocytopenia/etiology
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