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1.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 9: 23247096211013215, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598539

ABSTRACT

Bronchopleural fistula (BPF) is associated with high morbidity if left untreated. Although rare, the frequency of BPF in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is becoming recognized in medical literature. We present a case of a 64-year-old male with BPF with persistent air leak due to SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia treated with Spiration Valve System endobronchial valve (EBV). An EBV was placed in the right middle lobe with successful cessation of air leak. In conclusion, the use of EBVs for BPF with persistent air leaks in SARS-CoV-2 patients who are poor surgical candidates is effective and safe.


Subject(s)
Bronchial Fistula/surgery , Bronchoscopy , COVID-19/complications , Empyema, Pleural/surgery , Pleural Diseases/surgery , Surgical Instruments , Bronchial Fistula/etiology , Chest Tubes , Empyema, Pleural/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pleural Diseases/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thoracostomy
2.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 307, 2021 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440925

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The main clinical consequences of severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection are pneumonia and respiratory failure even requiring mechanical ventilation. In this context, the lung parenchyma is highly prone to ventilator-related injury, with pneumothorax and persistent air leak as the most serious adverse events. So far, endobronchial valve (EBV) positioning has proved efficacious in treating air leaks with a high success rate. CASE PRESENTATION: We report, for the first time, two cases of patients affected by SARS-CoV-2-related pneumonia complicated with bacterial super-infection, experiencing pneumothorax and persistent air leaks after invasive mechanical ventilation. Despite the severity of respiratory failure both patients underwent rigid interventional bronchoscopy and were successfully treated through EBV positioning. CONCLUSIONS: Persistent air leaks may result from lung tissue damage due to a complex interaction between inflammation and ventilator-related injury (VILI), especially in the advanced stages of ARDS. EBV positioning seems to be a feasible and effective minimally invasive therapeutic option for treating this subset of patients.


Subject(s)
Bronchial Fistula/surgery , COVID-19/therapy , Pleural Diseases/surgery , Pneumothorax/surgery , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Aged , Bronchoscopy/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Respiratory Tract Fistula/surgery , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
3.
Lancet Digit Health ; 3(6): e340-e348, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1193002

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a common, but under-recognised, critical illness syndrome associated with high mortality. An important factor in its under-recognition is the variability in chest radiograph interpretation for ARDS. We sought to train a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) to detect ARDS findings on chest radiographs. METHODS: CNNs were pretrained on 595 506 radiographs from two centres to identify common chest findings (eg, opacity and effusion), and then trained on 8072 radiographs annotated for ARDS by multiple physicians using various transfer learning approaches. The best performing CNN was tested on chest radiographs in an internal and external cohort, including a subset reviewed by six physicians, including a chest radiologist and physicians trained in intensive care medicine. Chest radiograph data were acquired from four US hospitals. FINDINGS: In an internal test set of 1560 chest radiographs from 455 patients with acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure, a CNN could detect ARDS with an area under the receiver operator characteristics curve (AUROC) of 0·92 (95% CI 0·89-0·94). In the subgroup of 413 images reviewed by at least six physicians, its AUROC was 0·93 (95% CI 0·88-0·96), sensitivity 83·0% (95% CI 74·0-91·1), and specificity 88·3% (95% CI 83·1-92·8). Among images with zero of six ARDS annotations (n=155), the median CNN probability was 11%, with six (4%) assigned a probability above 50%. Among images with six of six ARDS annotations (n=27), the median CNN probability was 91%, with two (7%) assigned a probability below 50%. In an external cohort of 958 chest radiographs from 431 patients with sepsis, the AUROC was 0·88 (95% CI 0·85-0·91). When radiographs annotated as equivocal were excluded, the AUROC was 0·93 (0·92-0·95). INTERPRETATION: A CNN can be trained to achieve expert physician-level performance in ARDS detection on chest radiographs. Further research is needed to evaluate the use of these algorithms to support real-time identification of ARDS patients to ensure fidelity with evidence-based care or to support ongoing ARDS research. FUNDING: National Institutes of Health, Department of Defense, and Department of Veterans Affairs.


Subject(s)
Deep Learning , Neural Networks, Computer , Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted/methods , Radiography, Thoracic , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Aged , Algorithms , Area Under Curve , Datasets as Topic , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pleural Cavity/diagnostic imaging , Pleural Cavity/pathology , Pleural Diseases , Radiography , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , United States
4.
5.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 111(4): e241-e243, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-956092

ABSTRACT

We report a case of necrotizing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia complicated by a bronchopleural fistula and treated by decortication and salvage lobectomy. Owing to the unknown characteristics of the underlying SARS-CoV-2 infection, treatment of the abscess and bronchopleural fistula was delayed. This may have resulted in further deterioration of the patient, with ensuing multiple organ dysfunction. Complications of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, such as a bacterial abscess and a bronchopleural fistula, should be treated as if the patient were not infected with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Bronchial Fistula/surgery , COVID-19/complications , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pleural Diseases/surgery , Pneumonectomy/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adult , Bronchial Fistula/diagnosis , Bronchial Fistula/etiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Lung/surgery , Pleural Diseases/diagnosis , Pleural Diseases/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/surgery , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
6.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg ; 58(6): 1216-1221, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-915869

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, a novel coronavirus, affects mainly the pulmonary parenchyma and produces significant morbidity and mortality. During the pandemic, several complications have been shown to be associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Our goal was to present a series of patients with COVID-19 who underwent chest tube placements due to the development of pleural complications and to make suggestions for the insertion and follow-up management of the chest tube. METHODS: We retrospectively collected and analysed data on patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 in our hospital between 11 March and 15 May 2020. Patients from this patient group who developed pleural complications requiring chest tube insertion were included in the study. RESULTS: A total of 542 patients who were suspected of having COVID-19 were hospitalized. The presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 was confirmed with laboratory tests in 342 patients between 11 March and 15 May 2020 in our centre. A chest tube was used in 13 (3.8%) of these patients. A high-efficiency particulate air filter mounted double-bottle technique was used to prevent viral transmission. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with COVID-19, the chest tube can be applied in cases with disease or treatment-related pleural complications. Our case series comprised a small group of patients, which is one of its limitations. Still, our main goal was to present our experience with patients with pleural complications and describe a new drainage technique to prevent viral transmission during chest tube application and follow-up.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Chest Tubes , Drainage/instrumentation , Infection Control/instrumentation , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Pleural Diseases/therapy , Aftercare/methods , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Cross Infection/transmission , Drainage/methods , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Safety , Pleural Diseases/virology , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Turkey/epidemiology
7.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg ; 58(4): 858-860, 2020 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-780369

ABSTRACT

This report describes a patient with COVID-19 who developed spontaneous pneumothorax and subpleural bullae during the course of the infection. Consecutive chest computed tomography images indicated that COVID-19-associated pneumonia had damaged the subpleural alveoli and distal bronchus. Coughing might have induced a sudden increase in intra-alveolar pressure, leading to the rupture of the subpleural alveoli and distal bronchus and resulting in spontaneous pneumothorax and subpleural bullae. At the 92-day follow-up, the pneumothorax and subpleural bullae had completely resolved, which indicated that these complications had self-limiting features.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Blister/virology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pleural Diseases/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumothorax/virology , Adult , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Blister/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pleural Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumothorax/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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