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Viruses ; 14(6)2022 05 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911607


Rare cases of thrombocytopenia and thrombosis after anti-COVID-19 adenovirus-associated mRNA vaccines (VITT) due to platelet-activating anti-platelet-factor 4 (PF4)/polyanion antibodies have been reported. VITT laboratory diagnosis, similarly to heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) diagnosis, requires immunoassays for anti-PF4/polyanion antibodies identification, such as ELISA assays and platelet-activating functional tests, such as heparin-induced platelet activation test (HIPA), to confirm their pathogenicity. We compared the flow cytometry (FC) measurement of platelet p-selectin exposure to the gold standard functional test HIPA for diagnosis confirmation in 13 patients with a clinical VITT syndrome (6M/7F; median age 56 (33-78)) who resulted positive to anti-PF4/polyanion antibodies ELISA assays (12/13). FC and HIPA similarly identified three different patterns: (1) a typical non-heparin-dependent VITT pattern (seven and six patients by FC and HIPA, respectively); (2) low/no platelet activation in patients under IvIg therapy (five out of five and two out of four patients by FC and HIPA, respectively); (3) a HIT pattern. Antibodies investigated by FC became negative after 7, 17, and 24 days of therapy in three patients. FC measurement of P-selectin exposure was as sensitive as HIPA but simpler to detect anti-PF4/polyanion antibodies in VITT patients. FC could reliably discriminate VITT from HIT, thus helping for the choice of the anticoagulant.

Antibodies , COVID-19 Vaccines , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Antibodies/isolation & purification , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Flow Cytometry , Heparin , Humans , Middle Aged , P-Selectin , Platelet Factor 4/immunology , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis , Thrombosis/chemically induced , Thrombosis/diagnosis